Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The FJ Holden
The FJ Holden is a 1977 Australian film directed by Michael Thornhill. The FJ Holden is a snapshot of the life of young teenage men in Bankstown, New South Wales, Australia in the 1970s and deals with the characters' difficulty in reconciling mateship with respect for a girlfriend. Debi Enker in Australian Cinema comments: "The FJ Holden presents the suburbs as a cultural and spiritual desert, it is a place where regular bouts with the bottle are the only antidote for lives without hope or direction." The film received a R classification from the Australian Film Board of Review, but after an appeal to the censors it was revised to a M classification for moderate sex scenes and moderate coarse language. However, all states except Victoria and New South Wales exercised their right to override the Commonwealth decision and retained the R classification. Kevin and his best mate Bob drive around Sydney trying to pick up girls in Kevin's FJ Holden. Kevin meets Anne at a party and she agrees to let him to drive her home.
Bob joins the ride, she has sex with both men. However, a relationship develops between Anne and Kevin and they go to restaurants, race cars, get drunk; the romance falters because Kevin lets Bob watch them having sex in her bedroom. Drunk and upset, Kevin tries to talk to Bob, incapable of a serious conversation. Bob is secretly happy that he has his friend back. Paul Couzens as Kevin Eva Dickinson as Anne Carl Stever as Bob Gary Waddell as Deadlegs Graham Rouse as sergeant Karlene Rogerson as Cheryl Vicky Arkley as Chris Robert Baxter as Senior Constable Colin Yarwood as Brian Sigrid Thornton as Wendy Ray Marshall as Mr Sullivan Maggie Kirkpatrick as Betty Amstead Harry Lawrence as security guard The film originated with a series of comic poems from Terry Larsen; the budget was raised from the Australian Film Commission. It was December 1976 in western Sydney. Most of the young actors were amateurs; the FJ Holden grossed $710,000 at the box office in Australia, equivalent to $3,266,000 in 2009 dollars.
This was despite the fact. It sold to some overseas countries and recovered its cost; the FJ Holden was released on DVD with a new print by Umbrella Entertainment in November 2005. The DVD is compatible with all region codes and includes special features such as the theatrical trailers, Australian trailers and audio commentary with Mike Thornhill moderated by Peter Galvin. Cinema of Australia Murray, Scott. Australian Cinema. St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin/AFC. P. 211. ISBN 1-86373-311-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list The FJ Holden on IMDb The FJ Holden at Australian Screen Online The FJ Holden at the National Film and Sound Archive The FJ Holden at Oz Movies
Australian Cinematographers Society
The Australian Cinematographers Society is a not-for-profit organisation founded in 1958 for the purpose of providing a forum for Australian Cinematographers to further develop their skills through mutual co-operation. Its National Headquarters and clubhouse is located in North Sydney; the ACS states the following aims: To keep members informed about the latest technology with new equipment demonstrations and ideas through meetings and seminars. To further the advancement of Cinematography in all fields and give due recognition to the outstanding work performed by Australian Cinematographers. To provide a forum for Cinematographers to meet with other members of the industry to discuss and exchange ideas, promote friendship and better understanding of each other's industry role, its first President was Syd Wood ACS. Its current President is Ron Johanson OAM ACS; the ACS presents annual awards for achievements in cinematography, including the Golden Tripod, the Milli Award to its Cinematographer of the Year.
Members of the Society who are "accredited" are allowed to use the ACS suffix after their name. Accreditation is considered one of the highest honours bestowed upon a member and accreditation demonstrates more than just professional competence, but creativity and aesthetic innovation; the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts awarded the Australian Cinematographers Society as the recipient of the 2014 Byron Kennedy Award at the 3rd annual AACTA Awards. The award celebrates outstanding creative enterprise within the film and television industries and is given to an individual or organisation whose work embodies innovation and the relentless pursuit of excellence; the award jury said of their decision: "We have chosen the Australian Cinematographers Society under the stewardship of Ron Johanson ACS for its enduring and pivotal role in the pursuit of excellence throughout Australian cinema". The award was presented to Ron Johanson ACS on behalf of the Society at the AACTA Awards Ceremony in Sydney on Thursday, 30 January 2014.
