Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku and Tsukushi-no-shima; the historical regional name Saikaidō referred to its surrounding islands. In the 8th century Taihō Code reforms, Dazaifu was established as a special administrative term for the region; as of 2016, Kyushu covers 36,782 square kilometres. The island is mountainous, Japan's most active volcano, Mt Aso at 1,591 metres, is on Kyushu. There are many other signs including numerous areas of hot springs; the most famous of these are in Beppu, on the east shore, around Mt. Aso, in central Kyushu; the island is separated from Honshu by the Kanmon Straits. The name Kyūshū comes from the nine ancient provinces of Saikaidō situated on the island: Chikuzen, Hizen, Buzen, Bungo, Hyūga, Satsuma. Today's Kyushu Region is a politically defined region that consists of the seven prefectures on the island of Kyushu, plus Okinawa Prefecture to the south: Northern Kyushu Fukuoka Prefecture Kumamoto Prefecture Nagasaki Prefecture Ōita Prefecture Saga Prefecture Southern Kyushu Kagoshima Prefecture Miyazaki Prefecture Okinawa Prefecture Kyushu comprises 10.3 percent of the entire population of Japan.
Most of Kyushu's population is concentrated along the northwest, in the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, with population corridors stretching southwest into Sasebo and Nagasaki and south into Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Excepting Oita and Miyazaki cities, the eastern seaboard shows a general decline in population. Kyushu is described as a stronghold of the LDP political party. Designated citiesFukuoka Kitakyushu Kumamoto Core citiesKagoshima Ōita Nagasaki Miyazaki Naha Kurume Sasebo Saga Parts of Kyushu have a subtropical climate Miyazaki prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture. Major agricultural products are rice, tobacco, sweet potatoes, soy; the island is noted for various types of porcelain, including Arita, Imari and Karatsu. Heavy industry is concentrated in the north around Fukuoka, Kitakyushu and Oita and includes chemicals, automobiles and metal processing. In 2010, the graduate employment rate in the region was the lowest nationwide, at 88.9%. Besides the volcanic area of the south, there are significant mud hot springs in the northern part of the island, around Beppu.
These springs are the site of occurrence of certain extremophile micro-organisms, that are capable of surviving in hot environments. Major universities and colleges in Kyushu: National universities Kyushu University – One of seven former "Imperial Universities" Kyushu Institute of Technology Saga University Nagasaki University Kumamoto University Fukuoka University of Education Oita University Miyazaki University Kagoshima University National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya University of the Ryukyus Universities run by local governments University of Kitakyushu Kyushu Dental College Fukuoka Women's University Fukuoka Prefectural University Nagasaki Prefectural University Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences Prefectural University of Kumamoto Miyazaki Municipal University Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University Okinawa Prefectural University of Arts Major private universities Fukuoka University – University with the largest number of students in Kyushu Kumamoto Gakuen University Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Seinan Gakuin University Kyushu Sangyo University – Baseball team won the Japanese National Championship in 2005 University of Occupational and Environmental Health Kurume University The island is linked to the larger island of Honshu by the Kanmon Tunnels, which carry both the San'yō Shinkansen and non-Shinkansen trains of the Kyushu Railway Company, as well as vehicular and bicycle traffic.
The Kanmon Bridge connects the island with Honshu. Railways on the island are operated by the Kyushu Railway Company, Nishitetsu Railway. Northern Kyushu Southern Kyushu Azumi people, an ancient group of people who inhabited parts of northern Kyūshū Geography of Japan Group Kyushu Western Army United States Fleet Activities Sasebo Hoenn, a fictional region in the Pokémon franchise, based on Kyushu Kanmonkyo Bridge, that connects Kyūshū with Honshū Kyushu National Museum List of regions in Japan Kyushu dialects Hichiku dialect, Hōnichi dialect and Kagoshima dialect Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Pueblo Bonito is the largest and best-known great house in Chaco Culture National Historical Park, northern New Mexico. It was built by the Ancestral Puebloans who occupied the structure between AD 828 and 1126. According to the National Park Service, "Pueblo Bonito is the most investigated and celebrated cultural site in Chaco Canyon. Planned and constructed in stages between AD 850 to AD 1150 by ancestral Puebloan peoples, this was the center of the Chacoan world." Anthropologist Brian Fagan has said that "Pueblo Bonito is an archeological icon, as famous as England's Stonehenge, Mexico's Teotihuacan, or Peru's Machu Picchu."In January 1941, a section of the canyon wall known as Threatening Rock, or tse biyaa anii'ahi in Navajo, collapsed as a result of a rock fall, destroying some of the structure's rear wall and a number of rooms. The builders of Pueblo Bonito appear to have been well aware of this threat, but chose to build beneath the fractured stone anyway; the wall stood 97 feet high and weighed 30,000 tons.
