Quincy is the largest city in Norfolk County, United States. It is one of Boston's immediate southern suburbs, its population in 2014 was 93,397. Known as the "City of Presidents," Quincy is the birthplace of two U. S. presidents—John Adams and his son John Quincy Adams—as well as John Hancock, a President of the Continental Congress and the first signer of the Declaration of Independence. First settled in 1625, Quincy was part of Dorchester and Boston before becoming the north precinct of Braintree in 1640. In 1792, Quincy was split off from Braintree. Quincy became a city in 1888. For more than a century, Quincy was home to a thriving granite industry. Shipbuilding at the Fore River Shipyard was another key part of the city's economy. In the 20th century, both Howard Johnson's and Dunkin' Donuts were founded in the city. Massachusett sachem Chickatawbut had his seat on a hill called Moswetuset Hummock prior to the settlement of the area by English colonists, situated east of the mouth of the Neponset River near what is now called Squantum.
It was visited in 1621 by a native guide. Four years a party led by Captain Wollaston established a post on a low hill near the south shore of Quincy Bay east of present-day Black's Creek; the settlers found the area suitable for farming, as Chickatawbut and his group had cleared much of the land of trees. This settlement was named Mount Wollaston in honor of the leader, who left the area soon after 1625, bound for Virginia; the Wollaston neighborhood in Quincy still retains Captain Wollaston's name. Upon the departure of Wollaston, Thomas Morton took over leadership of the post, the settlement proceeded to gain a reputation for debauchery with Indian women and drunkenness. Morton renamed the settlement Ma-re-Mount and wrote that the conservative separatists of Plymouth Colony to the south were "threatening to make it a woefull mount and not a merry mount", in reference to the fact that they disapproved of his libertine practices. In 1627, Morton was arrested by Standish for violating the code of conduct in a way harmful to the colony.
He was sent back to England, only to be arrested by Puritans the next year. The area of Quincy now called Merrymount is located on the site of the original English settlement of 1625 and takes its name from the punning name given by Morton; the area was first incorporated as part of Dorchester in 1630 and was annexed by Boston in 1634. The area became Braintree in 1640, bordered along the coast of Massachusetts Bay by Dorchester to the north and Weymouth to the east. Beginning in 1708, the modern border of Quincy first took shape as the North Precinct of Braintree. Following the American Revolution, Quincy was incorporated as a separate town named for Col. John Quincy in 1792, was made a city in 1888. In 1845 the Old Colony Railroad opened. Quincy became as accessible to Boston; the first suburban land company, Bellevue Land Co. had been organized in northern Quincy in 1870. Quincy's population grew by over 50 percent during the 1920s. Among the city's several firsts was the Granite Railway, the first commercial railroad in the United States.
It was constructed in 1826 to carry granite from a Quincy quarry to the Neponset River in Milton so that the stone could be taken by boat to erect the Bunker Hill Monument in Charlestown. Quincy granite became famous throughout the nation, stonecutting became the city's principal economic activity. Quincy was home to the first iron furnace in the United States, the John Winthrop Jr. Iron Furnace Site, from 1644 to 1653. In the 1870s, the city gave its name to the Quincy Method, an influential approach to education developed by Francis W. Parker while he served as Quincy's superintendent of schools. Parker, an early proponent of progressive education, put his ideas into practice in the city's underperforming schools. Quincy was additionally important as a shipbuilding center. Sailing ships were built in Quincy for many years, including the only seven-masted schooner built, Thomas W. Lawson; the Fore River area became a shipbuilding center in the 1880s. Amongst these were the aircraft carrier USS Lexington.
