Fox Theatres was a large chain of movie theaters in the United States dating from the 1920s either built by Fox Film studio owner William Fox, or subsequently merged in 1929 by Fox with the West Coast Theatres chain, to form the Fox West Coast Theatres chain. Fox West Coast went into bankruptcy and was sold to The National Theatres Corporation, led by Charles Skouras, on November 20, 1933 for $17,000,000.00. Eugene V. Klein became CEO of National, turned it into the conglomerate National General. Mann Theatres bought National General's theatres in 1973. Many of these grand "movie palaces" were built with a mishmash of architectural styles drawn from Asian, Indian and Moorish influences. Fox theaters surviving today share identical histories of decline and fall into disrepair as demographics and movie-going habits changed in the post-World War II years; as many were located in urban centers, there have been subsequent campaigns to save and preserve the architectural extravaganzas for other uses the performing arts.
The largest of the Fox Theatres is the Detroit Fox Theatre, restored in 1988 and is used as a performing arts center. Other Fox theatres which have been restored and adapted for drama and music include those in Seattle and Saint Louis; the Fox theatres in Visalia, reopened in 1999, Atlanta were shuttered for some time before restoration began. The Fox Theatre in Joplin, built in 1930, has been adapted for use as the Central Christian Church. See the following articles for information about specific theatres. Amarillo, Texas-Opened 1967, closed 1992, demolished 1993 Anaheim-Opened April 1968, 2nd and 3rd screens created fall of 1974, demolished 1998 Atlanta—Opened 1929 Aurora, Colorado—Opened 1946 Aurora, Illinois—Opened 1935 Bakersfield, California—Opened 1930 Banning, California—Currently open with 3 screens Beverly Hills, California Wilshire-Opened September 19, 1930, closed 1977, reopened by Nederlander Theatres as the Saban 1981 being restored Billings, Montana—Opened November 13, 1931, the last Art Deco theatre in the United States built by 20th Century Fox Corporation.
Closed in 1990s. Being restored. Costa Mesa, California-Opened 1968, screen divided in early 1970s, closed 2000, demolished 2008, site now occupied by a lawn Detroit—Largest of the Fox theatres, opened 1928 restored 1988 El Paso, Texas—Opened in 1965, was the first in Texas. Has since been demolished. Forest Hills, New York Kew Gardens-Opened September 14, 1929 became a miniature golf course, demolished late 1950s Fullerton, California—Opened 1925 as the Alician Court Theatre Green Bay, Wisconsin—opened February 14, 1930 Hanford, California—Opened 1929 and is used for live concerts, restoration is ongoing Hutchinson, Kansas—Opened 1931 Inglewood, California-Opened March 31, 1949, closed mid 1980s, vacant Joplin, Missouri—Opened 1930, now converted to a church Kingsport Tennessee-Opened 1944, closed no than 1963, was a country music recording studio into the early ’90s, now a beauty salon Las Cruces, New Mexico—Opened 1926, acquired by Fox in 1929, restored in 2005 Las Vegas Long Beach, California-Built 1929 Los Angeles Adams-Open as early as 1938 closed, now a church Belmont-Open as early as 1926, demolished 1970s Bruin-Opened 1937 first run, operated by Regency Theatres Figueroa-Opened 1925, closed/demolished late 1960s, site now occupied by a Broadway Federal Bank Florence-Opened 1932, closed around 1965, demolished around 1968, site now occupied by a Rite-Aid Gentry-Opened 1938 closed, now divided into multiple retail spaces La Brea-Opened 1949, now a church Ritz-Open as early as 1930, reopened 1963 as the Lindy Opera House, demolished 1977, site now occupied by a multipurpose building Northridge – Opened September 11, 1963, subsequently a shoe store, now a Goodwill thrift shop.
Stadium-Opened 1931, now a church Uptown-Open as early as 1926, demolished 1965 Missoula, Montana-Opened December 8, 1949, demolished now New Orleans, Louisiana-Opened 1941, closed/demolished 1975 Oakland, California—Opened 1928, restored in 2009 Paso Robles, California—Opening and closing dates unknown, still standing but abandoned Philadelphia, Pennsylvania—Later part of Stanley Warner and Milgram Theatres chains. Opened 1923. Closed and demolished in 1980. Phoenix, Arizona Phoenix Opened July 30, 1931, demolished 1975 Chris-Town-Opened 1967, 2nd screen added 1971, 3rd through 11th screens added 1996 Pomona, California—Opened 1931 Portland, Oregon—Opened 1911.
Overton is an unincorporated town located in Clark County, Nevada. The town is on the north end of Lake Mead; the town is home to Perkins Field airport and Echo Bay Airport. Overton was settled in 1869 with Helaman Pratt serving as branch president. A regular LDS branch was organized there in 1883. In the 1880s, Overton was the location of the only store in the lower Moapa Valley and attracted people from neighboring localities who arrived in Overton to buy supplies. In the 1930s, the town of St. Thomas was submerged by water as Lake Mead was being filled, the majority of its population relocated to Overton. After that, Overton developed as the main core of the business community in the lower Moapa Valley, it hosted most of the social events in the area. Overton is located in Moapa Valley 65 mi northeast of Nevada; the town features a stunning landscape of mesas and nearby Lake Mead. It is the settlement closest to Valley of Fire State Park. Overton is in the Moapa Valley, Nevada Census Bureau CDP.
Near Overton, there are deposits of magnesite and gypsum. Silica sand is being produced. Nevada State Route 169 connects Overton with Interstate 15 in the north and Lake Mead National Recreation Area in the south. South of Overton, the highway into Valley of Fire state park branches off west. Overton is located on the former St. Thomas branch of Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad which runs along the Moapa Valley, from north to south; the construction of the branch started in 1911 from Moapa station, which lies on the main line between Salt Lake City and Las Vegas. By March 1912, the construction was completed. In 1919, the railway was made a double track. In 1938 and 1939, the final six-mile segment leading to St. Thomas, submerged under waters of Lake Mead, was abandoned; the branch extends to the town southern outskirts, serving the gypsum plant. There is no passenger service. Double Negative is a work of art dug into the ground near Overton. Lost City Museum, houses artifacts from Pueblo Grande de Nevada.
In particular, a pueblo dwelling has been reconstructed in the inner yard of the museum. Overton Wildlife Management Area is located south of Overton and adjacent to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Overton has four entries in the National Register of Historic Places. Boulder Dam Park Museum. Two more entries are located in the vicinity of Overton; these are the wreck of Boeing B-29 Serial No. 45-21847 submerged in Pueblo Grande de Nevada. Archie Butler, an actor, stunt man, crewman in numerous films and television shows, died here February 4, 1977, aged 65 Betty Willis, visual artist and graphic designer, best known for designing the Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas sign, born in Overton, Nevada
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas sign
The Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas sign is a Las Vegas landmark funded in May 1959 and erected soon after by Western Neon. The sign was designed by Betty Willis at the request of Ted Rogich, a local salesman, who sold it to Clark County, Nevada; the sign is located in the median at 5100 Las Vegas Boulevard South, north of the historic stone pillars of the old McCarran Airport on the east side, across from the Bali Hai Golf Club and the Klondike Hotel & Casino on the west side. Some consider the sign to be the official southern end of the Las Vegas Strip; the sign, like most of the Strip, sits in Paradise and is located 4 miles south of the actual city limits of Las Vegas. The sign is a 25-foot-tall classic roadside pole design, mounted offset on two flat poles which are joined by a cross piece at the top; the poles extend above the top of the sign. The sign is a horizontally stretched diamond shape, with the top and bottom angles pointed while the side angles are rounded, it is double-backed, internally lit, with a border of flashing and chasing yellow incandescent bulbs outside around the perimeter.
