A horror film is a film that seeks to elicit fear. Inspired by literature from authors like Edgar Allan Poe, Bram Stoker, Mary Shelley, horror has existed as a film genre for more than a century; the macabre and the supernatural are frequent themes. Horror may overlap with the fantasy, supernatural fiction, thriller genres. Horror films aim to evoke viewers' nightmares, fears and terror of the unknown. Plots with in the horror genre involve the intrusion of an evil force, event, or personage into the everyday world. Prevalent elements include ghosts, extraterrestrials, werewolves, Satanism, evil clowns, torture, vicious animals, evil witches, zombies, psychopaths, ecological or man-made disasters, serial killers; some sub-genres of horror film include low-budget horror, action horror, comedy horror, body horror, disaster horror, found footage, holiday horror, horror drama, psychological horror, science fiction horror, supernatural horror, gothic horror, natural horror, zombie horror, disaster films, first-person horror, teen horror.
The first depiction of the supernatural on screen appear in several of the short silent films created by the French pioneer filmmaker Georges Méliès in the late 1890s. The best known of these early supernatural-based works is the 3-minute short film Le Manoir du Diable known in English as The Haunted Castle or The House of the Devil; the film is sometimes credited as being the first horror film. In The Haunted Castle, a mischievous devil appears inside a medieval castle and harasses the visitors. Méliès' other popular horror film is La Caverne maudite, which translates to "the accursed cave"; the film known for its English title The Cave of the Demons, tells the story of a woman stumbling over a cave, populated by the spirits and skeletons of people who died there. Méliès would make other short films that historians consider now as horror-comedies. Une nuit terrible, which translates to A Terrible Night, tells a story of a man who tries to get a good night's sleep but ends up wrestling a giant spider.
His other film, L'auberge ensorcelée, or The Bewitched Inn, features a story of a hotel guest getting pranked and tormented by an unseen presence. In 1897, the accomplished American photographer-turned director George Albert Smith created The X-Ray Fiend, a horror-comedy that came out a mere two years after x-rays were invented; the film shows a couple of skeletons courting each other. An audience full of people unaccustomed to the idea would have found it frightening and otherworldly; the next year, Smith created the short film Photographing a Ghost, considered a precursor to the paranormal investigation subgenre. The film portrays three men attempting to photograph a ghost, only to fail time and again as the ghost eludes the men and throws chairs at them. Japan made early forays into the horror genre. In 1898, a Japanese film company called Konishi Honten released two horror films both written by Ejiro Hatta. Though there are no records of the cast, crew, or plot of Bake Jizo, it was based on the Japanese legend of Jizo statues, believed to provide safety and protection to children.
The presence of the word bake—which can be translated to "spook," "ghost," or "phantom"—may imply a haunted or possessed statue. Spanish filmmaker Segundo de Chomón, regarded as one of the most significant silent film directors, was popular for his frequent camera tricks and optical illusions, an innovation that contributed to the popularity of trick films in the period, his famous works include Satan at Play. The Selig Polyscope Company in the United States produced one of the first film adaptations of a horror-based novel. In 1908, the company released Mr. Hyde, now a lost film, it is based on Robert Louis Stevenson's classic gothic novella Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, published 15 years prior, about a man who transforms between two contrasting personas. Georges Méliès liked adapting the Faust legend into his films. In fact, the French filmmaker produced at least six variations of the German legend of the man who made a pact with the devil. Among his notable Faust films include Faust aux enfers, known for its English title The Damnation of Faust, or Faust in Hell.
It is the filmmaker's third film adaptation of the Faust legend. In it, Méliès took inspiration from Hector Berlioz's Faust opera, but it pays less attention to the story and more to the special effects that represent a tour of hell; the film takes advantage of stage machinery techniques and features special effects such as pyrotechnics, substitution
Troma Entertainment is an American independent film production and distribution company founded by Lloyd Kaufman and Michael Herz in 1974. The company produces low-budget independent films of the horror genre. Many of them play on 1950s horror with elements of farce, parody and splatter. In 2012, the company released many of its films on YouTube. Troma has produced and distributed over 1,000 independent films since its creation, its slogan in 2014 was "40 years of Disrupting Media". Another slogan the company has used is "Movies of the Future." Troma films are B-movies known for their surrealistic or automatistic nature, along with their use of shocking imagery. They contain overt sexuality and intentionally sadistic and blatant graphic violence, so much that Troma film has become a term synonymous with these characteristics. Troma reuses the same props and scenes sometimes to save money. At a certain point, this became another hallmark of Troma. Examples include a severed leg, a penis monster, the flipping and exploding car filmed for the movie Sgt.
