Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities and even the countryside. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public, the goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, the city with the largest number of museums is Mexico City with over 128 museums. According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries, the English museum comes from the Latin word, and is pluralized as museums. The first museum/library is considered to be the one of Plato in Athens, Pausanias gives another place called Museum, namely a small hill in Classical Athens opposite to the Akropolis. The hill was called Mouseion after Mousaious, a man who used to sing on the hill, the purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public.
The purpose can depend on ones point of view, to a family looking for entertainment on a Sunday afternoon, a trip to a local history museum or large city art museum could be a fun, and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the health of a city. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museums mission, Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithsons bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution for the increase, Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of classification of a field of knowledge for research. As American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students, while many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums.
While there is a debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museums collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect. Much care and expense is invested in efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artworks. All museums display objects that are important to a culture, as historian Steven Conn writes, To see the thing itself, with ones own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting. Museum purposes vary from institution to institution, some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects and they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia
Rolls-Royce Motor Cars
Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Limited engineers and distributes luxury automobiles and automobile parts worldwide. Rolls-Royce Motors Cars Limited is the manufacturer of Rolls-Royce branded motor cars since 2003. Although the Rolls-Royce brand has been in use since 1906, the Rolls-Royce Motor Cars subsidiary of BMW AG has no relationship to Rolls-Royce branded vehicles produced prior to 2003. The Rolls-Royce Phantom four-door sedan was the first product offered for sale in 2003, Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Limited has been manufacturing Rolls-Royce branded cars since 2003. Current chief executive Torsten Müller-Ötvös joined the company in January 2010 and that year, the companys sales in China increased by 600%, meaning that it is now Rolls-Royces second largest market after the US. In 1998, Vickers decided to sell Rolls-Royce Motors, the most likely buyer was BMW, who already supplied engines and other components for Rolls-Royce and Bentley cars, but BMWs final offer of £340 million was beaten by Volkswagens £430 million.
BMWs contract to supply engines and components to Rolls-Royce Motors allowed BMW to cancel the contract with 12 months notice, volkswagen would be unable to re-engineer the Rolls-Royce and Bentley vehicles to use other engines within that time frame. With the Rolls-Royce brand identification marks split between the two companies and Volkswagens engine supply in jeopardy, the two entered into negotiations. Volkswagen agreed to sell BMW the Spirit of Ecstasy and grill shape trademarks and BMW agreed to supplying engines. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Limited became the manufacturer of Rolls-Royce branded cars in 2003. From 2010 – Ghost 4-door sedan, Rolls-Royce announced in September 2006 that it would develop a new four-door model named Ghost. The Ghost will be smaller than the previous Rolls-Royce automobile launched, only 20% of the components would be sourced from BMW F017 Series, and it will be positioned below the Phantom. On 4 March 2014, the new Ghost Series II was revealed to the public at the Geneva Motor Show and it has a facelift front with new LED headlights.
The interior has had an update as well, from 2013 – Rolls-Royce Wraith coupé. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars launched a new car at the Geneva Motor Show on 5 March 2013, the new car, named the Rolls-Royce Wraith was a luxury coupe, with a long bonnet and a sleek roof line, and was a coupe version of the Ghost. It was powered by a 623 bhp, twin-turbocharged V12 engine connected to an eight-speed gearbox, deliveries were expected to begin by the end of 2013. Rolls-Royce had stated that the Wraith would be the most powerful Rolls-Royce motor car to that date, from 2015 – Rolls-Royce Dawn 2015 Rolls-Royce announced the production of SUV for the very first time in the company history. According to Rolls-Royce, the new SUV will set new standards among cars of this segment
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent Willem van Gogh was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade he created about 2,100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings and his suicide at 37 followed years of mental illness and poverty. Born into a family, Van Gogh drew as a child and was serious, quiet. As a young man he worked as an art dealer, often travelling and he turned to religion, and spent time as a Protestant missionary in southern Belgium. He drifted in ill health and solitude before taking up painting in 1881 and his younger brother Theo supported him financially, and the two kept up a long correspondence by letter. His early works, mostly still lifes and depictions of peasant labourers, in 1886 he moved to Paris, where he met members of the avant-garde, including Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin, who were reacting against the Impressionist sensibility. As his work developed he created a new approach to still lifes and his paintings grew brighter in colour as he developed a style that became fully realised during his stay in Arles in the south of France in 1888.