In 2009, traces of Mexican cacao from at least 1,200 miles away were detected in pottery sherds at Pueblo Bonito. This was the first demonstration that the substance, important in rituals, had been brought into the area that became the United States at any time before the Spanish arrived around 1500. Cylindrical pottery jars, common in Central America, had been found there, but are rare. 111 jars have been found in Pueblo Bonito's 800 or so rooms. United States army Lt. James H. Simpson and his guide, from San Ysidro, New Mexico, discovered Chaco Canyon during an 1849 military expedition, they examined eight large ruins in Chaco Canyon, Carravahal gave their Spanish names, including Pueblo Bonito, meaning beautiful town. Simpson published the first description of Chaco Canyon in his military report, with drawings by expedition artist R. H. Kern. Rancher Richard Wetherill and natural history student George H. Pepper from the American Museum of Natural History, began excavations at Pueblo Bonito in 1896 and ended in 1900.
These excavations were financed by B. Talbot Hyde and Frederick E. Hyde, Jr. of New York City, who were philanthropists and collectors. During this time, the two men uncovered 190 rooms and photographed and mapped all major structures in the canyon. Among the artifacts recovered by Pepper, eight wood flutes were found in a room in the northwestern part of Pueblo Bonito that Pepper designated as "Room 33"; these flutes are in the style of the Anasazi flutes that are considered a predecessor to the Native American flute. The rituals at Pueblo Bonito were performed with cylindrical vessels, human effigy vessels, ceramic incense burners; the Hydes donated the resulting large collection of artifacts to the American Museum of Natural History. After the excavation, Wetherill sought to gain personal control of parts of Chaco Canyon, including Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo Del Arroyo, he filed a homestead entry on these ruins, invalidated by the General Land Office in 1904 when the federal government took formal possession of these lands.
Wetherill was required to stop his ongoing excavations on federal property, but continued to run a trading post at Chaco Canyon until his death in 1910. Pueblo Bonito is divided into two sections by a aligned wall, which runs north to south through the central plaza. A Great Kiva is situated on either side of the wall, creating a symmetrical pattern common to many of the Great Houses. In addition to the Great Kivas, over thirty other kivas or ceremonial structures have been found, many associated with the large central courtyard. Interior living spaces were quite large by the standards of the Ancient Pueblo; the site covers 3 acres and incorporates 800 rooms. In parts of the village, the tiered structure was four and five stories high. During construction, some lower level rooms were filled with debris to better support the weight of the upper levels; the builder's use of core-and-veneer architecture and multi-story construction produced massive masonry walls as much as 3 feet thick. Population estimates.
During the early 20th century, the structures were viewed as small cities, with people residing in every room. From this perspective, Pueblo Bonito could have accommodated several thousand inhabitants at its peak. Recent analysis has lowered the estimated population to less than 800 due to the small number of usable hearths in the ruins. An analysis based on architecture estimated the resident population at 12 households, or about 70 people at its peak; these tend to be located on the ground floor, near the central plaza, are associated with entrances to a series of rooms going deeper into the structure. Rooms were connected by a series of some of them in a T-shape. A family may have inhabited 3 to 4 rooms, with many small interior spaces being used for storage. There was no outside access to the room blocks other than from the central courtyard, it is possible that Pueblo Bonito is neither a village nor city. While its size has the capacity for a significant population, the environment may not have been ideal for sustaining a large population.
Excavations at the site have not revealed significant trash middens indicating residential areas. A common suggestion is; this is not only evident in the existence of the kivas but in the construction of the site and its relation to other Chaco Canyon sites. Although there were many occupants, only 50-60 burials were found
The Smithsonian Institution, founded on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. The institution is named after British scientist James Smithson. Organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items, the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, zoo include historical and architectural landmarks located in the District of Columbia. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Texas and Panama. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates; the Institution's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with two-thirds coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, earned retail and licensing revenue.
Institution publications include Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford; when Hungerford died childless in 1835, the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will. Congress accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836; the American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." The money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas, which soon defaulted.
After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning. On August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian. Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research, it became the depository for various Washington and U. S. government collections. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842; the voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean.
These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections, as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens. In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; the Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club. The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. Construction began on the Smithsonian Institution Building in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855; the Smithsonian's first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income.
It did, the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, it opened in 1881. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals; the park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. The National Museum of Natural History opened in June 1911 to accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, housed in the Castle and the Arts and Industries Building; this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. When Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it, it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual; the gallery opened in 1923. More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology, opened in 1964.
It was designed by the world-renowned firm of Mead & White. The Anacostia Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia neighborhood of
Archaeology is a bimonthly magazine for the general public, published by the Archaeological Institute of America. The institute publishes the professional American Journal of Archaeology; the editor-in-chief was Peter Young until 2011. Jarrett Lobell assumed the editorship from Valentino in November 2018. Official website
The Marajoara or Marajó culture was a pre-Columbian era society that flourished on Marajó island at the mouth of the Amazon River. In a survey, Charles C. Mann suggests the culture appeared to flourish between 800 AD and 1400 AD, based on archeological studies. Researchers have documented that there was human activity at these sites as early as 1000 BC; the culture seems to have persisted into the colonial era. Archeologists have found sophisticated pottery in their excavations on the island; these pieces are large, elaborately painted and incised with representations of plants and animals. These provided the first evidence that a complex society had existed on Marajó. Evidence of mound building further suggests that well-populated and sophisticated settlements developed on this island, as only such settlements were believed capable of such extended projects as major earthworks; the extent, level of complexity, resource interactions of the Marajoara culture have been disputed. Working in the 1950s in some of her earliest research, American Betty Meggers suggested that the society migrated from the Andes and settled on the island.
Many researchers believed that the Andes were populated by Paleoindian migrants from North America who moved south after being hunters on the plains. In the 1980s, another American archeologist, Anna Curtenius Roosevelt, led excavations and geophysical surveys of the mound Teso dos Bichos, she concluded. The pre-Columbian culture of Marajó may have developed social stratification and supported a population as large as 100,000 people; the Native Americans of the Amazon rain forest may have used their method of developing and working in Terra preta to make the land suitable for the large-scale agriculture needed to support large populations and complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Rossetti et al proposed that the archaeological settlements associated with isolated or compound mounds were "systematically developed on top of extensive elevated surfaces formed due to natural sedimentary processes". Thus, the large Marajoara mounds or tesos are not manmade. Rather, the inhabitants took advantage of the natural, preexisting elevated surfaces and added on top of those to build their earthworks.
This interpretation suggests less cumulative labor investment in the construction of the mounds. "Several mounds on Marajo Island and several in Bolivia have yielded radiocarbon dates as early as 1000 to 300 BC in early levels, suggesting that the first mounds of the tradition were built in the Formative, the period when horticulture appears to become widespread for the first time." The earliest phase of human activity on Marajo Island is known as the'Ananatuba phase'. Plant remains on Marajo Island show a subsistence pattern that relied on small seed crops, as well as small fish, which were either cultivated or protected by indigenous peoples. Many of the carbonized seed remains have not yet been identified, though they seem to be herbaceous and derived from local grasses. Trees such as the açai and tucuma palms provided important supplements in the Marajo diet, as well being used for manufacturing items such as baskets or canoes. Evidence from human remains show that Marajo peoples limited their consumption of starchy root crops like manioc.
Since small fish make up the majority of biomass fauna and there are few terrestrial animals, it follows that pre-historic peoples focused on the abundant populations of small fish. The method for catching fish was very similar to present-day techniques, which involves stunning fish with the poisonous liana plant and collecting them as they float to the surface; this method of mass harvesting is not as useful in the rainy season as it is during the dry months when fish are trapped in receding streams or ponds. The agricultural technology at Marajo is limited to stone axes that were introduced in the Marajoara Phase. Other stone artifacts include griddles found at Teso Dos Bichos during Roosevelt’s excavations, although these are rare, their rarity is another marker of the absence of root crops from the diet at Marajo. Earthen mounds, unlike lithic artifacts, are abundant, they were used for cemetery purposes as well as for habitation, as the low-lying areas are prone to flooding in the rainy season.
Mounds may have served a defensive purpose too. Pre-historic peoples of Marajo Island may have constructed ramps, canals and drained fields found near earthworks mounds, but most of the evidence has been buried by sediment in seasonal floods. Evidence for trade networks at Marajo is found in lithics, because the island has no local source of suitable igneous or metamorphic rock. None of the lithic artifacts have been sourced, although they are made from a green, microcrystalline mafic rock; such greenstones are more associated with Mesoamerica, a possible point of origin for Marajo’s imported stone. An increased complexity of ceremonial wares and uniformity of utilitarian wares occurred with the Marajoara phase, suggesting ceramic manufacture became a specialized industry at this time. Sometime into the Marajoara phase, there was a decline in characteristics that indicate specialization of ceramics. Many of the excavations on Marajo island have focused on the largest earthen mound sites. Smaller mounds and non-mound sit
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
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