Shortridge High School
Shortridge High School is a public high school located in Indianapolis, United States. It opened in 1864 as the Indianapolis High School and is the oldest free and it is the home of the International Baccalaureate program of the Indianapolis Public Schools. Shortridge High School was established as the Indianapolis High School in 1864 as the state’s first free high school, Shortridge was recruited to become school superintendent in 1863. Shortridge was a strict educator when it came to drilling students, however, he was innovative in many ways, including the hiring of female teachers and the admission of African-American students. By 1878, Shortridge High School served 502 students, the school was a lightning rod for civil rights almost from the beginning. At its inception the students were primarily white, in 1903, in a football game with Wabash College, Wabash coach Tug Wilson substituted an African-American left tackle by the name of Samuel Gordon. The Shortridge team captain led his team off the field after a scene, Gordon kept his sense of humor, noting he was sorry the game was called on account of darkness.
While minority students had attended Shortridge from the beginning, the majority of the students were white until 1927. In 1927, the citys first and only purposely-segregated all-black school, designed to house all of the citys black students, regardless of residential location, its creation was due in large part to the influence of a branch of the Ku Klux Klan led by D. C. Stephenson, on the school board. While the citys schools had largely been segregated by social custom. Many of these chose to attend Shortridge High School. During the 1920s, the Indianapolis Public School Board began an expansion program, three new high schools were planned. In addition to Crispus Attucks, Washington High School on the west side of Indianapolis was built, the Depression of the 1930s was not kind to the country, and this was seen at Shortridge High as well. The PTA was active in raising money for both the school and its students, a radio production studio was established in the late 1940s, and WIAN-FM, licensed to the IPS board, went on the air in 1955.
By the late 1950s, Shortridge High was ranked among the best schools in the nation, the American Field Study foreign exchange program was established as the first of its kind in Indianapolis. This program continued until the school was closed in June 1981, author Kurt Vonnegut, who graduated from the school in 1940, once said of his alma mater, my dream of an America with great public schools. I thought we should be the envy of the world with our public schools, and I went to such a public school
Bar Keepers Friend
Bar Keepers Friend is a brand of mass-produced cleaning agents. The original canned powder product has been manufactured and sold since 1882 and it was invented by a chemist in Indianapolis, where it continues to be manufactured by SerVaas Laboratories. The canned products primary active ingredient is oxalic acid, and Bar Keepers Friend has several various cleaning uses, Bar Keepers Friend was originally manufactured in 1882 as a cleaning agent in powdered form, and this formulation continues to be manufactured today. A trademark for the product was filed on October 2,1889 by George William Hoffman, the formula contains oxalic acid as a primary ingredient, which is found in rhubarb. The Bar Keepers Friend logo represents the swinging doors of a saloon, according to the president of SerVaas Laboratories, Paul SerVaas, although some people complained during Prohibition, the name was never changed. Its been Bar Keepers Friend since 1882, additional products manufactured and marketed under the Bar Keepers Friend brand name include liquid and spray cleaners.
SerVaas Laboratories had 40 employees in May 2011, and 54 in April 2016, Bar Keepers Friend products are mass-produced in a manufacturing environment that has significant automation in the process. The powdered and canned product is formulated in separate two-ton batches during the production process, in September 2016, the canned powdered product was manufactured at a rate of approximately 60,000 cans per day, which are packaged in 12,15 and 21 ounce cans. According to the 2015 material safety data sheet, the ingredients are feldspar, linear sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, unlike more abrasive cleaning powders such as Comet and Ajax, Bar Keepers Friend uses oxalic acid as its primary active ingredient. A similar abrasive cleaning product, Zud Heavy Duty Cleanser, contains oxalic acid, prolonged use and extended skin contact may cause irritation and contact dermatitis, which is avoided by wearing gloves. The product can be an eye irritant, in 1994, Consumer Reports found Bar Keepers Friend to perform on a par with Mr.
Clean for removing baked-on soil, tea stains, and other pot stains, and that it was better at removing rust. While recommending Bar Keepers Friend for a variety of household cleaning uses, author Heather Solos warned that it should not be used to clean silverware, pewter, or real marble. The product serves to make stainless steel resistant to oxidation via the process of passivation, the product can remove small scratches from stainless steel and plates. Uses of Bar Keepers Friend that are not noted on its label include removing hard water stains from glass and windows, the product can clean teak wood, and serves to bleach it per the oxalic acid in the product, which aids in the cleaning process. List of cleaning products Hibbs, Bar Keepers Friend is bathtub pal. Bar Keepers Friend, One of Many Great Hoosier Brands
Indiana University is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States. The core campuses of Indiana University are located in Bloomington and Indianapolis, Indiana University Bloomington is the flagship campus of Indiana University. Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis is the urban campus of Indiana University. The campus is operated in cooperation with Purdue University, but is administered by Indiana University, in addition to its two core campuses, Indiana University comprises seven smaller campuses and two extensions spread throughout Indiana. The smaller campuses are, Indiana University East is located in Richmond, Indiana University Kokomo is located in Kokomo, Indiana. Indiana University Northwest is located in Gary, Indiana University South Bend is located in South Bend, Indiana. Indiana University Southeast is located in New Albany, Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne is located in Fort Wayne, Indiana. IPFW is operated in cooperation with, and is administered by, Indiana University – Purdue University Columbus is located in Columbus, Indiana.
The centers/extensions are, The Danielson Center is located in New Castle, the Elkhart Center is located in Elkhart, Indiana. Future projects include, A medical school complex near downtown Evansville, according to the National Association of College and University Business Officers, the value of the endowment of the Indiana University and affiliated foundations is over $1.57 billion. Mark Cuban Brad Stephens Indiana University has three medals to recognize individuals, the University Medal, the only IU medal that requires approval from the Board of Trustees, was created in 1982 by IU President John W. Ryan and is the highest award bestowed by the University. It honors individuals for singular or noteworthy contributions, including service to the university and achievement in arts, science, the first recipient was Thomas T. Solley, former director of the IU Art Museum. Indiana University Presidents Medal for Excellence, a reproduction in silver of the symbolic jewel of office worn by the president at ceremonial occasions, is rich in meaning.
The first recipients were member of the Beaux Arts Trio on September 20,1985, Thomas Hart Benton Mural Medallion recognizes individuals who are shining examples of the values of IU and the universal academic community. President Ryan was the first to award this honor and it was first awarded to the president of Nanjing University on July 21,1986. Indiana University has a number of ways to recognize the accomplishments of faculty, the recipient is the IU nominee for the national Campus Compact Thomas Ehrlich Award for Service Learning. The Mace, a symbol of authority dating back to medieval times and it would be used in processions of city mayors and other dignitaries, and became an emblem of order and authority during academic ceremonies. The staff of IUs Mace is 30 inches long and made of polished ebony encircled with four brass, gold-plated collars, atop the staff is a globe of plated brass with four flat sides
Bronze Star Medal
Civilians serving with U. S. military forces in combat are eligible for the award. For example, UPI reporter Joe Galloway was awarded the Bronze Star with V Device during the Vietnam War for rescuing a wounded soldier under fire in the Battle of la Drang. The Bronze Star Medal was established by Executive Order 9419,4 February 1944, the acts of heroism are of a lesser degree than required for the award of the Silver Star. The acts of merit or acts of valor must be less than required for the Legion of Merit but must nevertheless have been meritorious. The Bronze Star Medal is awarded only to members in combat zones who are receiving imminent danger pay. For this purpose, the US Armys Combat Infantryman Badge or Combat Medical Badge award is considered as a citation in orders, effective 11 September 2001, the Meritorious Service Medal may be bestowed in lieu of the Bronze Star Medal for meritorious achievement in a designated combat theater. The Bronze Star Medal was designed by Rudolf Freund of the jewelry firm Bailey, the medal is a bronze star 1 1⁄2 inches in circumscribing diameter.
In the center is a 3⁄16 inch diameter superimposed bronze star, the reverse bears the inscription HEROIC OR MERITORIOUS ACHIEVEMENT with a space for the name of the recipient to be engraved. The star hangs from its ribbon by a metal loop with rounded corners. The Bronze Star Medal with the V device to denote heroism is the fourth highest military decoration for valor, 5/16 Inch Star – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the 5/16 inch star is worn to denote additional awards. V Device – In the Army, the V is worn solely to denote participation in acts of heroism involving conflict with an armed enemy, in the Air Force, the V is worn to denote heroism in combat. Red Reeder conceived the idea of the Bronze Star Medal in 1943, Reeder felt another medal was needed as a ground equivalent of the Air Medal, and suggested calling the proposed new award the Ground Medal. The idea eventually rose through the bureaucracy and gained supporters. Marshall, in a memorandum to President Franklin D, the Air Medal had been adopted two years earlier to raise airmens morale.
President Roosevelt authorized the Bronze Star Medal by Executive Order 9419 dated 4 February 1944 and this authorization was announced in War Department Bulletin No. President John F. Kennedy amended Executive Order 9419 per Executive Order 11046 dated 24 August 1962 to expand the authorization to include serving with friendly forces. This allowed for awards where US service members become involved in a conflict where the United States was not a belligerent. At the time of the Executive Order, for example, the US was not a belligerent in Vietnam, since the award criteria state that the Bronze Star Medal may be awarded to any person
The Saturday Evening Post
The Saturday Evening Post is a bimonthly American magazine. It was published weekly under this title from 1897 until 1963, the magazine declined in readership through the 1960s, and in 1969 The Saturday Evening Post folded for two years before being revived as a quarterly publication in 1971. It now appears six times a year, the magazine was redesigned in 2013. The Saturday Evening Post was founded in 1821 and grew to become the most widely circulated magazine in America. The magazine gained prominent status under the leadership of its longtime editor George Horace Lorimer, the editors claimed it had historical roots in the Pennsylvania Gazette, which was first published in 1728 by Samuel Keimer and sold to Benjamin Franklin in 1729. It was known for commissioning lavish illustrations and original works of fiction, illustrations were featured on the cover and embedded in stories and advertising. Some Post illustrations became popular and continue to be reproduced as posters or prints, Curtis Publishing Co.
stopped publishing the Post in 1969 after the company lost a landmark defamation suit and was ordered to pay over $3 million in damages. The Post was revived in 1971 as a limited circulation quarterly publication, as of the late 2000s, The Saturday Evening Post is published six times a year by the Saturday Evening Post Society, which purchased the magazine in 1982. In 1916, Saturday Evening Post editor George Horace Lorimer discovered Norman Rockwell, Lorimer promptly purchased two illustrations from Rockwell, using them as covers, and commissioned three more drawings. Rockwells illustrations of the American family and rural life of a bygone era became icons, during his 50-year career with the Post, Rockwell painted more than 300 covers. He produced 120 covers for the Post between 1943 and 1968, ceasing only when the magazine began displaying photographs on its covers, another prominent artist was Charles R. Chickering, a freelance illustrator who went on to design numerous postage stamps for the U. S.
Other popular cover illustrators include the artists George Hughes, Constantin Alajalov, John Clymer, W. H. D. Koerner, J. C. Leyendecker, Charles Archibald MacLellan, John E. Sheridan, Douglass Crockwell, the magazines line-up of cartoonists included Bob Barnes, Irwin Caplan, Tom Henderson, Al Johns, Clyde Lamb, Jerry Marcus, Frank ONeal, B. Tobey, Pete Wyma and Bill Yates, the magazine ran Ted Keys cartoon panel series Hazel from 1943 to 1969. Each issue featured several original stories and often included an installment of a serial appearing in successive issues. Most of the fiction was written for mainstream tastes by popular writers, the opening pages of stories featured paintings by the leading magazine illustrators. Lincoln, John P. Marquand, Edgar Allan Poe, Sax Rohmer, William Saroyan, John Steinbeck and Rex Stout and it published poetry by such noted poets as Carl Sandburg, Ogden Nash, Dorothy Parker and Hannah Kahn. Jack Londons best-known novel The Call of the Wild was first published, in serialized form, emblematic of the Posts fiction was author Clarence Budington Kelland, who first appeared in 1916–17 with stories of homespun heroes, Efficiency Edgar and Scattergood Baines
Central Intelligence Agency
As one of the principal members of the U. S. Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President. Though it is not the only U. S. government agency specializing in HUMINT and it exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA has increasingly expanded its roles, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations, when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events, with Pakistan described as an intractable target.
Counterintelligence, with China, Iran, the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, and cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day to day operation of the CIA, each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Directorate has four regional groups, six groups for transnational issues. There is a dedicated to Iraq, regional analytical offices covering the Near East and South Asia and Europe, and the Asian Pacific, Latin American. The Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting intelligence. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U. S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence, philosophy, in spite of this, the Department of Defense recently organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency.