During this period he broadened his subject matter to include trees, wheat fields. Van Gogh suffered from episodes and delusions and though he worried about his mental stability, he often neglected his physical health, did not eat properly. His friendship with Gauguin ended after a confrontation with a razor and he spent time in psychiatric hospitals, including a period at Saint-Rémy. After he discharged himself and moved to the Auberge Ravoux in Auvers-sur-Oise near Paris and his depression continued and on 27 July 1890, Van Gogh shot himself in the chest with a revolver. He died from his injuries two days later, Van Gogh was unsuccessful during his lifetime, and was considered a madman and a failure. He became famous after his suicide, and exists in the imagination as the quintessential misunderstood genius. His reputation began to grow in the early 20th century as elements of his style came to be incorporated by the Fauves. The most comprehensive source on Van Gogh is the correspondence between him and his younger brother, Theo.
Their lifelong friendship, and most of what is known of Vincents thoughts, Theo van Gogh was an art dealer and provided his brother with financial and emotional support, and access to influential people on the contemporary art scene. Theo kept all of Vincents letters to him, Vincent kept few of the letters he received, after both had died, Theos widow Johanna arranged for the publication of some of their letters. A few appeared in 1906 and 1913, the majority were published in 1914, Vincents letters are eloquent and expressive and have been described as having a diary-like intimacy, and read in parts like autobiography
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection, the term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand, private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere. In broad terms, in North American usage, the word gallery alone often implies a private gallery, the term contemporary art gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are found clustered together in large urban centers. Smaller cities are home to at least one gallery, but they may be found in towns or villages. Contemporary art galleries are open to the general public without charge, however. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales, from 25% to 50% is typical, there are many non-profit or collective galleries.
Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, curators often create group shows that say something about a certain theme, trend in art, or group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly, a gallerys definition can include the artist cooperative or artist-run space, which often operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process. A vanity gallery is an art gallery that charges fees from artists in order to show their work, the shows are not legitimately curated and will frequently or usually include as many artists as possible. Most art professionals are able to identify them on an artists resume, University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art that are developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities. This phenomenon exists in both the West and East, making it a global practice, although largely overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in America alone.
This number, in comparison to other kinds of art museums, throughout history and expensive works of art have generally been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as a form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects often donated their collections to temples and it is unclear how easy it was in practice for the public to view these items. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside
Bayer AG, German pronunciation, ) is a German multinational chemical and life sciences company. It is headquartered in Leverkusen, where its sign is a landmark. Bayers primary areas of business include human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, consumer products, agricultural chemicals and biotechnology products. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, the companys motto is science for a better life. Bayers first and best known product was aspirin, there is a dispute about what scientist at Bayer made the most important contributions to it, Bayer trademarked the name heroin for the drug diacetylmorphine and marketed it as a cough suppressant and non-addictive substitute for morphine from 1898 to 1910. Bayer introduced phenobarbital, the first widely used antibiotic and the subject of the 1939 Nobel Prize in Medicine, the antibiotic Cipro, in 2014 Bayer bought MSDs consumer business, with brands such as Claritin, Coppertone and Dr. Scholls. Its BayerCropscience business develops genetically modified crops and pesticides and its materials science division makes polymers like polyurethanes and polycarbonate.
Bayer was founded in Barmen in 1863 and it was part of IG Farben, the worlds largest chemical and pharmaceutical company, from 1925 to 1952, and again became an independent company. The company played a key role in the Wirtschaftswunder during the early Cold War, Bayer acquired Schering in 2006 and announced its acquisition of Monsanto in 2016, the merger is still pending approval. Bayer AG was founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863 by Friedrich Bayer and his partner, the companys corporate logo, the Bayer cross, was introduced in 1904. It consists of the horizontal word BAYER crossed with the vertical word BAYER, an illuminated version of the logo is a landmark in Leverkusen, the location of Bayer AGs headquarters. Bayers first major product was acetylsalicylic acid, a modification of salicylic acid or salicin and it is now widely used in the US, UK, and France for all brands of the drug. However, it is still a trademark of Bayer in more than 80 other countries, including Canada, Germany. As of 2011, approximately 40 thousand tons of aspirin are produced each year and 10 to 20 billion tablets are taken in the U. S. alone each year for prevention of cardiovascular events.