John J. Kilroy, reputed originator of the famous Kilroy was here graffiti, was a rivet inspector at Fore River. Quincy was an aviation pioneer thanks to Dennison Field. Located in the Squantum section of town it was one of the world's first airports and was developed by Amelia Earhart. In 1910, it was the site of the Harvard Aero Meet, the second air show in America, it was leased to the Navy for an airfield, served as a reserve Squantum Naval Air Station into the 1950s. T
Worldfund is a non-profit organization founded in 2002 that delivers training and ongoing support to teachers and principals from underserved schools in Latin America. It operates 3 different programs: LISTO, a principal leadership program, IAPE, an English-teacher training program and STEM Brasil, a science and math teacher training program. Nearly 8,000 principals and teachers have participated in Worldfund programming; the Inter-American Partnership for Education trains and supports a network of English language educators in Mexico's most underserved public schools, in association with Dartmouth College's Rassias Center. IAPE is in its tenth year of operation. Launch year: 2007 Number of states: 32/32 Number of educators: 2,198 Number of students: 2,100,000 This program addresses the urgent increasing need for professionals in the fields of science, technology and math; the STEM Brasil methodology complements the school curriculum. The program engages students with their own teachers during the school day, unlike extracurricular programs.
Launch year: 2009 Number of states: 16/30 Number of educators: 3,900 Number of students: 500,000 85% of participating schools showed an increase of over 20% in Math scores 74% of school administrators noticed an increase in teacher motivation and 88% positive changes in teacher behavior Worldfund is developing the infrastructure to implement its STEM program within Mexico's public schools. Anticipated launch date is 2018. México Ciudad de México Veracruz Jalisco Puebla Guanajuato Chiapas Nuevo León Michoacán Oaxaca Chihuahua Guerrero Tamaulipas Baja California Sinaloa Coahuila de Zaragoza Hidalgo Sonora San Luis Potosí Tabasco Yucatán Querétaro de Arteaga Morelos Durango Zacatecas Quintana Roo Aguascalientes Tlaxcala Nayarit Campeche Baja California Sur Colima Acre Amapá Espírito Santo Goiás Maranhão Mato Grosso Mato Grosso do Sul Paraíba Pernambuco Rio de Janeiro Rio Grande do Norte Rio Grande do Sul Rondônia São Paulo Sergipe Tocantins "Dartmouth-based partnership aims to help English teaching in Latin America" "Spreading English Throughout The World" "Mexican teachers learn Rassias Method" Worldfund's relationship with Better World Books
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
B Corporation (certification)
B Corporation certification is a private certification issued to for-profit companies by B Lab, a global nonprofit organization with offices in the United States, Canada, New Zealand and a partnership in Latin America with Sistema B. To be granted and to preserve certification, companies must receive a minimum score on an online assessment for "social and environmental performance", satisfy the requirement that the company integrate B Lab commitments to stakeholders into company governing documents, pay an annual fee ranging from $500 to $50,000; as of August 2018, there are over 2,600 certified B Corporations across 150 industries in 60 countries. The B Lab certification is a third party standard requiring companies to meet social sustainability and environmental performance standards, meet accountability standards, to be transparent to the public according to the score they receive on the assessment. B Lab certification applies to the whole company across all product lines and issue areas.
For-profits of all legal business structures are eligible for certification. Similar to other business associations, certified B Corporations and their employees have access to a number of discounts from outside entities and fellow members. Academic contributions of loan forgiveness. B Lab certification has no legal status. Benefit corporation is a legal status conferred by state law in the US. B Lab certification is not needed to obtain benefit corporation status. Legislation for the passage of this corporate legal status has been passed in 35 states, including Delaware, whereas B Lab certification is issued by an organisation run by people principally issued from the business community. To obtain a B Corporation certification, a company first completes an online assessment. Companies that earn a minimum score of 80 out of 200 points undergo an assessment review process a conference call verifying the claims made in their assessment. Companies are required to provide supporting documentation; the assessment covers the company’s entire operation and measures the positive impact of the company in areas of governance, community, the environment, as well as the product or service the company provides.