In a nod to Nevada's nickname as "the Silver State," across the top of the sign are white neon circles, designed to represent silver dollars. The circles each contain a red painted letter, outlined in neon, which together form the word "Welcome." Crowning the sign, located between the two poles and just under the crosspiece is an eight-pointed, red-painted metal star outlined with yellow neon. The intersecting vertical and horizontal lines of the star extend over and wrap around the frame, created by the two poles and the cross piece, which give the star a dynamic, explosive appearance; the cabinet is covered with blue and red painted text. The south side of the sign reads "Welcome" inside the silver dollars, with "to Fabulous" in blue, in a 1950s-style cursive, underneath; the words "Las Vegas" are on the next line in red, all capitalized, large filling the width of the sign. Under "Las Vegas" is the word "Nevada" in blue, all capitalized, in a much smaller font. On the back or north side, less photographed and thus is lesser known, the sign reads "Drive" on the top line and "Carefully" on the second in red capital letters, with "Come Back" in blue on the third line, in script, "Soon" all capitalized in blue on the fourth line.
The design is characteristic of the Googie architecture movement. Betty Willis intended to design a sign, unique in its shape and content. Legend has been written that “Willis considered this her gift to the city and wanted it to be in the public domain.” In fact, Young Electric Sign Company owns the sign, which leases to Clark County. The sign has never been copyrighted. In 2007, Clark County installed decorative artificial turf inlaid with four playing cards underneath the sign. In late 2008, Clark County employees sought to have the sign listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On December 6, 2013, the State Historic Preservation Office for the State of Nevada announced that the "Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas" sign had been added to the State Register of Historic Places. On April 19, 2015, the designer of the sign, Betty Willis, died in her home in Nevada, she was 91 years old. On May 5, 2015, Clark County commissioners declared May 5 "Betty Willis Day" honoring the designer of the sign.
Commissioners issued a proclamation to her daughter Marjorie Holland. Prior to 2008, access to the iconic sign for photo opportunities was risky. There was no legal place for visitors to park, visitors had to cross travel lanes of Las Vegas Boulevard and hop up onto a median to reach the sign. Although there had been no known traffic fatalities involving pedestrians attempting to access the sign, rising traffic at the south end of the Strip presented an dangerous situation. After control of Las Vegas Boulevard was transferred from the state to Clark County, county officials decided to improve access and increase safety around the sign for photo-seekers. On December 8, 2008, site improvements were completed in the median allowing official public access to the welcome sign for the first time; the $400,000 project included a parking lot with 12 parking spaces and two loading areas for buses and limousines, as well as a paved walkway leading from the parking to the sign viewing area. The improvements were successful, the small parking lot was soon overwhelmed by an ever-increasing number of visitors to the sign.
In April 2012, the Clark County Commission authorized the expenditure of $500,000 to add 20 more spaces to accommodate visitor traffic. On April 23, 2015, a second site enhancement project was completed at a cost of $900,000; this project added 21 additional parking spaces to the parking lot and completed additional cosmetic and safety improvements, including new marked crosswalks with traffic signals to allow safer pedestrian access to the sign. On January 31, 2008, the sign turned red in support of National Wear Red Day; the American Heart Association's Go Red for Women campaign sought to educate the public on women's risk of cardiovascular disease and promote the importance of women getting screened for heart disease. On March 28, 2009 the sign along with much of the Las Vegas Strip was darkened for one hour as the city took part in Earth Hour. On May 14, 2009, Las Vegas Mayor Oscar Goodman and the Playboy personality Holly Madison coincided the start
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
In the signage industry, neon signs are electric signs lighted by long luminous gas-discharge tubes that contain rarefied neon or other gases. They are the most common use for neon lighting, first demonstrated in a modern form in December 1910 by Georges Claude at the Paris Motor Show. While they are used worldwide, neon signs were popular in the United States from about 1920–1960; the installations in Times Square, many designed by Douglas Leigh, were famed, there were nearly 2,000 small shops producing neon signs by 1940. In addition to signage, neon lighting is used by artists and architects, in plasma display panels and televisions; the signage industry has declined in the past several decades, cities are now concerned with preserving and restoring their antique neon signs. The neon sign is an evolution of the earlier Geissler tube, a broken glass tube containing a "rarefied" gas; when a voltage is applied to electrodes inserted through the glass, an electrical glow discharge results. Geissler tubes were quite popular in the late 19th century, the different colors they emitted were characteristics of the gases within.
