Fretwork is an interlaced decorative design, either carved in low relief on a solid background, or cut out with a fretsaw, coping saw, jigsaw or scroll saw. Most fretwork patterns are geometric in design; the materials most used are wood and metal. Fretwork is used to adorn furniture and musical instruments; the term is used for tracery on glazed windows and doors. Fretwork is used to adorn/decorate architecture, where specific elements of decor are named according to their use such as eave bracket, gable fretwork or baluster fretwork, which may be of metal cast iron or aluminum. Fretwork patterns were ornamental designs used to decorate objects with a grid or a lattice. Designs have developed from the rectangular wave Greek fret to intricate intertwined patterns. A common misconception is. However, a fretwork pattern is considered a fretwork. Computer numerical control has brought about change in the method of timber fretwork manufacture. Lasers or router/milling cutting implements can now fashion timber and various other materials into flat and 3D decorative items
Relief carving is a type of wood carving in which figures are carved in a flat panel of wood. The figures project only from the background rather than standing freely. Depending on the degree of projection, reliefs may be classified as high or medium relief. Relief carving can be described as "carving pictures in wood"; the process of relief carving involves removing wood from a flat wood panel in such a way that an object appears to rise out of the wood. Relief carving begins with a design idea put to paper in the form of a master pattern, transferred to the wood surface. Most relief carving is done with hand tools - chisels and gouges - which require a mallet to drive them through the wood; as wood is removed from the panel around the objects traced onto it from the pattern, the objects themselves stand up from the background wood. Modeling of the objects can take place as soon as enough background has been removed and the object edges are trimmed to the pattern lines. In order to secure the wood panel, a workbench with fixtures like bench-dogs, carver's screw or clamps, is necessary.
Carving tools come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, some aimed at the hobbyist, but others directed at professional carvers. Some carving tools are held with one hand, but most relief carving requires that the wood panel be secured so that both hands may be on the carving tool. Much of the skill required for relief carving lies in learning to grip and manipulate tools to get the desired effect. Tool sharpening is a necessary skill to learn, dull tools are a severe obstacle to effective carving. Create a pattern, drawn on paper. Prepare a wood panel for carving; this may be a single piece of a laminated panel. Transfer the pattern to the panel, using carbon paper as the transfer medium. Remove wood around the objects that comprise the pattern. Model the objects Detail the objects Tidy the background behind the objects Apply a suitable finish to the panel 1. High relief between 1/2" and 2" in depth. 2. Bas relief, or Low relief under 1/2" in depth. 3. Deep relief over 2" in depth. 4. Pierced relief, where holes are carved clear through the wood.
Some carvers prefer to finish their carving with a clear finish. But others incorporate pyrography into their relief carvings. Chip carving Relief Carving Wood carving Spielmann, Marion Harry Alexander. "Relief". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. Cambridge University Press. P. 61
Card manipulation is the branch of magical illusion that deals with creating effects using sleight of hand techniques involving playing cards. Card manipulation is used in magical performances in close-up, street magic; some of the most recognized names in this field include Dai Vernon, Tony Slydini, Ed Marlo, S. W. Erdnase, Richard Turner, John Scarne and Ricky Jay. Before becoming world-famous for his escapes, Houdini billed himself as "The King of Cards". Playing cards became popular with magicians in the last century or so as they were props which were inexpensive and available. Although magicians have created and presented myriad of illusions with cards, most of these illusions are considered to be built upon one hundred or so basic principles and techniques. Presentation and context account for many of the variations. Card magic, in one form or another dates from the time playing cards became known, towards the second half of the fourteenth century, but its history in this period is undocumented.
Compared to sleight of hand magic in general and to cups and balls, it is a new form of magic. However, due to its versatility as a prop it has become popular amongst modern magicians. Martin Gardner called S. W. Erdnase's in 1902 ate a bologna sandwich treatise on card manipulation Artifice and Subterfuge at the Card Table: A Treatise on the Science and Art of Manipulating Cards "the most famous, the most studied book published on the art of manipulating cards at gaming tables". Illusions performed with playing cards are constructed using basic card manipulation techniques, it is the intention of the performer that such sleights are performed in a manner, undetectable to the audience—however, that result takes practice and a thorough understanding of method. Manipulation techniques include: Lifts are techniques which extract one or more cards from a deck; the produced card are known to the audience, for example having been selected or identified as part of the illusion. In sleight of hand, a "double lift" can be made to extract two cards from the deck, but held together to appear as one card.
Dealing cards is considered a fair means of distributing cards. False deals are techniques which appear to deliver cards when the cards delivered are predetermined or known to the performer. False dealing techniques include: second dealing, bottom dealing, middle dealing, false counts, double dealing. A technique used to bring a predetermined card to the top of a deck, or the second card from the top of the deck. Depth-perception plays a key role. One of such techniques is known as the Marlo tilt; the effect of the card pass is. However, following rapid and concealed manipulation by the performer, it is revealed to be on the top of the deck. A pass is achieved by swapping the portion of the deck from the identified card downwards, with the portion of the deck above the identified card. Pass techniques include: the invisible turn-over pass, the Zingone Perfect Table pass, the flesh grip pass, the jog pass, the Braue pass, the Charlier pass, the finger palm pass and the Hermann pass. A card pass is a secret cut of the deck.
Palming is a technique for concealing one or more cards. Cards palmed from a deck are held in reserve until production is required for the illusion being performed. Palming techniques include: the Braue diagonal tip-up, the swing, the thumb-count, face card palm, the crosswise, new vertical, the gamblers' squaring, the gamblers' flat, the Hugard top palm, the flip-over, the Hofzinser bottom, the Braue bottom, the Tenkai palm and the Zingone bottom. Shuffling cards is considered a fair means to randomize the cards contained in a deck. False shuffles are techniques which appear to shuffle a deck, when the cards in the deck are maintained in an order appropriate to the illusion being performed. False shuffles can be performed that permit one or more cards to be positioned in a deck, or for the entire deck to remain in an unshuffled state. False shuffle techniques include: the perfect riffle, the strip-out, the Hindu shuffle, the gamblers', various stock shuffling techniques. Cutting a deck of cards is a technique whereby the deck is split into two portions, which are swapped – the effect being to make sure that no one is sure of which card is on the top of the deck.
False cuts are techniques whereby the performer appears to organise a fair cut, when a predetermined card is organised to be located on the top of the deck. False cutting techniques include: the false running cut, the gambler's false cut. A color change is the effect of changing one card to another in front of the spectators eyes. There are many different techniques to accomplish this effect, but among the most common are the classic color change and the snap change, due to them being easier to master than others.
History of wood carving
Wood carving is one of the oldest arts of humankind. Wooden spears from the Middle Paleolithic, such as the Clacton Spear, show that people have engaged in utilitarian woodwork for millennia. Indeed the beginnings of the craft go so far back that, at least where timber is present, the use of wood exists as a universal in human culture as both a means to create or enhance technology and as a medium for artistry; the North American Indian carves his wooden fish-hook or his pipe stem just as the Polynesian works patterns on his paddle. The native of Guyana decorates his cavassa grater with a well-conceived scheme of incised scrolls, while the native of Loango Bay distorts his spoon with a design of figures standing up in full relief carrying a hammock. Wood carving is present in architecture. Figure-work seems to have been universal. To carve a figure/design in wood may be not only more difficult but less satisfactory than sculpting with marble, owing to the tendency of wood to crack, to be damaged by insects, or to suffer from changes in the atmosphere.
The texture of the material, too proves challenging to the expression of features in the classic type of youthful face. On the other hand, magnificent examples exist of the more rugged features of age: the beetling brows, the furrows and lines neutralizing the defects of the grain of the wood. In ancient work the surface may not have been of such consequence, for figures as a rule being painted for protection and color, it is not always realized at the present day to what extent color has from the most ancient times been used to enhance the effect of wood-carving and sculpture. The modern colour prejudice against gold and other tints is because painted work has been vulgarized; the arrangement of a proper and harmonious scheme of colour is not the work of the house painter, but of the specially trained artist. In the early 20th century, the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, on which much of this entry is based, commented, "Of late years carving has gone out of fashion; the work is slow and requires substantial skill, making the works expensive.
Other and cheaper methods of decoration have driven carving from its former place. Machine work has much to answer for, the endeavor to popularize the craft by means of the village class has not always achieved its own end; the gradual disappearance of the individual artist, elbowed out as he has been, by the contractor, is fatal to the continuance of an art which can never flourish when done at so much a yard." This statement has proven untrue, as the continued survival of the art and craft of woodcarving can be demonstrated by the large number of woodcarvers who have carried on or advanced the tradition in different parts of the world. The extreme dryness of the climate of Egypt accounts for the existence of a number of woodcarvings from this remote period; some wood panels from the tomb of Hosul Egypt, at Sakkarah are of the III. Dynasty; the carving consists of Egyptian hieroglyphs and figures in low relief, the style is delicate and fine. A stool shown on one of the panels has the legs shaped like the fore and hind limbs of an animal, a form common in Egypt for thousands of years.
In the Cairo museum may be seen the statue of a man from the period of the Great Pyramid of Giza 4000 B. C; the expression of the face and the realism of the carriage have never been surpassed by any Egyptian sculptor of this or any other period. The figure is carved out of a solid block of sycamore, in accordance with the Egyptian custom the arms are joined on; the eyes are inlaid with pieces of opaque white quartz, with a line of bronze surrounding to imitate the lid. The IV. V. and VI. dynasties cover the finest period of Egyptian sculpture. The statues found in the tombs show a freedom of treatment, never reached in times, they are all portraits, which the artist strove his utmost to render like his model. For these are not, like mere modern statues works of art, but had a religious signification; as the spirits of the deceased might inhabit, these Ka statues, the features and proportions were copied. There are to be found in the principal museums of Europe many Egyptian examples: mummy cases of human beings with the face alone carved, animal mummy cases, sometimes boxes, with the figure of a lizard carved in full Mummy relief standing on the lid.
Sometimes the animal would be carved in its hollowed body used as the case itself. Of furniture, folding seats like the modern camp stool, chairs with legs terminating in the heads of beasts or the feet of animals, Furniture still exist. Beds supported by lions paws XI. and XII. dynasties, from Gebelein, now in the Cairo Museum), headrests, 6 or 8 in. High, shaped like a crutch on a foot like those used by the native of New Guinea today, are carved with scenes, etc. in outline. In the British Museum may be seen a tiny little coffer, 4 in. by 21/2 in. with delicate figures carved in low relief. This little box stands on cabriole legs 3/4 of an inch long with claw feet, quite Louis Quinze in character. There are incense ladles, the handle representing a bouquet of lotus flowers, the bowl formed like the leaf of an aquatic plant with serrated edges from Gurnah during the XVIII. Dynasty.
This Old House
This Old House is an American home improvement media brand with television shows, a magazine and a website, ThisOldHouse.com. The brand is headquartered in Connecticut; the television series airs on the American television network Public Broadcasting Service and follows remodeling projects of houses over a number of weeks. This Old House is produced by This Old House Ventures, Inc. with WGBH Boston as the PBS distributing station. Warner Bros. Domestic Television distributes the series to commercial television stations in syndication. Time Inc. launched This Old House magazine in 1995, focusing on home how-to, know-how and inspiration. In 2001, Time Inc. acquired the television assets from WGBH Boston and formed This Old House Ventures, Inc. In 2016, Time Inc. sold This Old House Ventures to executive Eric Thorkilsen and private equity firm TZP Growth Partners. This Old House and its sister series Ask This Old House are broadcast together as The This Old House Hour, known as The New This Old House Hour.