And environmentally-focused business model points are accrued in their relevant impact area. Depending on a company's industry, geographic location, number of employees, the online assessment adjusts the weightings of the question categories to increase its relevancy. For instance, companies with more employees will have a heavier weighting in the workers category, companies in manufacturing will have a heavier weighting in the environment category. To maintain credibility, the B Corporation certification standard operates under principles that are independent, comparable and transparent. B Lab has an established standards advisory council that can independently make decisions with or without the support of B Lab; as of May 2014, 28 of 30 members were listed by their business affiliation. The council recommends improvements to the B Corp assessment on a biennial basis. There is a 30-day public consultation period before releasing a new version of the B Corporation assessment; the B Corp assessment is its fifth version, with the sixth version scheduled to be released in January 2018.
Certification requires companies to integrate their stakeholder commitments into the company governing documents. In the United States, the avenue for corporations making the legal amendment to certify will depend on the state they are incorporated in; some states known as "constituency" states will allow for this change in the articles of incorporation, other states, known as "non-constituency states", will not. Beyond the corporate model, other for-profit business entities make an amendment of the company by-laws or governing documents; these include: The establishment of clear wording to "consider stakeholder interests" in company articles of incorporation or company by-laws. Define "stakeholders" as the employees, the community, the environment, suppliers and shareholders. No prioritization of one stakeholder over another. Allowing for the company's values to exist under new management, investors, or ownership. However, B Lab certification allows the company bylaws to remain secret. In September 2018, there were over 2,000 certified B Corporations across 130 industries in 50 countries, including Canada, South Africa, Afghanistan.
The most active community outside of the United States is Sistema B. Since 2012, Sistema B has been the adaptation of the B Corps movement in Latin America, including in Argentina, Chile and Colombia; this non-profit adapts proprietary certifications and evaluation metrics and modifies both to the context of each country. B Lab assists Sistema B in incorporating a benefit corporation distinction into local legal systems. Low-profit limited liability company Social purpose corporation André, Rae. "Assessing the Accountability of the Benefit Corporation: Will This New Gray Sector Organization Enhance Corporate Social Responsibility?". Journal of Business Ethics. 110: 133–150. Doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1254-1. Boatright, John R.. "What's Wrong—and What's Right—with Stakeholder Management". Journal of Private Enterprise. 21: 106–130. Davis, Kevin E..
Mishawaka is a city on the St. Joseph River, in Penn Township, St. Joseph County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 48,252 as of the 2010 census, its nickname is "the Princess City." Mishawaka is a principal city of the South Bend -- IN-MI, Metropolitan Statistical Area. Mishawaka’s recorded history began with the discovery of bog iron deposits at the beginning of the 1830s. Settlers arriving to mine the deposits founded the town of St. Joseph Iron Works in 1831. Within a few years, the town had a blast furnace, a general store, a tavern, about 200 residents. Business prospered, in 1833 St. Joseph Iron Works, Indiana City, two other adjacent small towns were incorporated to form the city of Mishawaka; the Mishawaka post office has been in operation since 1833. In September 1872, a fire destroyed three quarters of Mishawaka’s business district. However, the citizens attracted new industry; the Dodge Manufacturing Company, Perkins Windmills and the Mishawaka Woolen and Rubber Company all helped the town to prosper.
Mishawaka grew through both agriculture. In the late 19th century, Mishawaka became known as the "Peppermint Capital of the World", since the area's rich black loam produced great quantities of mint. From 1906 to 1915, Mishawaka was the manufacturing home of the luxurious American Simplex motor car. Four American Simplex autos entered the first Indianapolis 500 in 1911. One Simplex crashed, killing the mechanic riding with the driver, while the other Mishawaka cars finished sixth and twentieth. Ball Band made rubber garments and was hit by a major strike in 1931, it flourished in the 1940s closing in 1997 in the face of cheaper imports. Manufacturing in Mishawaka peaked in the 1940s and began a slow decline due to industrial restructuring; the economic base shifted to small industry. In 1979, University Park Mall opened north of Mishawaka. In 1990, AM General began producing the Hummer in its Mishawaka plant; the MV-1 replaces the planned Standard Taxi. The car is built in Mishawaka at an AM General plant.
