The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch–German–Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. It uses the degree Fahrenheit as the unit. Several accounts of how he defined his scale exist; the lower defining point, 0 °F, was established as the freezing temperature of a solution of brine made from equal parts of ice and salt. Further limits were established as the melting point of ice and his best estimate of the average human body temperature; the scale is now defined by two fixed points: the temperature at which water freezes into ice is defined as 32 °F, the boiling point of water is defined to be 212 °F, a 180 °F separation, as defined at sea level and standard atmospheric pressure. At the end of the 2010s, Fahrenheit was used as the official temperature scale only in the United States, its associated states in the Western Pacific, the Bahamas, the Cayman Islands and Liberia. Antigua and Barbuda and other islands which use the same meteorological service, such as Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands and Saint Kitts and Nevis, as well as Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, use Fahrenheit and Celsius.
All other countries in the world now use the Celsius scale, named after Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius. On the Fahrenheit scale, the freezing point of water is 32 degrees Fahrenheit and the boiling point is 212 °F; this puts the freezing points of water 180 degrees apart. Therefore, a degree on the Fahrenheit scale is 1⁄180 of the interval between the freezing point and the boiling point. On the Celsius scale, the freezing and boiling points of water are 100 degrees apart. A temperature interval of 1 °F is equal to an interval of 5⁄9 degrees Celsius; the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales intersect at −40°. Absolute zero is −273.15 °C or −459.67 °F. The Rankine temperature scale uses degree intervals of the same size as those of the Fahrenheit scale, except that absolute zero is 0 °R — the same way that the Kelvin temperature scale matches the Celsius scale, except that absolute zero is 0 K; the Fahrenheit scale uses the symbol ° to denote a point on the temperature scale and the letter F to indicate the use of the Fahrenheit scale, as well as to denote a difference between temperatures or an uncertainty in temperature.
For an exact conversion, the following formulas can be applied. Here, f is the value in Fahrenheit and c the value in Celsius: f °Fahrenheit to c °Celsius: °F × 5°C/9°F = /1.8 °C = c °C c °Celsius to f °Fahrenheit: + 32 °F = °F + 32 °F = f °FThis is an exact conversion making use of the identity −40 °F = −40 °C. Again, f is the value in Fahrenheit and c the value in Celsius: f °Fahrenheit to c °Celsius: − 40 = c. C °Celsius to f °Fahrenheit: − 40 = f. Fahrenheit proposed his temperature scale in 1724, basing it on two reference points of temperature. In his initial scale, the zero point was determined by placing the thermometer in a mixture "of ice, of water, of ammonium chloride or of sea salt"; this combination forms a eutectic system which stabilizes its temperature automatically: 0 °F was defined to be that stable temperature. The second point, 96 degrees, was the human body's temperature. According to a story in Germany, Fahrenheit chose the lowest air temperature measured in his hometown Danzig in winter 1708/09 as 0 °F, only had the need to be able to make this value reproducible using brine.
According to a letter Fahrenheit wrote to his friend Herman Boerhaave, his scale was built on the work of Ole Rømer, whom he had met earlier. In Rømer's scale, brine freezes at zero, water freezes and melts at 7.5 degrees, body temperature is 22.5, water boils at 60 degrees. Fahrenheit multiplied each value by four in order to eliminate fractions and make the scale more fine-grained, he re-calibrated his scale using the melting point of ice and normal human body temperature. Fahrenheit soon after observed; the use of the freezing and boiling points of water as thermometer fixed reference points became popular following the work of Anders Celsius and these fixed points were adopted by a committee of the Royal Society led by Henry Cavendish in 1776. Under this system, the Fahrenheit scale is redefined so that the freezing point of water is 32 °F, the boiling point is 212 °F or 180 degrees higher, it is for this reason that normal human body temperature is 98° on the revised scale. In the present-day Fahrenheit scale, 0 °F no longer corresponds to the eutectic temperature of ammonium chloride brine as described above.
Instead, that eutectic is at 4 °F on the final Fahrenheit scale. The Rankine temperature s
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
University of Otago
The University of Otago is a collegiate university located in Dunedin, New Zealand. It scores for average research quality, in 2006 was second in New Zealand only to the University of Auckland in the number of A-rated academic researchers it employs. In the past it has topped the New Zealand Performance Based Research Fund evaluation; the university was created by a committee led by Thomas Burns, established by an ordinance of the Otago Provincial Council in 1869. The university accepted its first students in July 1871, making it the oldest university in New Zealand and third-oldest in Oceania. Between 1874 and 1961 the University of Otago was a part of the federal University of New Zealand, issued degrees in its name. Otago is known for its vibrant student life its flatting, in old houses. Otago students have a long standing tradition of naming their flats; the nickname "Scarfie" comes from the habit of wearing a scarf during the cold southern winters. The university's graduation song, Gaudeamus igitur, iuvenes dum sumus, acknowledges students will continue to live up to the challenge, if not always in the way intended.
The UNiversity's student magazine, Critic, is New Zealand's longest running student magazine. The architectural grandeur and accompanying gardens of Otago University led to it being ranked as one of the world's most beautiful university campuses by the British publications The Daily Telegraph and The Huffington Post; the Otago Association's plan for the European settlement of southern New Zealand, conceived under the principles of Edward Gibbon Wakefield in the 1840s, envisaged a university. Dunedin leaders Thomas Burns and James Macandrew urged the Otago Provincial Council during the 1860s to set aside a land endowment for an institute of higher education. An ordinance of the council established the university in 1869, giving it 100,000 acres of land and the power to grant degrees in Arts, Medicine and Music. Burns was named Chancellor but he did not live to see the university open on 5 July 1871; the university conferred just one degree, to Alexander Watt Williamson, before becoming an affiliate college of the federal University of New Zealand in 1874.
With the dissolution of the University of New Zealand in 1961 and the passage of the University of Otago Amendment Act 1961, the university resumed its power to confer degrees. Operating from William Mason's Post Office building on Princes Street, it relocated to Maxwell Bury's Clocktower and Geology buildings in 1878 and 1879; this evolved into the Clocktower complex, a striking group of Gothic revival buildings at the heart of the campus. These buildings were inspired by then-new main building at Glasgow University in Scotland. Otago was the first university in Australasia to permit women to take a law degree. Ethel Benjamin graduated LLB in 1897; that year she became the first woman in the British Empire to appear as counsel in court. The Otago University helped train medical personnel as part of the Otago University Medical Corps, they supplied or trained most of the New Zealand Army's doctors and dentists during the First World War. Professor Robert Jack made the first radio broadcast in New Zealand from the physics department on 17 November 1921.
Queen Elizabeth II visited the university library with the Duke of Edinburgh on 18 March 1970. This was the first time the royals completed informal “walkabouts” to meet the public, it was the first visit of Prince Charles and Princess Anne to this country; because it had a wide range of courses, Otago attracted more students from outside its provincial district. This led to the growth of colleges and informal accommodation in north Dunedin around the faculty buildings; this development of a residential campus gave Otago a more vibrant undergraduate student life at the same time as comparable but smaller developments in Christchurch and Auckland were eclipsed in the late 20th century. Otago now has the most substantial residential campus of any university in New Zealand or Australia, although this is not without its problems. In May 2010 University joined the Matariki Network of Universities together with Dartmouth College, Durham University, Queen’s University, University of Tübingen, University of Western Australia and Uppsala University.
The blazon of the arms granted by the Lyon King of Arms, Scotland is Azure, on a saltire cantoned between four mullets of six points Or, a book, gilt-edged and bound in a cover Gules charged with a mullet of six points of the second and a book-marker of the third issuance from the page-foot, in an Escrol under the same this Motto "Sapere Aude". The motto may be translated as'dare to be wise' or'have courage to be wise'; the shield is first described and it is blue On the shield is a saltire, an “X” shaped object. On the saltire sits a gilt edged book the cover of, red On the cover of the book is a star of six points. Mullets only have five points. At the foot of the book is a bookmark in red being the third colour mentioned; the saltire and the book are surrounded by four other stars each of six points which are placed in the spaces formed by the saltire. The five stars and the saltire are all coloured gold, the second colour mentioned. An Escrol is the scroll under the shield containing the motto.
The university is divided into four academic divisions: Division of Humanities Division of Health Sciences Division of Sciences School of BusinessFor external and marketing purposes, the Division of Commerce is known as the School of Business, as, the term used
An underwater glider is a type of autonomous underwater vehicle that uses small changes in its buoyancy in order to move up and down in the ocean like a profiling float. Unlike a float, a glider uses wings to convert that vertical motion to horizontal, propelling itself forward with low power consumption. While not as fast as conventional AUVs, gliders using buoyancy-based propulsion represent a significant increase in range and duration compared to vehicles propelled by electric motor-driven propellers, extending ocean sampling missions from hours to weeks or months, to thousands of kilometers of range. Gliders follow an up-and-down, sawtooth-like profile through the water, providing data on temporal and spatial scales unavailable to previous AUVs, much more costly to sample using traditional shipboard techniques. A wide variety of glider designs are in use by navies and ocean research organizations and cost US$100,000; the concept of an underwater glider was first explored in the early 1960s with a prototype swimmer delivery vehicle named Concept Whisper.
The sawtooth glide pattern, stealth properties and the idea of a buoyancy engine powered by the swimmer-passenger was described by Ewan Fallon in his Hydroglider patent submitted in 1960. In 1992, the University of Tokyo conducted tests on ALBAC, a drop weight glider with no buoyancy control and only one glide cycle; the DARPA SBIR program received a proposal for a temperature gradient glider in 1988. DARPA was aware at that time of similar research projects underway in the USSR; this idea, a glider with a buoyancy engine powered by a heat exchanger, was introduced to the oceanographic community by Henry Stommel in a 1989 article in Oceanography, when he proposed a glider concept called Slocum, developed with research engineer Doug Webb. They named the glider after Joshua Slocum, who made the first solo circumnavigation of the globe by sailboat, they proposed harnessing energy from the thermal gradient between deep ocean water and surface water to achieve globe-circling range, constrained only by battery power on board for communications and navigational computers.
By 2003, not only had a working thermal-powered glider been demonstrated by Webb Research, but they and other institutions had introduced battery-powered gliders with impressive duration and efficiency, far exceeding that of traditional survey-class AUVs. These vehicles have been deployed in the years since then; the University of Washington Seaglider, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Spray, Teledyne Webb Research Slocum vehicles have performed feats such as completing a transatlantic journey and conducting sustained, multi-vehicle collaborative monitoring of oceanographic variables. In 2011, the first wingless glider, SeaExplorer was released with a large payload capacity, dedicating the first third of the vehicle to interchangeable payloads, in addition to typical CTD sensors; the vehicle achieves 1 knot speeds, is equipped with externally rechargeable Li-Ion batteries and its torpedo shape is able to glide relying on two pairs of small static rear fins for stability. Gliders make measurements such as temperature, currents, chlorophyll fluorescence, optical backscatter, bottom depth, acoustic backscatter.
They navigate with the help of periodic surface GPS fixes, pressure sensors, tilt sensors, magnetic compasses. Vehicle pitch is controllable by movable internal ballast, steering is accomplished either with a rudder or by moving internal ballast to control roll. Buoyancy is adjusted either by using a piston to flood/evacuate a compartment with seawater or by moving oil in/out of an external bladder. Commands and data are shore by satellite. Gliders vary in the pressure; the Slocum model is rated for 1000 meter depths. Spray can operate to 1500 meters, Seaglider to 1000 meters, SeaExplorer to 700, Slocum Thermal to 1200. In August 2010, a Deep Glider variant of the Seaglider achieved a repeated 6000-meter operating depth. Similar depths have been reached by a Chinese glider in 2016. In 2004, the US Navy Office of Naval Research began developing the world's largest gliders, the Liberdade class flying wing gliders, which uses a blended wing body hullform to achieve hydrodynamic efficiency, they were designed to track diesel electric submarines in littoral waters, remaining on station for up to 6 months.
The current model is known as the ZRay and is designed to track and identify marine mammals for extended periods of time. It uses water jets for fine attitude control as well as propulsion on the surface. AUV Argo floats Liquid Robotics, developers of the Wave Glider Paravane Paravane DeepFlight Super Falcon RHyVAU GROOM - Gliders for Research, Ocean Observation and Management COST Action ES0904 EGO network - glider user group Seaexplorer page at ALSEAMAR-ALCEN Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands -PLOCAN- Spray page at Scripps Institution of Oceanography Spray underwater glider database Seaglider page at Applied Physics Laboratory - University of Washington Seaglider Operations page at APL-UW Rutgers University Coastal Ocean Observations Lab -- Glider Operations Slocum page at Webb Research Corp. Underwater glider configurations and details - AUVAC.org Underwater Gliders for Ocean Research Robot glider harvests ocean heat National Oceanography Centre, UK. Glider Home Page
Oxford Electric Bell
The Oxford Electric Bell or Clarendon Dry Pile is an experimental electric bell, set up in 1840 and which has run nearly continuously since. It was "one of the first pieces" purchased for a collection of apparatus by clergyman and physicist Robert Walker, it is located in a corridor adjacent to the foyer of the Clarendon Laboratory at the University of Oxford, is still ringing, though inaudibly due to being behind two layers of glass. The experiment consists of two brass bells, each positioned beneath a dry pile, the pair of piles connected in series; the clapper is a metal sphere 4 mm in diameter suspended between the piles, which rings the bells alternately due to electrostatic force. As the clapper touches one bell, it is charged by one pile, electrostatically repelled, being attracted to the other bell. On hitting the other bell, the process repeats; the use of electrostatic forces means that while high voltage is required to create motion, only a tiny amount of charge is carried from one bell to the other, why the piles have been able to last since the apparatus was set up.
Its oscillation frequency is 2 hertz. The exact composition of the dry piles is unknown, but it is known that they have been coated with molten sulphur for insulation and it is thought that they may be Zamboni piles. At one point this sort of device played an important role in distinguishing between two different theories of electrical action: the theory of contact tension and the theory of chemical action; the Oxford Electric Bell does not demonstrate perpetual motion. The bell will stop when the dry piles have distributed their charges if the clapper does not wear out first; the Bell has produced 10 billion rings since 1840 and holds the Guinness World Record as "the world's most durable battery ceaseless tintinnabulation". Apart from occasional short interruptions caused by high humidity, the bell has rung continuously since 1840; the bell may have been constructed in 1825. Long-term experiment Franklin bells Beverly Clock Pitch drop experiment The Clock of the Long Now Willem Hackmann, "The Enigma of Volta's "Contact Tension" and the Development of the "Dry Pile"", appearing in Nuova Voltiana: Studies on Volta and His Times, nb Volume 3, 2000, pp. 103–119.
"Exhibit 1 - The Clarendon Dry Pile". Oxford Physics Teaching, History Archive. Retrieved 2008-01-18. Croft, A J. "The Oxford electric bell". European Journal of Physics. 5: 193. Bibcode:1984EJPh....5..193C. doi:10.1088/0143-0807/5/4/001. Croft, A J. "The Oxford electric bell". European Journal of Physics. 6: 128. Bibcode:1985EJPh....6..128C. doi:10.1088/0143-0807/6/2/511. Glover-Aoki, David. "Oxford Electric Bell". YouTube. Retrieved 2018-12-27
Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, the principal city of the Otago region. Its name comes from the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland; the urban area of Dunedin lies on the central-eastern coast of Otago, surrounding the head of Otago Harbour, the harbour and hills around Dunedin are the remnants of an extinct volcano. The city suburbs extend out into the surrounding valleys and hills, onto the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, along the shores of the Otago Harbour and the Pacific Ocean. Dunedin was the largest New Zealand city by territorial land area until superseded by Auckland with the formation of the Auckland Council in November 2010. Archaeological evidence points to lengthy occupation of the area by Māori prior to the arrival of Europeans; the province and region of Otago takes its name from the Ngai Tahu village of Otakou at the mouth of the harbour, which became a whaling station in the 1830s. In 1848 a Scottish settlement was established by the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland.
Between 1855 and 1900 many thousands of Scots emigrated to the incorporated city. Dunedin became wealthy beginning in the 1860s. In the mid-1860s, between 1878 and 1881, it was New Zealand's largest urban area; the city population at 5 March 2013 was 120,246. While Tauranga, Napier-Hastings and Hamilton have eclipsed the city in size of population since the 1980s to make it only the seventh-largest urban area in New Zealand, Dunedin is still considered one of the four main cities of New Zealand for historic and geographic reasons. Dunedin has a diverse economy, which includes manufacturing and technology-based industries as well as education and tourism; the city's most important activity centres around tertiary education—Dunedin is home to the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university, the Otago Polytechnic. Students account for a large proportion of the population. In 2014 Dunedin was designated as a UNESCO City of Literature. Archaeological evidence shows the first human occupation of New Zealand occurred between 1250–1300 AD, with population concentrated along the southeast coast.
A camp site at Kaikai Beach, near Long Beach, has been dated from about that time. There are numerous archaic sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied in the 14th century; the population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic culture which saw the building of several pā, fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at, about 1650. There was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826. There were Maori settlements at Whareakeake, Purakaunui and Huriawa to the north, at Taieri Mouth and Otokia to the south, all inside the present boundaries of Dunedin. Māori tradition tells first of a people called Kahui Tipua living in the area Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary but considered to be historical; the next arrivals were Waitaha followed by Kāti Māmoe late in the 16th century and Kai Tahu who arrived in the mid-17th century. These migration waves have been represented as'invasions' in European accounts but modern scholarship has cast doubt on that.
They were migrations like those of the European which incidentally resulted in bloodshed. The sealer John Boultbee recorded in the 1820s that the'Kaika Otargo' were the oldest and largest in the south. Lieutenant James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between 25 February 1770 and 5 March 1770, naming Cape Saunders and Saddle Hill, he reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century. The early years of sealing saw a feud between sealers and local Māori from 1810 to 1823, the "Sealers' War" sparked by an incident on Otago Harbour, but William Tucker became the first European to settle in the area in 1815. Permanent European occupation dates from 1831, when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou, on the Otago Harbour. Epidemics badly reduced the Māori population. By the late 1830s the Harbour had become an international whaling port. Wright & Richards started a whaling station at Karitane in 1837 and Johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Island's first, at Waikouaiti in 1840.
The settlements at Karitane and Waikouaiti have endured making modern Dunedin one of the longest European settled territories in New Zealand. In 1844, the Deborah, captained by Thomas Wing and carrying his wife Lucy and a representative of the New Zealand Company, Frederick Tuckett, sailed south to determine the location of a planned Free Church settlement. After inspecting several areas around the eastern coast of the south island, Tuckett selected the site which would become known as Dunedin; the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland, through a company called the Otago Association, founded Dunedin at the head of Otago Harbour in 1848 as the principal town of its special settlement. The name Dunedin comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. Charles Kettle the city's surveyor, instructed to emulate the ch