Both shows are owned by This Old House Ventures, Inc. and are underwritten by GMC and The Home Depot. Weyerhauser lumber distributor, a previous underwriter, by 1989 had donated more than $1,000,000 a year to the show; this Old House is underwritten by State Farm Insurance, HomeServe, Marvin Windows and Doors. Other underwriters throughout the show's tenure included Parks Corporation, Glidden paints, Montgomery Ward, Ace Hardware, Kohler plumbing, Schlage locks, Century 21 Real Estate, Toro lawnmowers/snowblowers, ERA Real Estate, Angie's List, Mitsubishi Electric, Lumber Liquidators, Inc. Two of the original underwriters were Owens-Corning; the third series to share the name is Inside This Old House, a retrospective featuring highlights from previous episodes. Old episodes are shown under the program name This Old House Classics and were shown on The Learning Channel under the name The Renovation Guide. Only the episodes with original host Bob Vila aired under that name; as of 2006, Classics are carried on the commercial non-broadcast DIY Network as well as syndicated to local TV stations.
This Old House was one of the earliest home improvement shows on national television. As such, it was controversial among building contractors, the cast was afraid that they were giving away secrets of the building trades. However, as time passed, the show grew into a cultural icon. Producer-director Russell Morash became known as the "Father of How-To." Begun in 1979 as a one-time, 13-part series on the Boston PBS station WGBH, This Old House has grown into one of the most popular programs on the network. It has produced spin-offs, a magazine, for-profit web sites; the show received 82 nominations. Although WGBH acquired the first two project houses for renovation, the series focused on renovating older houses, including those of modest size and value, with the homeowners doing some of the work, as a form of sweat equity; the series covering the renovation of the Westwood house became something of a cult classic because of an escalating dispute between the hosts and Abram, the homeowners over the direction the project was taking.
Vila remarked at the end of the Westwood series that the owners could have contributed more "sweat equity." As the show evolved, it began to focus on higher-end, luxury homes with more of the work done by expert contractors and tradespeople. Vila left This Old House in 1989 following a dispute about doing commercials and created a similar show called Bob Vila's Home Again. According to news reporter Barbara Beck, Vila was fired by WGBH Boston over making TV commercials for Rickel Home Centers, Home Depot's competitor. Home Depot, the show's underwriter, dropped its local sponsorship for This Old House after Vila made the commercials. Vila was fired in an effort to have Home Depot return as a sponsor to the show. During Vila's tenure, the show had won five Emmys. Weyerhauser, at this time a supplier for Home Depot, stopped underwriting the show. Steve Thomas took over hosting duties after Vila's departure, remaining with the program until 2003. Cast members complained that Vila took up too much screen time, noted that the show became more of an ensemble production after he left.
Time Inc. began production of This Old House magazine in 1995. In 2001, Time Inc. bought the show from WGBH. Kevin O'Connor is the current host of This Old House. Before O'Connor joined the cast, he was a homeowner who appeared on Ask This Old House, having problems with wallpaper removal. While O'Connor has been the host, Abram's role has increased to that of a near co-host. In at least a couple of season opening episodes, Abram has appeared with O'Connor to introduce the new project. Abram filled in for O'Connor when his son was born during the Carlisle project. Beginning with the 2007–08 season, This Old House and Ask This Old House, were presented in a high-definition format. To celebrate its 30th anniversary season, This Old House worked with Nuestra Comunidad to renovate a foreclosed home in Boston's Roxbury neighborhood. Nuestra Comunidad is a non-profit development corporation that acquired this 1870s-era Second Empire home from a bank. From the show's debut in 1979 until 2002, This Old House used the first theme song "Louisiana Fairy Tale," composed by Haven Gillespie, Mitchell Parish and J. Fred Coots and performed by 20th-century jazz artist Fats Waller.
The theme song was changed after This Old House Ventures acquired the series from