Kabukiman N. Y. P. D. Which is used in place of any other car that needs to explode. Troma produced or acquired early films featuring several rising talents, such as Carmen Electra, Billy Bob Thornton, Vanna White, Kevin Costner, J. J. Abrams, Samuel L. Jackson, Marisa Tomei, Michael Jai White, Vincent D'Onofrio, David Boreanaz, Paul Sorvino, James Gunn, Trey Parker and Matt Stone, before they were discovered. Another Academy Award-winning director, Oliver Stone, made his debut as an actor in The Battle of Love's Return, their latest productions, Return to Nuke'Em High Vol.1 and its sequel Return to Return to Nuke Em High AKA Vol 2, were released in 2013 and 2018, respectively. In the mid-1970s, Kaufman and Herz began producing and distributing raunchy sex comedies such as The First Turn-On! and Squeeze Play!. Troma provided production support for Louis Malle's My Dinner With Andre, for which Kaufman served as a production manager. In 1985, Troma had a hit with the violent comedy horror superhero film The Toxic Avenger.
The film went on to become Troma's most popular, spawning sequels and an animated television program. However, following the financial demise of the company Troma itself, the sequels to the film were box office bombs, the cartoon adaptation ended; the Toxic Avenger character is now Troma's official mascot. Kaufman's follow-up film to The Toxic Avenger was Class of Nuke'Em High, co-directed with Richard W. Haines; the film was a hit nearly as successful, though it inspired two unsuccessful sequels, both following the financial demise of Troma. At one time, it was the highest-selling VHS release for Troma; the Toxic Avenger was turned into a musical which debuted at the George Street Playhouse in New Brunswick, New Jersey and opened in New York in the fall of 2008. The Toxic Avenger Musical book by Joe DiPietro, the author of the long-running I Love You, You're Perfect, Now Change and All Shook Up, was released the same year; the music is by keyboardist of the rock band Bon Jovi. Soon after Class of Nuke'Em High was completed and distributed, Kaufman directed Troma's War.
Intended as a criticism of what it saw as Ronald Reagan's attempt to glamorize war, the story concerns a group of everyday people who crash land on a remote island, only to find it populated by an isolationist militia that intends to overthrow the US government. Troma's War was a box office bomb. In the aftermath of the film's poor performance, despite another stab at the superhero genre with Sgt. Kabukiman N. Y. P. D. Troma experienced financial hardship and tried to reestablish itself as a smaller company out of necessity. Today, the majority of Troma films are viewed for the first time on VHS or DVD, with some theatrical releases for their films in smaller art houses, college campuses, independent cinemas. In August 2012, Troma released over 100 of its back catalog films on YouTube, many for free, some for 48-hour paid viewing. From 1995 to 2000, Troma produced some of their greatest work. Kaufman directed three independent films, all distributed in limited theatrical releases: Tromeo and Juliet, a loose parody of Shakespeare's play.
Troma's financial hardship worsened after the botched funding of a low-budget video feature titled Tales from the Crapper, which cost $250,000 despite most of the footage being unusable. India Allen, one of the producers, backed out of the film halfway through, sued Troma, citing breach of contract, sexual harassment, trade slander, intentional infliction of emotional distress. Kaufman supervised a reshoot in an attempt to salvage the film, dividing the footage into two parts and recasting the film as a double feature. Tales from the Crapper was released on DVD in September 2004. Troma produces and acquires independent films, despite financial hardships and limitations. Troma Films has distributed many films from third parties including Trey Parker's Cannibal! The Musical. Lloyd encourages independent filmmaking, making cameo appearances in many low-budget horror films without fee. Among his more recent appearances is in former collaborator
Lynda Day George
Lynda Louise Day George is an American television and film actress whose career spanned three decades from the 1960s to the 1980s. She was a cast member on Mission: Impossible, she was the wife of actor Christopher George. Lynda was born in Texas. Known as Lynda Day, her career began with guest roles on many television series of the 1960s, including Route 66, Here Come the Brides, The Green Hornet, The Fugitive, The Invaders, It Takes a Thief, The Virginian, Good Morning and Bonanza, she had her first major role as Amelia Cole in a short-lived 1970–1971 television series, The Silent Force, starred in the television pilot for Cannon in 1971. That same year, she was cast as Lisa Casey in the critically acclaimed series Mission: Impossible, garnering a Golden Globe nomination in 1972 and an Emmy Award nomination in 1973. During the show's last season, she missed seven episodes because of her maternity leave and was temporarily replaced by Barbara Anderson, she first met actor Christopher George when they starred together in the 1966 independent film The Gentle Rain.
While working together again in the 1970 John Wayne film Chisum, they fell in love and were married on May 15, 1970. Thereafter, she became Lynda Day George and co-starred in multiple television films with her husband over the next 10 years, including The House on Greenapple Road, Mayday at 40,000 Feet!, Cruise Into Terror. They worked together in episodes of The F. B. I. Mission: Impossible, McCloud, Love Boat, Vega$, they guest-starred in television's Wonder Woman in 1976, with Lynda playing villain Fausta Grables, the Nazi Wonder Woman. She continued her television work throughout the 1970s with guest roles on Police Story, Kung Fu, Marcus Welby, M. D. and Barnaby Jones. She played supporting roles in Rich Man, Poor Man and Once an Eagle, her movie career is noted for several horror cult films in which she co-starred with husband Christopher, including Day of the Animals and Mortuary. She co-starred with John Saxon in the 1980 horror film Beyond Evil. Christopher George died of a heart attack on November 28, 1983, at the age of 52.
She worked only sporadically after that, in guest roles on Fantasy Island, Murder She Wrote, Hardcastle and McCormick, Blacke's Magic. She was a regular guest on religious television programs. In one of her final performances, Lynda reprised the role of Lisa Casey on an episode of the revived Mission: Impossible television series in 1989, she retired from acting shortly thereafter. She was first married to Joseph Pantano, with one son, Nicky, she left Pantano to marry George. She was married to George from 15 May 1970 until his death, on 28 November 1983, had one daughter, Casey, they filed suit to have Nicky Pantano declared as Christopher's natural son. In 1990, Lynda George married Doug Cronin, who died of cancer 4 December 2010. Lynda Day George on IMDb Upcoming book biography: Lynda Day George: ALL MISSIONS POSSIBLE The Girls of Mission: Impossible Love is actress' beauty secret: Retired TV star Lynda Day George happy in Gardiner
David Opatoshu was an American film and television actor. He was born in New York City, where he was educated, his father was the Yiddish writer Joseph Opatoshu. His career in television lasted through the 1980s. In the fall of 1953, he played a theatrical agent representing Ezio Pinza's title character in the NBC situation comedy Bonino. Other costars were Mary Wickes, Chet Allen, Van Dyke Parks; the series focused upon an Italian American opera singer trying to rear his six children after having been widowed. In 1963 he co-starred with James Doohan in an episode of The Twilight Zone, titled "Valley of the Shadow", he guest-starred in the 1964 The Outer Limits episode "A Feasibility Study". N. C. L. E. Called "The Alexander the Greater Affair". In 1967 he played Anan 7 in the original Star Trek series episode "A Taste of Armageddon", in the 1969 season 3 Ironside episode "L'Chayim", in Mannix, in the episode "A Pittance of Faith", as Mr. Lardelli, in the same year. Opatoshu played in a 1970 episode of Daniel Boone as "Tamenund", an aged Pequot Indian bent on revenge for his tribe's near-extinction.