AM General will begin making Mercedes vehicles at this plant in 2015. A Business Week Magazine Best Place to Raise Your Kids 2010: Indiana Old-fashioned neighborhoods are found across the city. Many of the newer residential subdivisions that have been developed within the city in recent years have adopted design guidelines to produce the "hometown" neighborhood feel and encourage community spirit; the city continually develops new neighborhood park and recreation facilities. A total of 29 parks allow Mishawaka residents to golf, play ball and exercise. In 1968, the city opened an outdoor Olympic-size swimming pool and an adjacent ice skating rink at Merrifield Park. On the south side, Mishawaka's George Wilson Park is home to the city's most popular winter toboggan spot, as well as an 18-hole frisbee golf course; some of the city's Italian immigrants and their descendants still play traditional games such as bocce, a few ethnic Belgians continue to raise and race homing pigeons. The city hosted the nation's oldest and largest wiffleball tournament, the World Wiffle Ball Championship, from 1980-2012.
The city's three high schools have won a combined 11 state championships in football since 1920. Soest, North Rhine-Westphalia Shiojiri, Japan Beutter Park - The new park includes a river race with elliptical-shaped overlook weirs and fiber-optic underwater lighting, two connecting bridges across the St. Joseph River race to the park, the Mishawaka Riverwalk, the "Shards" sculpture, an 800-foot perennial garden. Battell Park Historic District, has a WPA-built band shelter and terraced rock garden. Old Mishawaka Carnegie Library on N. Hill St - is now a restaurant. Shiojiri Garden, located in Merrifield Park, is a Japanese strolling garden that symbolizes the Sister-City relationship between Mishawaka and Shiojiri City, Japan; the Beiger Mansion, built in 1903 and restored in 1973, was gutted by arson in 1974. The building has since been renovated, it is operated as a bed-and-breakfast and events facility. The Otis R. Bowen Museum, located on the campus of Bethel College, houses memorabilia and artifacts related to Dr. Otis Bowen's years as Governor of Indiana and Secretary of Health and Human Services.
It has a copy of the Otis Bowen bust. In addition to the Battell Park Historic District, Beiger Mansion, Old Mishawaka Carnegie Library, the Dodge House, Eller-Hosford House, Ellis-Schindler House and Schellinger Brewery, Merrifield-Cass House, Normain Heights Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Tivoli Theater, demolished in 2005, was listed. According to the 2010 census, Mishawaka has a total area of 17.348 square miles, of which 17 square miles is land and 0.348 square miles is water. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $33,986, the median income for a family was $41,947. Males had a median income of $33,878 versus $23,672 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,434. About 7.3% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.7% of those under age 18 and 7.3% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 48,252 people, 21,343 households, 11,730 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,838.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 24,088 housing units at an average density of 1,416.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.1% White, 6.9% African American, 0.4% Na
The Reno Gazette Journal is the main daily newspaper for Reno, Nevada. It is operated by the Gannett Company, it came into being when the Nevada State Journal and the Reno Evening Gazette were combined on October 7, 1983. Speidel Newspapers bought the Journal a month later. Gannett bought Speidel Newspapers on May 11, 1977; the Reno Gazette Journal is one of two dailies covering the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area, served by the Reno News & Review, an alternative newsweekly. Official website
Small Business Administration
The U. S. Small Business Administration is a United States government agency that provides support to entrepreneurs and small businesses; the mission of the Small Business Administration is "to maintain and strengthen the nation's economy by enabling the establishment and viability of small businesses and by assisting in the economic recovery of communities after disasters". The agency's activities are summarized as the "3 Cs" of capital and counseling. SBA loans are made through banks, credit unions and other lenders who partner with the SBA; the SBA provides a government-backed guarantee on part of the loan. Under the Recovery Act and the Small Business Jobs Act, SBA loans were enhanced to provide up to a 90 percent guarantee in order to strengthen access to capital for small businesses after credit froze in 2008; the agency had record lending volumes in late 2010. SBA helps lead the federal government's efforts to deliver 23 percent of prime federal contracts to small businesses. Small business contracting programs include efforts to ensure that certain federal contracts reach woman-owned and service-disabled veteran-owned small businesses as well as businesses participating in programs such as 8 and HUBZone.
Another resource the SBA launched earlier this year is the SBA Franchise Directory, aimed to connect entrepreneurs to lines of credit and capital in order to grow a business. SBA has at least one office in each U. S. state. In addition, the agency provides grants to support counseling partners, including 900 Small Business Development Centers, 110 Women's Business Centers, SCORE, a volunteer mentor corps of retired and experienced business leaders with 350 chapters; these counseling services provide services to over 1 million entrepreneurs and small business owners annually. President Obama announced in January 2012 that he would elevate the SBA into the Cabinet, a position it last held during the Clinton administration, thus making the Administrator of the Small Business Administration a cabinet-level position; the SBA was created on July 30, 1953, by President Eisenhower with the signing of the Small Business Act codified at 15 U. S. C. ch. 14A. The Small Business Act was enacted as the "Small Business Act of 1953" in Title II of Pub.
L. 83–163. The Small Business Act Amendments of 1958 withdrew Title II as part of that act and made it a separate act to be known as the "Small Business Act", its function was and is to "aid, counsel and protect, insofar as is possible, the interests of small business concerns". The SBA has survived a number of threats to its existence. In 1996, the Republican-controlled House of Representatives planned to eliminate the agency, it survived and went on to receive a record high budget in 2000. Renewed efforts by the Bush Administration to end the SBA loan program met congressional resistance, although the SBA's budget was cut, in 2004 certain expenditures were frozen; the Trump Administration has supported the SBA budget. Significant supplemental appropriations for the agency strengthened SBA lending through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010; the SBA has a Deputy Administrator. It has an associate administrator or director for the following offices: Business Development Capital Access Communications and Public Liaison Congressional and Legislative Affairs Credit Risk Management Disaster Assistance Entrepreneurial Development Entrepreneurship Education Equal Employment Opportunity and Civil Rights Compliance Faith Based and Neighborhood Partnerships Field Operations Government Contracting and Business Development Hearings and Appeals HUBZone Program International Trade Investment and Innovation Management and Administration Native American Affairs Performance Management Small Business Development Centers Veterans Business Development Women's Business OwnershipSenate-confirmed appointees include: Administrator, Deputy Administrator, Chief Counsel for Advocacy, Inspector General.
The 7 Loan Guarantee Program is designed to help entrepreneurs start or expand their small businesses. The program makes capital available to small businesses through bank and non-bank lending institutions; the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 increased the maximum size of these loans, from $2 million to $5 million. Homeowners and renters are eligible for long-term, low-interest loans to rebuild or repair a damaged property to pre-disaster condition. Businesses are eligible for long-term, low-interest loans to recover from declared disasters. Disaster Relief Loans are approved within 21 days. However, after Hurricane Katrina the SBA processed applications, in about 74 days. If a business with a Disaster Relief Loan defaults on the loan, the business is closed, the SBA will pursue the business owner to liquidate all personal assets, to satisfy an outstanding balance; the IRS will withhold any tax refund expected by the former business owner and apply the amount toward the loan balance. The Microloan program provides direct loans to qualified nonprofit intermediary lenders who, in turn, provide “microloans” of up to $50,000 to small businesses and nonprofit child care centers.
It provides marketing and technical assistance to microloan borrowers and potential borrowers. 900 Small Business Development Center sites are funded through a combination of state and SBA support in the form of matching grants. SBDCs are co-located at community colleges