It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a health system. There has been controversy over the roles played by Bayer scientists in the development of aspirin, Arthur Eichengrün, a Bayer chemist, claimed to be the first to discover an aspirin formulation which did not have the unpleasant side effects of nausea and gastric pain. Eichengrün claimed that he invented the name aspirin and was the first person to use the new formulation to test its safety, Bayer contends that aspirin was discovered by Felix Hoffmann to alleviate the sufferings of his father, who had arthritis. Various sources support the conflicting claims, most mainstream historians attribute the invention of aspirin to Felix Hoffmann and/or Arthur Eichengrün
Tribal art is the visual arts and material culture of indigenous peoples. The term primitive is criticized as being Eurocentric and pejorative, Tribal art is often ceremonial or religious in nature. Typically originating in rural areas, tribal art refers to the subject, in the 19th century, non-western art was not seen by mainstream Western art professional as being as art at all. The art world perception of tribal arts is becoming less paternalistic, major exhibitions of tribal arts in the late 19th through mid-20th centuries exposed the Western art world to non-Western art. Major exhibitions included the Museum of Modern Arts 1935 Africa Negro Art and 1941 Indian Art of the United States, exposure to tribal arts provide inspiration to many modern artists, notably Expressionists and Surrealists, notably Surrealist Max Ernst. The Anthropology of Art, A Reader, edmund Snow Carpenter, The Tribal Terror of Self-Awareness. In Paul Hockings, Principles of Visual Anthropology,1975, pages 451–461, denis Dutton, Tribal Art and Artefact.
Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism,51, 13–21, Winter 1993, denis Dutton, Mythologies of Tribal Art. Herbert E. Roese, African Wood Carvings - the sculptural art of West Africa,2011, Cardiff ISBN 978-0-9560294-2-3 Ralph T. Coe, the responsive eye, Ralph T. Coe and the collecting of American Indian art. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Tribal Art Magazine Paleobree — Tribal Art Information Service Art Tribal Newsletter Tribal art forgeries Oceanic Art Society
Kazimir Severinovich Malevich was a Russian painter and art theoretician. He was a pioneer of abstract art and the originator of the avant-garde Suprematist movement. He was a devout Christian mystic who believed the central task of an artist was that of rendering spiritual feeling, Kazimir Malevich was born Kazimierz Malewicz to a Polish family, who settled near Kiev in Kiev Governorate of the Russian Empire during the partitions of Poland. His parents and Seweryn Malewicz, were Roman Catholic like most ethnic Poles and they both had fled from the former eastern territories of the Commonwealth to Kiev in the aftermath of the failed Polish January Uprising of 1863 against the tsarist army. His native language was Polish though he spoke Ukrainian in public, Malevich even wrote a series of articles about art in Ukrainian. Kazimirs father managed a sugar factory, Kazimir was the first of fourteen children, only nine of whom survived into adulthood. His family moved often and he spent most of his childhood in the villages of Ukraine, amidst sugar-beet plantations, until age twelve he knew nothing of professional artists, although art had surrounded him in childhood.
He delighted in peasant embroidery, and in decorated walls and stoves and he was able to paint in the peasant style. He studied drawing in Kiev from 1895 to 1896, from 1896 to 1904 Kazimir Malevich lived in Kursk. In 1904, after the death of his father, he moved to Moscow and he studied at the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture from 1904 to 1910 and in the studio of Fedor Rerberg in Moscow. In the same year he participated in an exhibition by the collective, by that time his works were influenced by Natalia Goncharova and Mikhail Larionov, Russian avant-garde painters, who were particularly interested in Russian folk art called lubok. Malevich described himself as painting in a Cubo-Futuristic style in 1912, in March 1913 a major exhibition of Aristarkh Lentulovs paintings opened in Moscow. Already in the year the Cubo-Futurist opera, Victory Over the Sun, with Malevichs stage-set. In 1914 Malevich exhibited his works in the Salon des Indépendants in Paris together with Alexander Archipenko, Sonia Delaunay, Aleksandra Ekster, Malevich co-illustrated, with Pavel Filonov, Selected Poems with Postscript, 1907–1914 by Velimir Khlebnikov and another work by Khlebnikov in 1914 titled Roar.