They were, unsuitable for general lighting. The direct predecessor of neon tube lighting was the Moore tube, which used nitrogen or carbon dioxide as the luminous gas and a patented mechanism for maintaining pressure; the discovery of neon in 1898 by the British scientists William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers included the observation of a brilliant red glow in Geissler tubes. Travers wrote, "the blaze of crimson light from the tube told its own story and was a sight to dwell upon and never forget." Following neon's discovery, neon tubes were used as scientific novelties. A sign created by Perley G. Nutting and displaying the word "neon" may have been shown at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904, although this claim has been disputed. However, after 1902, Georges Claude's company in France, Air Liquide, began producing industrial quantities of neon as a byproduct of their air liquefaction business. From December 3–18, 1910, Claude demonstrated two 12-metre long bright red neon tubes at the Paris Motor Show.
This demonstration lit a peristyle of the Grand Palais. Claude's associate, Jacques Fonsèque, realized the possibilities for a business based on signage and advertising. By 1913 a large sign for the vermouth Cinzano illuminated the night sky in Paris, by 1919 the entrance to the Paris Opera was adorned with neon tube lighting. Over the next several years, patents were granted to Claude for two innovations still used today: a "bombardment" technique to remove impurities from the working gas of a sealed sign, a design for the internal electrodes of the sign that prevented their degradation by sputtering. In 1923, Georges Claude and his French company Claude Neon introduced neon gas signs to the United States by selling two to a Packard car dealership in Los Angeles. Earle C. Anthony purchased the two signs reading "Packard" for $1,250 apiece. Neon lighting became a popular fixture in outdoor advertising. Visible in daylight, people would stop and stare at the first neon signs for hours, dubbed "liquid fire."What may be the oldest surviving neon sign in the United States, still in use for its original purpose, is the sign “Theatre” at the Lake Worth Playhouse in Lake Worth, Florida.
The next major technological innovation in neon lighting and signs was the development of fluorescent tube coatings. Jacques Risler received a French patent in 1926 for these. Neon signs that use an argon/mercury gas mixture emit a good deal of ultraviolet light; when this light is absorbed by a fluorescent coating, preferably inside the tube, the coating glows with its own color. While only a few colors were available to sign designers, after the Second World War, phosphor materials were researched intensively for use in color televisions. About two dozen colors were available to neon sign designers by the 1960s, today there are nearly 100 available colors. Neon tube signs are produced by the craft of bending glass tubing into shapes. A worker skilled in this craft is known as neon bender or tube bender; the neon tube is made out of 4 or 5-foot long straight sticks of hollow glass sold by sign suppliers to neon shops worldwide, where they are manually assembled into individual custom designed and fabricated lamps.
Tubing in external diameters ranging from about 8–15 mm with a 1 mm wall thickness is most used, although 6 mm tubing is now commercially available in colored glass tubes. The tube is heated in sections using several types of burners that are selected according to the amount of glass to be heated for each bend; these burners include cannon, or crossfires, as well as a variety of gas torches. Ribbon burners are strips of fire that make the gradual bends, while crossfires are used to make sharp bends; the interior of the tubes may be coated with a thin phosphorescent powder coating, affixed to the interior wall of the tube by a binding material. The tube is filled with a purified gas mixture, the gas ionized by a high voltage applied between the ends of the sealed tube through cold cathodes welded onto the ends; the color of the light emitted by the tube may be just that coming from the gas, or the light from the phosphor layer. Different phosphor-coated tubing sections may be butt welded together using glass working torches to f
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC