Colonization: Down to Earth
Colonization: Down to Earth is an alternate history and science fiction novel by Harry Turtledove. It is the second novel of the Colonization series, as well as the sixth installment in the extended Worldwar series. British editions are entitled Colonisation: Down to Earth and are the second of the Colonisation series. Following the nuclear attack on the colonist ships in Second Contact, the Race continues to try to find the responsible nation, along with the purpose of the Lewis and Clark, a large space station launched by the United States. At the same time, the range animals brought by the Race's colonists begin to spread into the human nations, causing ecological trouble and causing conflicts between them. In Nazi Germany, Heinrich Himmler, the Führer, dies unexpectedly in late 1964 and is replaced by Ernst Kaltenbrunner. Kaltenbrunner, angered by the policy of accommodation Himmler carried out towards the Race, including his refusal to invade the Race-occupied buffer state of Poland, causes him to initiate a nuclear war between Germany and the Race in 1965
The Sacred Land
The Sacred Land is the third book in the Hellenic Traders series by H. N. Turteltaub. Like the others in the series it is a work of historical fiction concerning the adventures of a pair of Greek traders from Rhodes. In the book, the more scholarly of the pair, visits Jerusalem, where he tries to learn more about the odd monotheists who live there. Menedemos, fulfills his usual role of paying more attention to profits than prophets and pays a great deal of attention to women; the setting is the coast of Asia Minor and Jerusalem and the surrounding area in the period of time about thirty years after the death of Alexander the Great. As in the other books in the series and places are given their Greek names rather than the English ones
Fantasy literature is literature set in an imaginary universe but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Magic, the supernatural and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds, it is a story that adults can read. Fantasy is a subgenre of speculative fiction and is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. Most works of fantasy were written, since the 1960s, a growing segment of the fantasy genre has taken the form of films, television programs, graphic novels, video games and art. A number of fantasy novels written for children, such as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, The Harry Potter series and The Hobbit attract an adult audience. Stories involving magic and terrible monsters have existed in spoken forms before the advent of printed literature. Classical mythology is replete with fantastical stories and characters, the best known being the works of Homer and Virgil.
The contribution of the Greco-Roman world to fantasy is vast and includes: The hero's journey. The philosophy of Plato has had great influence on the fantasy genre. In the Christian Platonic tradition, the reality of other worlds, an overarching structure of great metaphysical and moral importance, has lent substance to the fantasy worlds of modern works; the world of magic is connected with the Roman Greek world. With Empedocles, the elements, they are used in fantasy works as personifications of the forces of nature. Other than magic concerns include: the use of a mysterious tool endowed with special powers. India has a long tradition of fantastical characters, dating back to Vedic mythology; the Panchatantra, which some scholars believe was composed around the 3rd century BC. It is based on older oral traditions, including "animal fables that are as old as we are able to imagine". was influential in Europe and the Middle East. It used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science.
Talking animals endowed with human qualities have now become a staple of modern fantasy. The Baital Pachisi, a collection of various fantasy tales set within a frame story is, according to Richard Francis Burton and Isabel Burton, the germ which culminated in the Arabian Nights, which inspired the Golden Ass of Apuleius. Boccacio's Decamerone the Pentamerone and all that class of facetious fictitious literature."The Book of One Thousand and One Nights from the Middle East has been influential in the West since it was translated from the Arabic into French in 1704 by Antoine Galland. Many imitations were written in France. Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba; the Fornaldarsagas and Icelandic sagas, both of which are based on ancient oral tradition influenced the German Romantics, as well as William Morris, J. R. R. Tolkien; the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Celtic folklore and legend has been an inspiration for many fantasy works.
The Welsh tradition has been influential, owing to its connection to King Arthur and its collection in a single work, the epic Mabinogion. One influential retelling of this was the fantasy work of Evangeline Walton; the Irish Ulster Cycle and Fenian Cycle have been plentifully mined for fantasy. Its greatest influence was, indirect. Celtic folklore and mythology provided a major source for the Arthurian cycle of chivalric romance: the Matter of Britain. Although the subject matter was reworked by the authors, these romances developed marvels until they became independent of the original folklore and fictional, an important stage in the development of fantasy. Romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative, popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe, they were fantastic stories about marvel-filled adventures of a knight-errant portrayed as having heroic qualities, who goes on a quest, yet it is "the emphasis on love and courtly manners distinguishes it from the chanson de geste and other kinds of epic, in which masculine military heroism predominates."
Popular literature drew on themes of romance, but with ironic, satiric or burlesque intent. Romances reworked legends, fairy tales, history to suit the readers' and hearers' tastes, but by c. 1600 they were out of fashion, Miguel de Cervantes famously burlesqued them in his novel Don Quixote. Still, the modern image of "medieval" is more influenced by the romance than by any other medieval genre, the word medieval evokes knights, distressed damsels and other romantic tropes. Romance literature was written in Old French, Anglo-Norman and Provençal, in Portuguese, in Castilian, in English, in Italian and German. During the early 13th century, romances
Homeward Bound (Turtledove novel)
Homeward Bound is a science fiction, alternate history novel by Harry Turtledove. It is the final work in his Worldwar series fictional universe, it follows the events of the Colonization trilogy, gives some closure to the storylines. Homeward Bound begins in 1972 flashes forward to 1977, 1982, 1984, 1994, 2012, to 2031 when the American starship Admiral Peary arrives at Tau Ceti and Home, the homeworld of The Race. Homeward Bound has multiple meanings in the book, it is a pun, in that the Race's home planet is called Home, many characters are headed there. For characters that are members of the Race, such as Ttomalss and Straha, they are headed home after the failed conquest of Earth. For Kassquit, it is her cultural home, although not her biological one; the Earth ship Admiral Peary is headed to Home, where they will confront the Race and try to demand respect as an independent planet. At the end of the novel, while most of the ship's crew has been in cryogenic sleep and suffered time dilation, they are given the chance to go back to Earth.
As each character arrives, they handle their return in the best way. The Admiral Peary travels at between 0.35 and 0.4 c and took a little over 30 years, instead of 24, to cross the twelve light years between Earth and Tau Ceti. The ship is named Admiral Peary for its role as a military exploration ship, after Adm. Robert Peary, who did the same in Arctic exploration; when the Admiral Peary arrives in orbit around Home, the Race's planet in the Tau Ceti system, it causes a crisis in the highest levels of the Race. The Race's Emperor Risson and Fleetlord Atvar argue the merits and drawbacks of attempting to destroy mankind by massive nuclear strikes. Meanwhile, Researcher Ttomalss investigates reports of a major breakthrough by human scientists back on Earth; the Race inadvertently cause themselves a possible ecological disaster similar to what they are causing on Earth with the Race's introduced species into the Earth's ecosystems by letting the humans' caged rats loose on Home. The rats were used for food testing for the Humans.
It comes as a great shock to the Race when a second human starship arrives in orbit around Home, having traveled the twelve light years in just five weeks. The faster-than-light drive allows the crew to return to Earth, familiar, yet different, from how they left it. Another pun is the ship's captain Nicole Nichols, inspired by Star Trek's Lieutenant Uhura but playing off the actress' real name; the ship is named Commodore Perry for its role in opening up the Race's empire to U. S. access, after Commodore Matthew C. Perry, who did the same with Japan, the Race are fearful that other human nations will make their way to Home a recovered Germany. Sam Yeager - United States Ambassador to the Race and foremost human expert on the Race. Jonathan Yeager - Expert on the Race, member of ambassadorial team, son of Sam Yeager, married to Karen Yeager. Karen Yeager - Expert on the Race, married to Jonathan Yeager. Glen Johnson - A scooter pilot and third highest ranking ship pilot of the Admiral Peary. Atvar - Fleetlord of the Race.
Was in charge of Conquest Fleet that invaded Earth. Ttomalss - Senior Researcher and psychologist of the Race. Foremost expert on the psychology of humans.'Father' of Kassquit. Kassquit - Researcher for the Race, human raised in the manner of the Race, only Tosevite citizen of the Empire. 37th Emperor Risson - The current Emperor of the Empire. The Doctor - An off-screen character whose death causes Sam Yeager to assume the duties of U. S. Ambassador to the Race. Diplomacy is a major theme of the novel; the humans spend. However, this is a mindset that the previously-technologically-superior Race has, they will not be dissuaded; the Americans are negotiating from a position of weakness, but both sides know that it is only a matter of time until that position becomes one of greater strength. War — a destructive war in which "millions, billions" would die on Earth and also on the Empire's two other worlds — is an ever-present possibility, though none of the negotiators on either side is warlike, they are on quite good terms on the personal level.
The Admiral Peary orbits Home, loaded with nuclear missiles which could be launched to rain death and destruction on a world which had not known war for a hundred thousand years. The Race's imperial capital, with the Emperor in his palace — a shrine at the centre of The Race's religion as well a centre of government — might be obliterated, as the Emperor explicitly remarks in one scene. Using these missiles is not the Americans' preferred option — but it is never ruled out. On the other hand, representatives of The Race are driven to the reluctant conclusion that they must launch a war of annihilation against the humans though they have only a doubtful chance of winning — since waiting would reduce their chance of winning to zero. However, such considerations are rendered moot by the arrival of the FTL Commodore Perry, showing the Race that time has run out for a pre-emptive war against the "Tosevites"; the younger, newly arrived Americans behave with a mani
Babylon was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC. The city was built on the Euphrates river and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods. Babylon was a small Akkadian town dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire c. 2300 BC. The town became part of a small independent city-state with the rise of the First Babylonian dynasty in the 19th century BC. After the Amorite king Hammurabi created a short-lived empire in the 18th century BC, he built Babylon up into a major city and declared himself its king, southern Mesopotamia became known as Babylonia and Babylon eclipsed Nippur as its holy city; the empire waned under Hammurabi's son Samsu-iluna and Babylon spent long periods under Assyrian and Elamite domination. After being destroyed and rebuilt by the Assyrians, Babylon became the capital of the short lived Neo-Babylonian Empire from 609 to 539 BC; the Hanging Gardens of Babylon was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, although a number of scholars believe these were in the Assyrian capital of Nineveh.
After the fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the city came under the rule of the Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid empires. It has been estimated that Babylon was the largest city in the world c. 1770 – c. 1670 BC, again c. 612 – c. 320 BC. It was the first city to reach a population above 200,000. Estimates for the maximum extent of its area range from 890 to 900 hectares; the remains of the city are in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate, about 85 kilometres south of Baghdad, comprising a large tell of broken mud-brick buildings and debris. The main sources of information about Babylon—excavation of the site itself, references in cuneiform texts found elsewhere in Mesopotamia, references in the Bible, descriptions in classical writing, second-hand descriptions —present an incomplete and sometimes contradictory picture of the ancient city at its peak in the sixth century BC; the English Babylon comes from a transliteration of the Akkadian Bābilim. Archibald Sayce, writing in the 1870s, considered Bab-ilu or Bab-ili to be the translation of an earlier Sumerian name Ca-dimirra, meaning "gate of god", based on the characters KAN4 DIĜIR.
RAKI or based on other characters. According to Professor Dietz-Otto Edzard, the city was called Babilla, but by the time of the Third Dynasty of Ur, through a process of etymological speculation, had become Bāb-ili meaning "gate of god" or "god's gate"; the "gate of god" translation is viewed as a folk etymology to explain an unknown original non-Semitic placename. Linguist I. J. Gelb suggested in 1955 that Babil/Babilla is the basis of the city name, of unknown meaning and origin, as there were other similarly-named places in Sumer, there are no other examples of Sumerian place-names being replaced with Akkadian translations, he deduced that it transformed into Akkadian Bāb-ili, that the Sumerian Ka-dig̃irra was a translation of that, rather than vice versa. In the Bible, the name appears as Babel, interpreted in the Book of Genesis to mean "confusion", from the verb bilbél; the modern English verb, to babble, is popularly thought to derive from this name, but there is no direct connection.
Ancient records in some situations use "Babylon" as a name for other cities, including cities like Borsippa within Babylon's sphere of influence, Nineveh for a short period after the Assyrian sack of Babylon. The remains of the city are in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad, comprising a large tell of broken mud-brick buildings and debris; the site at Babylon consists of a number of mounds covering an area of about 2 by 1 kilometer, oriented north to south, along the Euphrates to the west. The river bisected the city, but the course of the river has since shifted so that most of the remains of the former western part of the city are now inundated; some portions of the city wall to the west of the river remain. Only a small portion of the ancient city has been excavated. Known remains include: Kasr – called Palace or Castle, it is the location of the Neo-Babylonian ziggurat Etemenanki and lies in the center of the site. Amran Ibn Ali – the highest of the mounds at 25 meters, to the south.
It is the site of Esagila, a temple of Marduk which contained shrines to Ea and Nabu. Homera – a reddish-colored mound on the west side. Most of the Hellenistic remains are here. Babil – a mound about 22 meters high at the northern end of the site, its bricks have been subject to looting since ancient times. It held a palace built by Nebuchadnezzar. Archaeologists have recovered few artifacts predating the Neo-Babylonian period; the water table in the region has risen over the centuries, artifacts from the time before the Neo-Babylonian Empire are unavailable to current standard archaeological methods. Additionally, the Neo-Babylonians conducted significant rebuilding projects in the city, which destroyed or obscured much of the earlier record. Babylon was pillaged numerous times after revolting against foreign rule, most notably by t
The Gryphon's Skull
The Gryphon's Skull is a historical fiction novel written by H. N. Turteltaub, it follows his cousin, Sostratos. It is the second book in the Hellenic Traders series; the book centers around the discovery of an apparent gryphon skull, the efforts of Sostratos to get the skull back to scholars for study. The novel takes place in the areas around Greece fourteen years after the death of Alexander the Great; as with the first book in the series and locations are given a more literal transcription of their Greek names than the more common anglicized Latinizations
Curious Notions is an alternate history novel by Harry Turtledove. It is a part of the Crosstime Traffic series. In Curious Notions, the Central Powers won World War I prior to the United States entering the war. Subsequently, the German Empire conquered the United States in the 1950s; the story is set 150 years in German-occupied San Francisco. The main plot deals with time travelers from our universe establishing an electronics shop in San Francisco, coming under the suspicion of both the German authorities and the Tongs while preventing the Germans from duplicating the time travel technology; the Central Powers win by managing to knock out France and the British Expeditionary Force in the west towards the beginning of the war. They defeat Russia before the United States can intervene. A few years the German Empire intervenes in the Russian Revolution and defeats the Bolsheviks, but the Russian Empire is divided and therefore no longer a great power. Britain and France tried to stop Germany's power again in the late 1930s, but since the United States does not intervene, they lose and Germany gains control over Europe and its sphere of influence.
Germany is able to restore the monarchies of Brazil and Portugal. Since Germany never persecuted the Jewish people of their country, they discovered the atomic bomb and gain further dominance; the United States was ignorant of the power of these bombs and as a result lost World War III when it broke out in 1956. It resulted in the nuclear destruction of most major cities in the United States. San Francisco, the setting, is intact because the United States was able to shoot some of the German bombers down before they could reach the city. Roland J. Green reviewing for Booklist said that a "well-constructed world, superior characterization, some serious analysis of the ethics of cross-time travel all make the yarn a winner." When William Came Tor review