This Directorate is known to be organized by regions and issues. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research, many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air Force, the U-2s original mission was clandestine imagery intelligence over denied areas such as the Soviet Union. It was subsequently provided with signals intelligence and measurement and signature intelligence capabilities, subsequently, NPIC was transferred to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
National Autonomous University of Mexico
The National Autonomous University of Mexico is the largest university in Latin America. In 2016 it had a rate of only 8%. As a public university in Mexico City, UNAM is regarded by many university world rankings as the leading university of the Spanish-speaking world. UNAM was founded, in its form, on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra as a liberal alternative to its predecessor. UNAMs autonomy, granted in 1929, has given it the freedom to define its own curriculum and this has had a profound effect on academic life at the university, which some claim boosts academic freedom and independence. The UNAM generates a number of different publications in areas, such as mathematics, physics. Besides being one of the most recognized universities in Latin America and it is a UNESCO World Heritage site that was designed by some of Mexicos best-known architects of the 20th century. Murals in the campus were painted by some of the most recognized artists in Mexican history, such as Diego Rivera. The project initially unified the Fine Arts, Political Science, Engineering, Medicine and this opposition led to disruptions in the function of the university when political instability forced resignations in the government, including that of President Díaz.
Internally, the first student strike occurred in 1912 to protest examination methods introduced by the director of the School of Jurisprudence, by July of that year, a majority of the law students decided to abandon the university and join the newly created Free School of Law. In 1914 initial efforts to gain autonomy for the university failed, in 1920, José Vasconcelos became rector. Efforts to gain autonomy for the university continued in the early 1920s, in the mid-1920s, the second wave of student strikes opposed a new grading system. The strikes included major classroom walkouts in the law school and confrontation with police at the medical school, the striking students were supported by many professors and subsequent negotiations eventually led to autonomy for the university. The institution was no longer a dependency of the Secretariat of Public Education, during the early 1930s, the rector of UNAM was Manuel Gómez Morín. The government attempted to implement socialist education at Mexican universities, which Gómez Morín, many professors, Gómez Morín with the support of the Jesuit-founded student group, the Unión Nacional de Estudiantes Católicos, successfully fought against socialist education.
UNAM supported the recognition of the academic certificates by Catholic preparatory schools, in an interesting turn of events, UNAM played an important role in the founding of the Jesuit institution in 1943, the Universidad Iberoamericana in 1943. However, UNAM opposed initiatives at the Universidad Iberoamericana in years, the first stone laid was that of the faculty of Sciences, the first building of Ciudad Universitaria. President Miguel Alemán Valdés participated in the ceremony on 20 November 1952, the University Olympic Stadium was inaugurated on the same day
Purdue University is a public research university located in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the main campus of the Purdue University system. The university was founded in 1869 after Lafayette businessman John Purdue donated land and money to establish a college of science, the first classes were held on September 16,1874, with six instructors and 39 students. The main campus in West Lafayette offers more than 200 majors for undergraduates, over 70 master’s and doctoral programs, in addition, Purdue has 18 intercollegiate sports teams and more than 900 student organizations. In 1865, the Indiana General Assembly voted to take advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862, communities throughout the state offered their facilities and money to bid for the location of the new college. Popular proposals included the addition of a department at Indiana State University or at what is now Butler University. By 1869, Tippecanoe County’s offer included $150,000 from Lafayette business leader and philanthropist John Purdue, $50,000 from the county, and 100 acres of land from local residents.
On May 6,1869, the General Assembly established the institution in Tippecanoe County as Purdue University, classes began at Purdue on September 16,1874, with six instructors and 39 students. Professor John S. Hougham was Purdue’s first faculty member and served as acting president between the administrations of presidents Shortridge and White, a campus of five buildings was completed by the end of 1874. Purdue issued its first degree, a Bachelor of Science in chemistry, in 1875, emerson E. White, the university’s president from 1876 to 1883, followed a strict interpretation of the Morrill Act. He intended not only to students for industrial work, but to prepare them to be good citizens. Part of White’s plan to distinguish Purdue from classical universities included an attempt to ban fraternities. This ban was overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court and led to White’s resignation. The next president, James H. Smart, is remembered for his call in 1894 to rebuild the original Heavilon Hall one brick higher after it had destroyed by a fire.