In 1915, Malevich laid down the foundations of Suprematism when he published his manifesto, in 1915–1916 he worked with other Suprematist artists in a peasant/artisan co-operative in Skoptsi and Verbovka village. In 1916–1917 he participated in exhibitions of the Jack of Diamonds group in Moscow together with Nathan Altman, David Burliuk, Aleksandra Ekster, famous examples of his Suprematist works include Black Square and White On White. Malevich exhibited his first Black Square, now at the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, a black square placed against the sun appeared for the first time in the 1913 scenery designs for the Futurist opera Victory over the Sun. The second Black Square was painted around 1923, some believe that the third Black Square was painted in 1929 for Malevichs solo exhibition, because of the poor condition of the 1915 square
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing and with ideas about the nature of materials. A tendency away from the narrative, which was characteristic for the traditional arts, more recent artistic production is often called contemporary art or postmodern art. Matisses two versions of The Dance signified a key point in his career and in the development of modern painting, analytic cubism was jointly developed by Picasso and Georges Braque, exemplified by Violin and Candlestick, from about 1908 through 1912. Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of different textures, collage elements, papier collé, the notion of modern art is closely related to modernism. Although modern sculpture and architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the 19th century, the beginnings of modern painting can be located earlier.
The date perhaps most commonly identified as marking the birth of art is 1863. Earlier dates have proposed, among them 1855 and 1784. In the words of art historian H, harvard Arnason, Each of these dates has significance for the development of modern art, but none categorically marks a completely new beginning. A gradual metamorphosis took place in the course of a hundred years, the strands of thought that eventually led to modern art can be traced back to the Enlightenment, and even to the 17th century. The important modern art critic Clement Greenberg, for instance, called Immanuel Kant the first real Modernist but drew a distinction, The Enlightenment criticized from the outside. The French Revolution of 1789 uprooted assumptions and institutions that had for centuries been accepted with little question and this gave rise to what art historian Ernst Gombrich called a self-consciousness that made people select the style of their building as one selects the pattern of a wallpaper. The pioneers of art were Romantics and Impressionists.
By the late 19th century, additional movements which were to be influential in art had begun to emerge. The advocates of realism stood against the idealism of the academic art that enjoyed public. The most successful painters of the day worked either through commissions or through public exhibitions of their own work. There were official, government-sponsored painters unions, while governments regularly held exhibitions of new fine
Museums in Basel
The Basel museums encompass a series of museums in the city of Basel and the neighboring region. They represent a spectrum of collections with a marked concentration in the fine arts. They draw some one and a million visitors annually. Since the 1980s, a number of collections have been public in new purpose-built structures that have achieved renown as acclaimed examples of avant-garde museum architecture. The main focus of collecting among Basel museums is the fine arts – painting, more than a dozen museums cover a spectrum that extends from antiquity up to the present and includes historic and established works of art as well as pioneering creations. In particular, the category has been made increasingly accessible to the public over the past two decades in a series of newly opened museums. There are collections with more of a local and regional character, yet a number of museums, especially the larger institutions, are noted for their international orientation. Numerous museums address various themes of history and ethnology while other institutions feature technical.
The museums continue to be oriented to the tasks of collecting and exhibiting as well as research. Consistent with museological trends seen elsewhere, the traditional self-image has evolved since the 1960s, yet even when taking a narrowly drawn perimeter, the total comes to at least three dozen institutions that house collections and make them accessible to the public. The Basel museums are part of the German-French-Swiss Upper Rhine Museum Pass that was introduced in 1999. This covers a wider area than the Basel region, however. With the increasing aestheticization of everyday life, the architecture of museums has taken on special significance since the 1980s, a striking number of exhibition structures have incorporated a vocabulary of postmodern and deconstructivist forms. The museums are an aspect of Basels touristic appeal and hence an important economic factor. A number of Basels museums are public institutions but the majority are sponsored, backed in most cases by foundations. The private collections nearly all came into being after the Second World War, most of the public museums, by contrast, date from before the war.
In fact, the collections of the five publicly run museums of the canton of Basel-City have histories that go back several centuries. Prominent among them, the Amerbach printer family had collected a number of books, goldsmith works, coins
Renzo Piano, OMRI, OMCA is an Italian architect and engineer. His notable buildings include the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, The Shard in London, and he won the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1998. Piano was born in Genoa, into a family of builders and his grandfather had created a masonry enterprise, which had been expanded by his father, Carlo Piano, and his fathers three brothers, into the firm Fratelli Piano. The firm prospered after World War II, constructing houses and factories, when his father retired the enterprise was led by Renzos older brother, who studied engineering at the University of Genoa. Renzo studied architecture at the Milan Polytechnic University and he graduated in 1964 with a dissertation about modular coordination supervised by Giuseppe Ciribini and began working with experimental lightweight structures and basic shelters. In 1970, he received his first international commission, for the Pavilion of Italian Industry for Expo 70 in Osaka and he collaborated with his brother Ermanno and the family firm, which manufactured the structure.
It was lightweight and original composed of steel and reinforced polyester, the first project of the firm was the administrative building of B&B Italia, an Italian furniture company, in Novedrate, Italy. This design featured suspended container and an open bearing structure, with the conduits for heating and these unusual features attracted considerable attention in the architectural world, and influenced the choice of the jurors who selected Piano and Rogers to design the Pompidou Center. The award came a surprise, to the world, since the two were little-known, and had no experience with museums or other major structures. The New York Times declared that their design turned the world upside down. The escalator, in a transparent tube, crossed the facade of the building at a diagonal, the building was an astonishing success, entirely transforming the character a run-down commercial section near the Marais in Paris, and made Piano one of the best-known architects in the world. The media dubbed the style of the building as high-tech, Beaubourg, he said, was a joyous urban machine, a creature which might have come out of a Jules Verne novel, a sort of bizarre boat in dry dock.
It is a provocation, a challenge to academism. To consider it as an object is a mistake. In 1977 Piano ended his collaboration with Rogers and began a new collaboration with engineer Peter Rice and they established their offices in Genoa. One of their first projects was a plan for the rehabilitation of the old port of Otranto from a site into a commercial. Their first major building was the Menil Collection, in art museum for the art collector Dominique de Menil, the chief requirements of the owner for this building was to make the maximum use of natural light in the interiors. Piano wrote, the Menil Collection, with its serenity, its calm, its discretion, is more modern, scientifically speaking
Basel is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine. Basel is Switzerlands third-most-populous city with about 175,000 inhabitants, located where the Swiss and German borders meet, Basel has suburbs in France and Germany. In 2014, the Basel agglomeration was the third largest in Switzerland with a population of 537,100 in 74 municipalities in Switzerland, the official language of Basel is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Basel has been the seat of a Prince-Bishopric since the 11th century, the city has been a commercial hub and important cultural centre since the Renaissance, and has emerged as a centre for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry in the 20th century. It hosts the oldest university of the Swiss Confederation, There are settlement traces on the Rhine knee from the early La Tène period. The unfortified settlement was abandoned in the 1st century BC in favour of an Oppidum on the site of Basel Minster, probably in reaction to the Roman invasion of Gaul.
In Roman Gaul, Augusta Raurica was established some 20 km from Basel as the administrative centre. The city of Basel eventually grew around the castle, the name of Basel is derived from the Roman-era toponym Basilia, first recorded in the 3rd century. It is presumably derived from the personal name Basilius, the Old French form Basle was adopted into English, and developed into the modern French Bâle. The Icelandic name Buslaraborg goes back to the 12th century Leiðarvísir og borgarskipan, Basel was incorporated into Germania Superior in AD83. Roman control over the area deteriorated in 3rd century, and Basel became an outpost of the Provincia Maxima Sequanorum formed by Diocletian, the Alamanni attempted to cross the Rhine several times in the 4th century, but were repelled. In a great invasion of AD406, the Alemanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river a final time and settling what is today Alsace, from this time, Basel has been an Alemannic settlement. The Duchy of Alemannia fell under Frankish rule in the 6th century, and by the 7th century, based on the evidence of a third solidus with the inscription Basilia fit, Basel seems to have minted its own coins in the 7th century.
Under bishop Haito, the first cathedral was built on the site of the Roman castle, at the partition of the Carolingian Empire, Basel was first given to West Francia, but passed to East Francia with the treaty of Meerssen of 870. The city was plundered and destroyed by a Magyar invasion of 917, the rebuilt city became part of Upper Burgundy, and as such was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire in 1032. Since the donation by Rudolph III of Burgundy of the Moutier-Grandval Abbey and all its possessions to Bishop Adalbero II in 999 till the Reformation, in 1019, the construction of the cathedral of Basel began under German Emperor Heinrich II. In 1225–1226, the Bridge over the Rhine was constructed by Bishop Heinrich von Thun, the bridge was largely funded by Basels Jewish community which had settled there a century earlier. For many centuries to come Basel possessed the only permanent bridge over the river between Lake Constance and the sea, the Bishop allowed the furriers to found a guild in 1226