The Milli Award is the highest award. It is presented at the ACS National Awards for Cinematography to the Australian Cinematographer of the Year. All ACS National Gold Tripod winners progress through to be in the running for the Milli Award. Five members of the society have been awarded with the Academy Award for Best Cinematography. Dean Semler ACS for Dances With Wolves. John Seale ACS for The English Patient. Andrew Lesnie ACS for The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring. Russell Boyd ACS for Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World. Dion Beebe ACS for Memoirs of a Geisha. AC Magazine is the quarterly journal of the Australian Cinematographers Society; the Shadowcatchers: A history of Cinematography in Australia Australian Cinematographers Society website The Shadowcatchers website Showreelfinder. Online showcase of Australian Cinematographer Society National Award Winners. Published annually
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
The New Guard was an Australian monarchist, anti-communist, fascist-inspired paramilitary organisation founded in Sydney on 16 February 1931, during the Great Depression. The New Guard is known for its violent agitation against Premier of New South Wales Jack Lang, its partial role in his sacking during the 1932 constitutional crisis. From its founding it was headed by army officer Eric Campbell, a World War I veteran and former member of the Old Guard, from which it originated as an offshoot. Membership estimations vary wildly, from 39,000 to 120,000; as the Great Depression economically ravaged the country, Australia was undergoing social changes due to a number of factors including the social effects of World War I conscription campaigns, trade unionist activity, the election of Jack Lang to the New South Wales premiership. Due to his socialist demagoguery and his departure from the norm in his strategy to fight the Great Depression, Lang became the target of suspicion from some who feared he may help usher in the growth of communism in Australia.
Organisations such as the Old Guard and the All For Australia League were formed to oppose socialist and communist influence in Australia and defend against a possible revolution. The New Guard formed as an offshoot of the Old Guard over disagreement of its secretive nature, by a few weeks its membership had swelled, boasting members such as Sir Charles Kingsford Smith and former Mayor of North Sydney Hubert Primrose, among many returning servicemen; the organisation was militant in nature harassing their political opponents by crashing their meetings or engaging in street brawls. Its most famous member, Francis de Groot, was notable for upstaging Lang at the opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, where under Campbell’s command he slashed the ribbon on horseback before Lang could, in protest of his premiership’s anti-monarchist ideology. After Lang’s dismissal in May 1932 the New Guard’s membership declined rapidly. During this time Campbell had met with fascists and National Socialists such as Sir Oswald Mosley and Joachim von Ribbentrop, in 1934 published his manifesto The New Road, signalling the New Guard’s ideological transition as Campbell argued his case for an Australian application of Italian corporate statism.
Feeling the need to enter into parliamentary politics, the New Guard unsuccessfully contested five seats at the 1935 state election as the Centre Party. The party failed to win polling 0.60 percent of the total vote. Following the election Campbell withdrew from public life, with both the party and the New Guard disbanding shortly afterwards. During the 1930s, the world experienced a severe economic depression which impacted the livelihoods of workers internationally. Australia, being an open economy dependent on overseas markets and investment, was hit hard by a collapse of world prices for its exports. Unemployment increased as national GDP decreased, the amount of citizens dependent on government financial aid skyrocketed, civil unrest became commonplace. Since World War I, Australian society had begun to fragment, with the aggressive campaigns for conscription during the 1916-1917 period contributing a heavy dose of sectarianism and rhetoric pertaining to disloyalty and extremism; the 1917 Australian general strike emboldened the labour movement in its political ambitions, the international observation of the October Revolution in Russia in 1917 legitimised communism as both a solution to the unionists, a genuine threat to the conservatives that comprised Australia’s established political order.
Australians during this time were left unusually discontented and polarised. Jack Lang's reputation for radicalism arose during his 1925-27 term as Premier. Political speechwriter Graham Freudenberg aptly termed his programme "solid Labor reforms clothed in provocative language". Known as the "Big Fella", Lang’s parliamentary strategy employed remorseless factionalism and demagoguery to build an image of a masterless politician with the people’s interests at heart. Intimidating most of his parliamentary colleagues, Lang built a fervent following in the unions and branches as the leader who could be trusted to implement Labor policies. After a landslide win in October 1930, Lang faced eighteen months of overlapping crises associated with the Great Depression. Given that Australia relied on exports to raise capital, large overseas debt repayments could only be met if the Australian government cut funding for other expenditures. While the Premiers of the States agreed to a deflationary strategy dubbed the Premiers' Plan, whereby government spending was cut by 20% alongside a substantial tax increase, amongst other points, Lang instead opted for a complete cessation of payments on interest to debts to Britain altogether.
Called the Lang Plan, the cessation was to be enforced until Britain could deal with Australia's debts as it had settled its own with America. For conservatives, the Lang Plan struck with strong overtones of unsound finance and disloyalty to Britain. A young Robert Menzies remarked that while the depression burden might need to be more shared, the Australian government ought to be warned against violating the rights of bondholders, saying: If Australia was to surmount her trouble only by abandonment of traditional British standards of honesty, fair play and honest endeavour, it would be better for Australia that every citizen within her boundaries should die of starvation during the next six months. Due to Lang’s maverick style within the Australian political sphere, coupling with rising pressure from the trade unionists, counter-movements began to rise to oppose the Labor Party. Among them was the Old Guard, a secret organisation purported to exist as early as 1917, which at the time
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate