The Galata Tower — called Christea Turris by the Genoese — is a medieval stone tower in the Galata/Karaköy quarter of Istanbul, just to the north of the Golden Horn's junction with the Bosphorus. It is a high, cone-capped cylinder that dominates the skyline and offers a panoramic vista of Istanbul's historic peninsula and its environs; the nine-story tower is 66.90 m, was the city's tallest structure when it was built. The elevation at ground level is 61 m above sea-level; the tower has an external diameter of 16.45 m at the base, an inside diameter of 8.95 m, walls that are 3.75 m thick. There is a café on its upper floors which have views of Istanbul and the Bosphorus. Located on the upper floors is a nightclub which hosts a Turkish show. There are two operating elevators; the Romanesque style tower was built as Christea Turris in 1348 during an expansion of the Genoese colony in Constantinople. Galata Tower was the tallest building in Istanbul at 219.5 ft when it was built in 1348. It was built to replace the old Tower of Galata, an original Byzantine tower named Megalos Pyrgos which controlled the northern end of the massive sea chain that closed the entrance to the Golden Horn.
That tower was on a different site and was destroyed in 1203, during the Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204. The upper section of the tower with the conical cap was modified in several restorations during the Ottoman period when it was used as an observation tower for spotting fires. According to the Seyahatname of Ottoman historian and traveller Evliya Çelebi, in circa 1630-1632, Hezarfen Ahmet Çelebi flew as an early intercontinental aviator using artificial wings for gliding from this tower over the Bosphorus to the slopes of Üsküdar on the Anatolian side, nearly six kilometres away. Evliyâ Çelebi tells of Hezarfen's brother, Lagari Hasan Çelebi, performing the first flight with a rocket in a conical cage filled with gunpowder in 1633. Starting from 1717, the Ottomans began to use the tower for spotting fires in the city. In 1794, during the reign of Sultan Selim III, the roof of the tower was made of lead and wood, the stairs were damaged by a fire. Another fire damaged the building in 1831, upon.
In 1875, during a storm, the conical roof on the top of the building was destroyed. The tower remained without this conical roof for the rest of the Ottoman period. Many years during the restoration works between 1965 and 1967, the conical roof was reconstructed. During this final restoration in the 1960s, the wooden interior of the tower was replaced by a concrete structure and it was commercialized and opened to the public. From the top of the tower, the first French panorama painter, Pierre Prévost, drew his "Panorama de Constantinople" in 1818, exhibited in Paris in 1825; the panorama image shown below is composed of ten photos taken from the Galata Tower by the photographic firm of Sébah & Joaillier, is to have been taken in the 1880s. Old Galata Tower Genoese colonies List of towers Romanesque architecture List of Romanesque buildings Video "Galata Tower, aerial video"
A weather beacon is a beacon that indicates the local weather forecast in a code of colored or flashing lights. A short poem or jingle accompanies the code to make it easier to remember; the beacon is on the roof of a tall building in a central business district, but some are attached to towers. The beacons are most owned by financial services companies and television stations and are part of advertising and public relations programs, they provide a basic forecast for the general public and not as an aid to navigation. In addition to displaying weather forecasts, some weather beacons have been used to signal victory or defeat for a professional sports home team. In 1898 on the orders of U. S. President William McKinley, coastal warning display towers were installed along the coast of the United States. In 1936, the Weather Girl sculptures were installed in City Hall Square in Copenhagen. In 1938, Douglas Leigh, designed a Coca-Cola billboard with a weather forecast display at Columbus Circle in New York City.
The first attempt to create a weather beacon as a form of advertising was from Douglas Leigh, who, in 1941, arranged a lighting scheme for the Empire State Building to display a weather forecast code with a decoder to be packaged with Coca-Cola bottles. The plan was never implemented because of the attack on Pearl Harbor that year. Leigh resurrected his idea in Minneapolis in October 1949 with the Northwestern National Bank Weatherball. In Australia, the Mutual Life and Citizens insurance company installed weather beacons atop its buildings in 1957 and 1958. Weather beacons were most popular during the 1960s. Coastal warning display tower Signal station Time ball Paris balloon Hibernia Bank Building Harbinger at The Met Condos, Toronto, is a colored beacon on the roof that indicates the current wind speed. New South Wales St. George Co-operative Building Society, Hurstville MLC Building, 105 North Miller Street, North Sydney Westpac Place, Sydney Queensland Hitachi Building, 239 George Street, Brisbane Old MLC Building, 243 Edward Street, Brisbane South Australia MLC Building, Victoria Square, Adelaide Victoria Carlton & United Brewery, Abbotsford IOOF Building, 303 Collins Street, Melbourne 888 Collins Street, Melbourne Western Australia MLC Building, 171 St Georges Terrace, Perth Wetterleuchtturm, Vienna Who's afraid of Red and Blue: Weather Tower, Dexia Tower, Brussels Capilano Brewery, 1550 Burrard Street, British Columbia White Rose weather beacon, 570 Portage Avenue, Manitoba Kitchener City Hall, Ontario Canada Life Building, Ontario Canada Life, 505 Boulevard René-Lévesque Ouest, Quebec The Plains Hotel, Saskatchewan Gutzlaff Signal Tower, Shanghai vejrpigen, The City Hall Square, Copenhagen Tomorrow's Weather, Aller Media, Copenhagen Näsinneula tower, Tampere Wettersäule Aachen Tempozan Ferris Wheel, Osaka Boiler House Weather Beacon, Ufa Tomorrow's Weather, Stockholm Central Station, Stockholm Beyazıt Tower, Istanbul Light Towers Project, Coventry Castlemilk Lighting Project, Glasgow Empire Square Tower, London Arizona St. Luke's Medical Center, Phoenix California Mattei Building, Fresno ABC10 Weather Tower, KXTV, Sacramento One Rincon Hill South Tower, San Francisco Colorado National Farmers Union, 1575 Sherman Street, Denver Florida Mercantile National Bank, 420 Lincoln Road, Miami Beach American Federal Savings and Loan Association weather ball, Fidelity Storage building, 53 W. Jackson St. Orlando First Federal Savings & Loan, Fourth Street and Central Avenue, St. Petersburg Illinois Weather Bell, Bell Federal Savings, 79 West Monroe Street, Chicago Bell Federal Savings branch office, 180 N.
Michigan Avenue, Chicago WLS-TV Thermometer, Marina City, Chicago WFRL weather beacon, State Bank Center, 50 West Douglas Street, Freeport Iowa KCCI, Des Moines American Trust Tower, Dubuque KCAU-TV Weather Ball, Terra Centre, Sioux City National Bank of Waterloo, 315 East Fifth Street, Waterloo Kentucky WLWT Weather Lights, Cincinnati Radisson, Covington Tomorrow's Weather, 21c Museum Hotel, Lexington Louisiana Falstaff Brewery Weather Ball, 2601 Gravier St, New Orleans Massachusetts Berkeley Building, Boston Michigan Citizens Bank Weatherball, Flint 13 Weatherball, WZZM-TV, Grand Rapids Minnesota KCCO Weatherball, Alexandria WEBC Weather Beacon, 331 W. Superior Street, Duluth Northwestern National Bank Weatherball, Minneapolis Nicollet Island/East Bank branch office, 430
The Bosporus or Bosphorus is a narrow, natural strait and an internationally significant waterway located in northwestern Turkey. It forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, divides Turkey by separating Anatolia from Thrace; the world's narrowest strait used for international navigation, the Bosporus connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara, and, by extension via the Dardanelles, the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. Most of the shores of the strait are settled, straddled by the city of Istanbul's metropolitan population of 17 million inhabitants extending inland from both coasts. Together with the Dardanelles, the Bosporus forms the Turkish Straits; the name of the channel comes from the Ancient Greek Βόσπορος, folk-etymologised as βοὸς πόρος, i.e. "cattle strait", from the genitive of bous βοῦς "ox, cattle" + poros πόρος "passage", thus meaning "cattle-passage", or "cow passage". This is in reference to the mythological story of Io, transformed into a cow, was subsequently condemned to wander the Earth until she crossed the Bosporus, where she met the Titan Prometheus, who comforted her with the information that she would be restored to human form by Zeus and become the ancestress of the greatest of all heroes, Heracles.
The site where Io went ashore was near Chrysopolis, was named Bous "the Cow". The same site was known as Damalis, as it was where the Athenian general Chares had erected a monument to his wife Damalis, which included a colossal statue of a cow; the English spelling with -ph-, Bosfor has no justification in the ancient Greek name, dictionaries prefer the spelling with -p- but -ph- occurs as a variant in medieval Latin, in medieval Greek sometimes as Βόσφορος, giving rise to the French form Bosphore, Spanish Bósforo and Russian Босфор. The 12th century Greek scholar John Tzetzes calls it Damaliten Bosporon, but he reports that in popular usage the strait was known as Prosphorion during his day, the name of the most ancient northern harbour of Constantinople; the Bosporus was known as the "Strait of Constantinople", or the Thracian Bosporus, in order to distinguish it from the Cimmerian Bosporus in Crimea. These are expressed in Herodotus' Histories, 4.83. Other names by which the strait is referenced by Herodotus include Chalcedonian Bosporus, or Mysian Bosporus.
The term came to be used as common noun βόσπορος, meaning "a strait", was formerly applied to the Hellespont in Classical Greek by Aeschylus and Sophocles. As a maritime waterway, the Bosporus connects various seas along the Eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans, the Near East, Western Eurasia, connects the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara; the Marmara further connects to the Mediterranean seas via the Dardanelles. Thus, the Bosporus allows maritime connections from the Black Sea all the way to the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean via Gibraltar, the Indian Ocean through the Suez Canal, making it a crucial international waterway, in particular for the passage of goods coming in from Russia; the exact cause and date of the formation of the Bosporus remain the subject of debate among geologists. One recent hypothesis, dubbed the Black Sea deluge hypothesis, launched by a study of the same name in 1997 by two scientists from Columbia University, postulates that the Bosporus was formed around 5600 BC when the rising waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the Sea of Marmara breached through to the Black Sea, which at the time, according to the hypothesis, was a low-lying body of fresh water.
Many geologists, claim that the strait is much older if young on a geologic timescale. From the perspective of ancient Greek mythology, it was said that colossal floating rocks known as the Symplegades, or Clashing Rocks, once occupied the hilltops on both sides of the Bosporus, destroyed any ship that attempted passage of the channel by rolling down the strait's hills and violently crushing all vessels between them; the Symplegades were defeated when the lyrical hero Jason obtained successful passage, whereupon the rocks became fixed, Greek access to the Black Sea was opened. The limits of the Bosporus are defined as the connecting line between the lighthouses of Rumeli Feneri and Anadolu Feneri in the north, between the Ahırkapı Feneri and the Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri in the south. Between these limits, the strait is 31 km long, with a width of 3,329 m at the northern entrance and 2,826 m at the southern entrance, its maximum width is 3,420 m between Umuryeri and Büyükdere Limanı, minimum width 700 m between Kandilli Point and Aşiyan.
The depth of the Bosporus varies from 13 to 110 m in midstream with an average of 65 m. The deepest location is between Kandilli and Bebek with 110 m; the shallowest locations are off Kadıköy İnciburnu on the northward route with 18 m and off Aşiyan Point on the southward route with 13 m. The Golden Horn is an estuary off the main strait that acted as a moat to protect Old Istanbul from attack, as well as providing a sheltered anchorage for the imperial navies of various empires until the 19th century, after which it became a historic neighborhood at the heart of the city, popular with tourists and locals alike, it had been k
Tophane is a quarter in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul, Turkey. It has a coastline with the Bosphorus. In the Ottoman era, it was the city's oldest industrial zone; the name of the place was derived from the armory known as Tophane-i Amire, built in the reign of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II. Its main purpose was cannonballs. Tophane, which could be seen in Melling's engraving, has not been able to survive to this day. In 1823, during the Firuz Agha fire, the barracks were burned down only to be rebuilt later. In addition to this, during the reconstruction effort, the Nusretiye Mosque was constructed; the oldest remaining military buildings within Tophane were the old General Staff Headquarters and the industry barracks. Both were taken down due to construction to widen the road in 1958. In the place of the barracks, all, remaining now is the historical clock tower and Mecidiye Mansion; the Kılıç Ali Pasha Complex in Tophane, built by the Ottoman Kapudan-i Derya Kılıç Ali Pasha and designed by the renowned architect Mimar Sinan, is a külliye which comprises a mosque, a medrese, a hamam, a türbe, a fountain that were constructed between 1578 and 1587.
The Tophane Fountain, situated between Nusretiye Mosque and Kılıç Ali Pasha Complex, was commissioned by Mahmud I and built in 1732. During earlier times the main population of Tophane consisted of Greeks and Armenians, however from the start of the twentieth century a large amount of migrants from Anatolia arrived in search of jobs as laborers at dockyards and industrial zones. Due to this influx of migrant workers Turkish population became the majority in Tophane. Arab migrants from Siirt as well as migrants from provinces such as Bitlis, Erzurum were added to the population. Tophane building is being used by Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts; every year the first week of March, a traditional dress ball is held to commemorate the founding of the school. There are many sisha houses as well as American bazaars which help bring many people to Tophane; the Istanbul Modern, a contemporary art museum established in 2004, used to be located in Tophane, in 2018 it moved to another location where it will remain until the construction by a new building is finished
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Ortaköy in Greek known as Agios Fokas in the Byzantine period and Mesachorion is a neighbourhood a small village, within the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, located in the middle of the European bank of the Bosphorus. Ortaköy was a cosmopolitan area during the Ottoman era and the first decades of the Turkish Republic, with communities of Turks, Greeks and Jews. Today the neighbourhood still hosts many different religious structures, it is a popular spot for locals and tourists alike, with its art galleries, night clubs, cafés, restaurants. The Neo-Baroque style Ortaköy Mosque is a beautifully ornate structure, right on the jetty of Ortaköy, bordering the waters of the Bosphorus, thus visible from the passing boats. Several reputable schools, such as Kabataş Erkek Lisesi and Galatasaray University, are located in Ortaköy; the European pylon of the Bosphorus Bridge, one of the two bridges that connect the European and Asian banks of İstanbul, is situated in this neighbourhood. Ortaköy was the site of George W. Bush's speech during the NATO Summit of 2004, which he delivered at Galatasaray University.
Ortaköy has had an important place in the daily life of the city during both the Byzantine and Ottoman periods. In the 16th century, the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent encouraged the Turks to move to Ortaköy and live there, which marked the beginning of the Turkish presence in the neighbourhood. One of the oldest buildings in Ortaköy is the Turkish Bath built by the famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan in 1556; the famous Ortaköy Mosque, located on the coastal pier square, was built in the 18th century. In the 19th century, the current mosque, ordered by Sultan Abdülmecid I and designed by architects Garabet Amira Balyan and Nigoğayos Balyan in Neo-Baroque style, was edificed between 1854 and 1856. In 1871, Sultan Abdülaziz built the Çırağan Palace in Ortaköy. Çırağan Palace was used as the Ottoman Parliament building until it was damaged by a fire in 1910. The palace was repaired and restored in the 1980s and is known today as the Çırağan Palace Kempinski Istanbul Hotel, one of the most luxurious hotels in Istanbul.
The famous German architect Bruno Taut lived in a house. It reflected his life in exile by combining European architectural styles. Ortaköy's once famously cosmopolitan population began to disappear with the emigration of non-Muslim minority groups. After the establishment of Israel in 1948, the Jewish population decreased; the riots of 1955 caused the emigration of many members of Istanbul's minority groups, including Ortaköy's Greeks and Armenians. There are few non-Muslims left today. On 1 January 2017, Ortaköy was the scene of a deadly terrorist attack at the Reina nightclub, where hundreds of people were celebrating the New Year; the club was closed down and demolished in May 2017. The sporting club of the neighbourhood is Ortaköy Spor Kulübü. Apart from beautiful cafés with a Bosphorus view, such as the Ortaköy Kahvesi and restaurants near the ferry port, Ortaköy has some of Istanbul's best seashore night clubs and Anjelique. Emirgan Rumelihisarı Aksaray Ortaköy Belediyesi Media related to Ortaköy at Wikimedia Commons
A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide by a significant margin. Towers are distinguished from masts by their lack of guy-wires and are therefore, along with tall buildings, self-supporting structures. Towers are distinguished from "buildings" in that they are not built to be habitable but to serve other functions; the principal function is the use of their height to enable various functions to be achieved including: visibility of other features attached to the tower such clock towers. Towers can be stand alone structures or be supported by adjacent buildings or can be a feature on top of a large structure or building. Old English torr is from Latin turris via Old French tor; the Latin term together with Greek τύρσις was loaned from a pre-Indo-European Mediterranean language, connected with the Illyrian toponym Βου-δοργίς. With the Lydian toponyms Τύρρα, Τύρσα, it has been connected with the ethnonym Τυρρήνιοι as well as with Tusci, the Greek and Latin names for the Etruscans Towers have been used by mankind since prehistoric times.
The oldest known may be the circular stone tower in walls of Neolithic Jericho. Some of the earliest towers were ziggurats, which existed in Sumerian architecture since the 4th millennium BC; the most famous ziggurats include the Sumerian Ziggurat of Ur, built the 3rd millennium BC, the Etemenanki, one of the most famous examples of Babylonian architecture. The latter was built in Babylon during the 2nd millennium BC and was considered the tallest tower of the ancient world; some of the earliest surviving examples are the broch structures in northern Scotland, which are conical towerhouses. These and other examples from Phoenician and Roman cultures emphasised the use of a tower in fortification and sentinel roles. For example, the name of the Moroccan city of Mogador, founded in the first millennium BC, is derived from the Phoenician word for watchtower; the Romans utilised octagonal towers as elements of Diocletian's Palace in Croatia, which monument dates to 300 AD, while the Servian Walls and the Aurelian Walls featured square ones.
The Chinese used towers as integrated elements of the Great Wall of China in 210 BC during the Qin Dynasty. Towers were an important element of castles. Other well known towers include the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Pisa, Italy built from 1173 until 1372 and the Two Towers in Bologna, Italy built from 1109 until 1119; the Himalayan Towers are stone towers located chiefly in Tibet built 14th to 15th century. Up to a certain height, a tower can be made with the supporting structure with parallel sides. However, above a certain height, the compressive load of the material is exceeded and the tower will fail; this can be avoided. A second limit is that of buckling—the structure requires sufficient stiffness to avoid breaking under the loads it faces those due to winds. Many tall towers have their support structures at the periphery of the building, which increases the overall stiffness. A third limit is dynamic; these are dealt with through a combination of simple strength and stiffness, as well as in some cases tuned mass dampers to damp out movements.
Varying or tapering the outer aspect of the tower with height avoids vibrations due to vortex shedding occurring along the entire building simultaneously. Although not called towers many modern skyscraper are called towers. In the United Kingdom, tall domestic buildings are referred to as tower blocks. In the United States, the original World Trade Center had the nickname the Twin Towers, a name shared with the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur; the tower throughout history has provided its users with an advantage in surveying defensive positions and obtaining a better view of the surrounding areas, including battlefields. They were rolled near a target. Today, strategic-use towers are still used at prisons, military camps, defensive perimeters. By using gravity to move objects or substances downward, a tower can be used to store items or liquids like a storage silo or a water tower, or aim an object into the earth such as a drilling tower. Ski-jump ramps use the same idea, in the absence of a natural mountain slope or hill, can be human-made.
In history, simple towers like lighthouses, bell towers, clock towers, signal towers and minarets were used to communicate information over greater distances. In more recent years, radio masts and cell phone towers facilitate communication by expanding the range of the transmitter; the CN Tower in Toronto, Canada was built as a communications tower, with the capability to act as both a transmitter and repeater. Its design incorporated features to make it a tourist attraction, including the world's highest observation deck at 147 storeys. Towers can be used to support bridges, can reach heights that rival some of the tallest buildings above-water, their use is most prevalent in cable-stayed bridges. The use of the pylon, a simple tower structure, has helped to build railroad bridges, mass-transit systems, harbors. Control towers are used to give visibility to help direct aviation traffic. To access tall or high objects: launch tower, service tower, service structure, tower c