Purdue’s engineering laboratories included testing facilities for a locomotive and a Corliss steam engine, one of the most efficient engines of the time. The School of Agriculture was sharing its research with farmers throughout the state with its cooperative extension services, programs in education and home economics were soon established, as well as a short-lived school of medicine. By 1925 Purdue had the largest undergraduate engineering enrollment in the country, President Edward C. Elliott oversaw a campus building program between the world wars. Inventor and trustee David E. Ross coordinated several fundraisers, donated lands to the university, ross’s gifts and fundraisers supported such projects as Ross–Ade Stadium, the Memorial Union, a civil engineering surveying camp, and Purdue University Airport. Purdue Airport was the country’s first university-owned airport and the site of the country’s first college-credit flight training courses, amelia Earhart joined the Purdue faculty in 1935 as a consultant for these flight courses and as a counselor on women’s careers
In the 20th century, DuPont developed many polymers such as Vespel, nylon, Teflon, Kapton, Zemdrain, M5 fiber, Tyvek, Sorona and Lycra. DuPont developed Freon for the refrigerant industry, and more environmentally friendly refrigerants and it developed synthetic pigments and paints including ChromaFlair. In 2014, DuPont was the fourth largest chemical company based on market capitalization. Its stock price is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, DuPont was founded in 1802 by Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, using capital raised in France and gunpowder machinery imported from France. It began as a manufacturer of gunpowder, as du Pont noticed that the industry in North America was lagging behind Europe, the Eleutherian Mills site is now a museum and a National Historic Landmark. DuPont continued to expand, moving into the production of dynamite, in 1902, DuPonts president, Eugene du Pont and the surviving partners sold the company to three great-grandsons of the original founder. Charles Lee Reese was appointed as director and the company began centralizing their research departments, the company subsequently purchased several smaller chemical companies, and in 1912 these actions gave rise to government scrutiny under the Sherman Antitrust Act.
The courts declared that the dominance of the explosives business constituted a monopoly. The court ruling resulted in the creation of the Hercules Powder Company, at the time of divestment, DuPont retained the single base nitrocellulose powders, while Hercules held the double base powders combining nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. DuPont subsequently developed the Improved Military Rifle line of smokeless powders, in 1910, DuPont published a brochure entitled Farming with Dynamite. DuPont established two of the first industrial laboratories in the United States, where began the work on cellulose chemistry, lacquers. DuPont Central Research was established at the DuPont Experimental Station, across the Brandywine Creek from the powder mills. In 1914, Pierre S. du Pont invested in the automobile industry. The following year he was invited to sit on GMs board of directors, the DuPont company would assist the struggling automobile company further with a $25 million purchase of GM stock. In 1920, Pierre S.
du Pont was elected president of General Motors, under du Ponts guidance, GM became the number one automobile company in the world. However, in 1957, because of DuPonts influence within GM, in the 1920s, DuPont continued its emphasis on materials science, hiring Wallace Carothers to work on polymers in 1928. Carothers invented neoprene, a rubber, the first polyester superpolymer. The invention of Teflon followed a few years later, DuPont introduced phenothiazine as an insecticide in 1935
Eagle Scout (Boy Scouts of America)
Eagle Scout is the highest achievement or rank attainable in the Boy Scouting program of the Boy Scouts of America. The designation Eagle Scout was founded one hundred years ago. Only four percent of Boy Scouts are granted this rank after a review process. The requirements necessary to achieve this rank take years to fulfill, since its founding, the Eagle Scout rank has been earned by more than two million young men. Requirements include earning at least 21 merit badges, the Eagle Scout must demonstrate Scout Spirit, an ideal attitude based upon the Scout Oath and Law and leadership. This includes a service project that the Scout plans, leads. Eagle Scouts are presented with a medal and a badge that visibly recognizes the accomplishments of the Scout, additional recognition can be earned through Eagle Palms, awarded for completing additional tenure and merit badge requirements. The Boy Scouts of Americas highest award was conceived as the Wolf Scout. The August 1911 version of the handbook changed this to Eagle Scout, the medal illustrated in the handbook was a profile of an eagle in flight, but was changed to the current design before any were issued.