In the "No Way to Treat a Relative" episode of the 1973 situation comedy Needles and Pins, the Kojak episode "Both Sides of the Law", the 1977 The Bionic Woman episode "Doomsday is Tomorrow", the 1981 Buck Rogers in the 25th Century episode "Time of the Hawk", the 1981 miniseries Masada. In 1986 he played an Iranian ambassador in the TV thriller Under Siege, about Islamic terrorist attacks in the United States. On October 30, 1989, Opatashu guest-starred as the Tenctonese ex-slave "Paul Revere", in the episode "Night of the Screams", of the television series Alien Nation. In 1991 he won an Emmy Award for his guest appearance in the episode "A Prayer for the Goldsteins" of the ABC series Gabriel's Fire, his first film, The Light Ahead, directed by Henry Felt and Edgar G. Ulmer, is notable for being in Yiddish. Opatoshu appeared as the homicide detective, Sgt. Ben Miller, in the film noir, The Naked City produced by Mark Hellinger. In 1958, he played a supporting character in The Brothers Karamazov with soon-to-be Star Trek co-star William Shatner.
He portrayed Herr Jacobi, one of the people who help Paul Newman and Julie Andrews escape from East Germany in Alfred Hitchcock's 1966 film Torn Curtain. He played the father of Benny Rampell in 1963's "The Cardinal" un credited, he played the Irgun leader in Otto Preminger's 1960 film Exodus. In 1967, Opatoshu played Morris Kolowitz, the father of the main character David, in Carl Reiner's directorial debut Enter Laughing. In the 1977 film, Raid on Entebbe, he played the part of Menachem Begin, a film based on the actual Operation Entebbe and the freeing of hostages at Entebbe Airport in Entebbe, Uganda on July 4, 1976, he had played Begin's fictional counterpart in Exodus. He appeared on Broadway in Silk Stockings in 1956, The Wall in 1960, Bravo Giovanni in 1962, others. David Opatoshu wrote the screenplay for the film Romance of a Horsethief, based on a novel by his father, Joseph Opatoshu. David Opatoshu was survived by his wife, Lillian Weinberg, a psychiatric social worker, whom he married on June 10, 1941.
They had a son, Danny. Lillian died on May 13, 2000. David Opatoshu on IMDb David Opatoshu at AllMovie David Opatoshu at the Internet Broadway Database David Opatoshu at Find a Grave
Giuseppe "Pino" Donaggio is an Italian musician and film composer. A classically-trained violinist, Donaggio is known for his collaborations with director Brian De Palma, for his work in both European and American genre cinema. Born in Burano, into a family of musicians, Donaggio began studying violin at the age of ten, first at the Benedetto Marcello conservatory in Venice, followed by the Giuseppe Verdi Conservatory in Milan. At the age of 14, he made his solo debut in a Vivaldi concert for Italian radio went on to play for both the I Solisti Veneti and the Solisti di Milano; the discovery of rock and roll during the summer of 1959 ended Donaggio's classical career when he made his singing debut with Paul Anka. He began to write his own songs and established himself as one of Italy's prominent singer-songwriters, he took part in the Sanremo Festival with "Come sinfonia" and had a string of successes including "Una casa in cima al mondo". However, his greatest hit was the 1965 hit "Io che non vivo", which sold 80 million records worldwide and was performed most popularly in English as "You Don't Have to Say You Love Me" by Dusty Springfield and Elvis Presley.
His first film was the British/Italian horror film. Since he has composed music for several films, including Dario Argento's Two Evil Eyes, Trauma and Do You Like Hitchcock?. He composed the scores for several horror films including Piranha, Tourist Trap, The Howling and Seed of Chucky, he works with US director Brian De Palma, scoring De Palma's Carrie, Home Movies, Dressed to Kill, Blow Out, Body Double, Raising Cain and Passion. In 2012 he was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award from the World Soundtrack Academy. Pino Donaggio on IMDb Pino Donaggio in Epdlp
John Saxon is an American actor and martial artist who has worked on more than 200 projects during a span of 60 years. Saxon is known for his work in westerns and horror films playing police officers and detectives. Born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, Saxon studied acting with Stella Adler before beginning his career as a contract playing for Universal Pictures, appearing in such films as Rock, Pretty Baby and Portrait in Black. In the 1970s and 1980s, he would establish himself as a character actor portraying law enforcement officials in horror films such as Black Christmas, Dario Argento's Tenebrae, A Nightmare on Elm Street. In addition to his roles in horror films, Saxon co-starred with Bruce Lee in the martial arts film Enter the Dragon, has supporting roles in the westerns Death of a Gunfighter and Joe Kidd, as well as the adventure thriller Raid on Entebbe. In the 1990s, Saxon appeared in films, with small roles in Wes Craven's New Nightmare and From Dusk till Dawn. Saxon, an Italian American, was born Carmine Orrico in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Anna and Antonio Orrico, a dock worker.
He attended New Utrecht High School, graduating in 1953. He studied acting with famous acting coach Stella Adler, he started playing teenage roles. According to Robert Hofler's 2005 biography The Man Who Invented Rock Hudson: The Pretty Boys and Dirty Deals of Henry Willson, agent Willson saw Saxon's picture on the cover of a detective magazine and contacted the boy's family in Brooklyn. With parents' permission, the 17-year-old Orrico signed with Willson, he was renamed John Saxon, he signed with Universal Studios in April 1954 at $150 a week. John Saxon is proficient in Shotokan Karate. Saxon spent 18 months at Universal, his first significant role was a juvenile delinquent in Running Wild, co-starring Mamie Van Doren. He was given a good role in The Unguarded Moment, playing a youth who stalks Esther Williams. In February 1956 Universal exercised its option on Saxon and he was paid $225 a week. Saxon had the lead in a low budget teen film, Pretty Baby which became an unexpected hit and established Saxon as a teen idol.
Universal executives were pleased, put Saxon in an "A film", This Happy Feeling, directed by Blake Edwards, where Saxon romanced Debbie Reynolds in support of Curt Jurgens. Saxon reprised his Pretty Baby role in a sequel, Summer Love. By now he was getting 3,000 fan letters a week. MGM borrowed him to appear opposite Sandra Dee in The Reluctant Debutante, for director Vincente Minnelli, seen. Saxon was billed third, beneath Kay Kendall. Public response was enthusiastic enough for Universal to reunite Saxon and Dee in The Restless Years, a teen melodrama, he had a support role in a big budget Biblical drama about Simon Peter, The Big Fisherman for director Frank Borzage, starring Howard Keel. It was a box office disappointment. Over at United Artists Saxon was the lead in a film about juvenile delinquents. Saxon worked with another top director, John Huston, in the Western, The Unforgiven, playing an Indian in support of Burt Lancaster and Audrey Hepburn. Back at Universal, he remained in a supporting role, but it was a good one: Portrait in Black, reunited with Dee, with Lana Turner and Anthony Quinn.
He was a juvenile delinquent cowboy in The Plunderers, tormenting Jeff Chandler. He stayed in Westerns in Posse from Hell with Audie Murphy and guest stars on shows like General Electric Theater and The Dick Powell Theatre. Saxon played a serial killer soldier War Hunt, had a small role in the comedy hit Mr. Hobbs Takes a Vacation. Saxon traveled to Italy to make Agostino. In 1963 Saxon co-starred with Letícia Román in Mario Bava's Italian giallo film The Girl Who Knew Too Much, he returned to Hollywood to appear in Otto Preminger's The Cardinal and an episode of Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre was back to Europe for The Cavern. The Ravagers was shot in the Philippines. In 1966, he starred in Curtis Harrington's science fiction/horror classic Queen of Blood with Basil Rathbone and Dennis Hopper appeared opposite Marlon Brando in The Appaloosa, winning a Golden Globe Best Supporting Actor nomination for his portrayal of a Mexican bandit. Saxon recalls, "This was to me a terrific role and something I was ready for.
He said he had lent a whole bunch of money to his father, what he was saying to me was that his father ruined his life by losing all of his money. He was kind of bored in the picture."The Doomsday Flight was a made-for-TV movie. In an interview in 1966 he said "I never felt comfortable being a teenage dreamboat... I regard myself as a craftsman."He portrayed Marco Polo in episode 26 of The Time Tunnel airing March 10, 1967, was a guest star on Bonanza in 1967. In episode 19, season 5 of The Virginian Saxon appeared in the title role alongside a young up and coming actor, appearing in one of his first speaking roles, Harrison Ford, and in 1969 he appeared in. Saxon was in a sex comedy for Sam Katzman, For Singles Only and appeared in some Westerns, One Dollar Too Many, Death of a Gunfighter and Joe Kidd. I Kiss the Hand (1
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per