In their original conceptions, Life Scout, Star Scout and Eagle Scout were not ranks, Eagle Scout was awarded to any First Class Scout who had earned 21 merit badges. The first Eagle Scout medal was awarded in 1912 to Arthur Rose Eldred, Eldred was notified that he was to be awarded the rank of Eagle Scout in a letter from Chief Scout Executive James West, dated August 21,1912. The design of the Eagle Scout medal had not been finalized by the National Council, so the medal was not awarded until Labor Day, Eldred was the first of three generations of Eagle Scouts, his son and grandson hold the rank as well. As of 2009, more than two million Scouts have earned the rank, in the 1960s, the Kansas City area awarded more Eagle Scout badges than any other council in the country, resulting in the creation of the Eagle Scout Memorial there in 1968. In 1982, 13-year-old Alexander Holsinger, of Normal, was recognized as the one-millionth Eagle Scout, about 2.25 million Scouts had earned Eagle Scout through January 2014.
In 2012,57,976 Eagle Scout awards were presented, four Nobel Prize laureates are known to be Eagle Scouts, Dudley R. Additionally he must plan and lead a service project—the Eagle Project—that demonstrates both leadership and a commitment to duty, after all requirements are met, he must complete an Eagle Scout board of review. He can complete the board of review after his 18th birthday as long as all other requirements are completed before his 18th birthday, Scouts with a permanent mental or physical disability may use alternate requirements based on abilities, if approved by the council. Eagle Scout may be awarded posthumously, if and only if all requirements except the board of review are completed before death, a board of review may be held and the award presented to the Scouts family
Indianapolis, is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. It is in the East North Central region of the Midwestern United States, with an estimated population of 853,173 in 2015, Indianapolis is the second most populous city in the Midwest, after Chicago, and 14th largest in the U. S. The city is the economic and cultural center of the Indianapolis metropolitan area, home to 2 million people and its combined statistical area ranks 26th, with 2.4 million inhabitants. Indianapolis covers 372 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by area in the U. S. The city grew beyond the Mile Square, as completion of the National Road and advent of the railroad solidified the position as a manufacturing. Indianapolis is within a single-day drive of 70 percent of the nations population, Indianapolis has developed niche markets in amateur sports and auto racing. The city is perhaps best known for hosting the worlds largest single-day sporting event. The city is notable as headquarters for the American Legion and home to a significant collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war dead, the most in the U. S.
outside of Washington, D. C. Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration has operated under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council, Indianapolis is considered a high sufficiency global city. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of land to establish a permanent seat of state government. Two years later, under the Treaty of St. Marys and this tract of land, which was called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers. Although many of these first European and American setters were Protestants, few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840. The first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families, on January 11,1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital.
The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6,1821, in April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31,1821, a combined county and town government continued until 1832, when Indianapolis incorporated as a town. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30,1847, Samuel Henderson, the citys first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter provided for an elected mayor
The Berlin Wall was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. Its demolition officially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in 1992, the barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, which circumscribed a wide area that contained anti-vehicle trenches, fakir beds and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc claimed that the Wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the will of the people in building a socialist state in East Germany. In practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defection that had marked East Germany, the West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the Wall of Shame—a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt—while condemning the Walls restriction on freedom of movement. Between 1961 and 1989, the Wall prevented almost all such emigration, during this period, around 5,000 people attempted to escape over the Wall, with an estimated death toll ranging from 136 to more than 200 in and around Berlin.
After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany, crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the Wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric people and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the Wall, contrary to popular belief the Walls actual demolition did not begin until the summer of 1990 and was not completed until 1992. The fall of the Berlin Wall paved the way for German reunification, the capital of Berlin, as the seat of the Allied Control Council, was similarly subdivided into four sectors despite the citys location, which was fully within the Soviet zone. Within two years, political divisions increased between the Soviets and the occupying powers. Property and industry was nationalized in the East German zone, if statements or decisions deviated from the described line and punishment would ensue, such as imprisonment and even death.
Indoctrination of Marxism-Leninism became a part of school curricula, sending professors. The East Germans created a political police apparatus that kept the population under close surveillance. In 1948, following disagreements regarding reconstruction and a new German currency, Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade, preventing food and supplies from arriving in West Berlin. The United States, France, Australia, New Zealand and several countries began a massive airlift, supplying West Berlin with food. The Soviets mounted a public campaign against the Western policy change. Communists attempted to disrupt the elections of 1948, preceding large losses therein, in May 1949, Stalin lifted the blockade, permitting the resumption of Western shipments to Berlin. The German Democratic Republic was declared on 7 October 1949, by a secret treaty, the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs accorded the East German state administrative authority, but not autonomy. The Soviets permeated East German administrative and secret police structures and had full control, East Germany differed from West Germany, which developed into a Western capitalist country with a social market economy and a democratic parliamentary government