Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
GameFan was a publication started by Tim Lindquist and Dave Halverson in September 1992 that provided coverage of domestic and import video games. It was notable for its extensive use of game screenshots in page design because of the lack of good screen shots in other U. S. publications at the time. The original magazine ceased publishing in December 2000. On April 2010, Halverson relaunched GameFan as a hybrid video game/film magazine. However, this relaunch was short-lived and suffered from many internal conflicts, advertising revenue being the main one; the idea for the name Gamefan came from the Japanese Sega magazine called Megafan. Although it began as an advertising supplement to sell imported video games from Japan, the small text reviews and descriptions soon took on a life all their own due to the lack of refinement and sense of passion. Caricatures were given in place of actual editor profile, with profiles drawn by Terry Wolfinger; this particular method of reviewing and commenting freed its editors from the creative restraints associated with competing publications.
It allowed certain editors like Dave Halverson to write multiple reviews of the same game under different pseudonyms. GameFan Magazine was well known for its extensive import game coverage and its expansive coverage of the emerging interest in anime. Another major feature that separated GameFan from other gaming magazines was the high quality paper it was printed on. Gamefan's game screen shots faithfully resembled the game graphics; the death of GameFan Magazine is attributed to several factors. The primary cause was a series of lawsuits which had haunted the magazine for nearly its entire run, following it through numerous corporate iterations and change of hands, it is this lawsuit that, in fact, had prevented the sale of the print magazine and its continuation as a going concern. After its demise, several staff members attempted to have the brand resurrected by the publisher of Computer Strategy Plus, based in Burlington, Vermont. A deal could not be reached and the magazine was shuttered shortly thereafter In the September 1995 issue of GameFan, an article was printed that contained several derogatory comments about Japanese people.
The text took. The article discussed a Namco flight-simulator, Ace Combat, rather than College Football'96 and was poorly written. GameFan's official explanation was that a rogue employee had sabotaged the magazine in order to alienate its Japanese audience and fanbase; however reports indicated that it was filler text that someone had neglected to remove, the whole thing was an internal joke that accidentally got printed. A long apology was published in DieHard GameFan's October 1995 issue in both English and Japanese, a further apology appeared in the November 1995 issue. Staff members of GameFan magazine had amusing aliases. Within the magazine there was The Adventures of Monitaur, an anime-derived series. Although the title character Monitaur was only drawn for the strip, the rest of the magazine's staff personae appeared as characters. Monitaur's main storylines were his struggles against The Blowmeister, who metaphorically represented the leadership of rival magazines such as Electronic Gaming Monthly.
The winners of GameFan's annual Golden Megawards were chosen by editors. GameFan's original editor-in-chief, Dave Halverson, went on to publish Gamer's Republic, Play Magazine consisting of former GameFan and Gamer's Republic staff members. Gamer's Republic had a short run of 35 issues and has ceased publication back in July 2001 when the dot-com bubble burst. Play had a far more successful run of 97 issues until the publishing company filed for bankruptcy. After GameFan ceased publication, Eric Mylonas went on to edit GameGO! magazine. Only one issue of the magazine reached publication with the completed second issue being distributed in PDF format only. More Mylonas has had success writing strategy guides for Prima Games. Tim Lindquist, along with several other members of the original GameFan team, began a new magazine, Hardcore Gamer, they began developing strategy guides as a part of their publishing company, DoubleJump Books. The magazine had a short run of 36 issues before they began focusing on their website.
The DieHard GameFan name was resurrected by Alex Lucard as a website, Diehard GameFAN, with Dave Halverson's blessings. While there is plenty of coverage on the major releases, the site prides itself on reviewing more "indie" games, much in the spirit of the original magazine. After the bankruptcy of Fusion Publishing and the closure of Play, Dave Halverson began work on his latest magazine, a relaunch of GameFan; the magazine returned to newsstands on April 2010, headed by Halverson and a few key staffers from Play with Rob Duenas serving as the new art director. It was available in both print and digital formats, the latter of, sold directly through GameFan's online shop. For the first two issues, GameFan featured a s
Sonic's Ultimate Genesis Collection
Sonic's Ultimate Genesis Collection is a compilation of video games developed by Backbone Entertainment and published by Sega for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. The compilation features 48 Sega games which were released for the Sega Genesis and the Master System, it is the sequel to the Sega Genesis Collection released for the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable, however it is similar to that compilation because it contains 16 more games. † Previously available in Sega Genesis Collection. † Previously available in Sega Genesis Collection. According to Ethan Einhorn, the producer for the collection, the three "lock-on" games were not included citing "tight development times", that including them would have meant "dropping several titles from the collection altogether" the aforementioned nine unlockable games since "they all required unique emulation solutions". Sonic's Ultimate Genesis Collection received "generally favorable" reviews, according to review aggregator Metacritic
A brassard or armlet is an armband or piece of cloth or other material worn around the upper arm. Unit, role or rank badges or other insignia are carried on it instead of being stitched into the actual clothing; the brassard, when spread out, may be rectangular in shape, where it is worn around the arm. The term is French, deriving from bras meaning "arm". Brassards are used with the uniforms of organizations which are not military but which are influenced by and styled upon the military, such as police, emergency services, volunteer services, or militaristic societies and political parties. A brassard is used: to temporarily attach insignia, such as rank, to clothing not bearing insignia. Brassards worn by military police and Red Cross personnel fall under this category. Brassard is used to refer to pieces of armour worn to cover the entire arm. Rosignoli, Guido; the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Military Insignia of the 20th Century. New Jersey: Chartwell Books Inc. p. 69. ISBN 1-55521-085-6
A shadow is a dark area where light from a light source is blocked by an opaque object. It occupies all of the three-dimensional volume behind an object with light in front of it; the cross section of a shadow is a two-dimensional silhouette, or a reverse projection of the object blocking the light. A point source of light casts only a simple shadow, called an "umbra". For a non-point or "extended" source of light, the shadow is divided into the umbra and antumbra; the wider the light source, the more blurred. If two penumbras overlap, the shadows appear to merge; this is known as the Shadow blister effect. The outlines of the shadow zones can be found by tracing the rays of light emitted by the outermost regions of the extended light source; the umbra region does not receive any direct light from any part of the light source, is the darkest. A viewer located in the umbra region cannot directly see any part of the light source. By contrast, the penumbra is illuminated by some parts of the light source, giving it an intermediate level of light intensity.
A viewer located in the penumbra region will see the light source, but it is blocked by the object casting the shadow. If there is more than one light source, there will be several shadows, with the overlapping parts darker, various combinations of brightnesses or colors; the more diffuse the lighting is, the softer and more indistinct the shadow outlines become, until they disappear. The lighting of an overcast sky produces few visible shadows; the absence of diffusing atmospheric effects in the vacuum of outer space produces shadows that are stark and delineated by high-contrast boundaries between light and dark. For a person or object touching the surface where the shadow is projected the shadows converge at the point of contact. A shadow shows, apart from distortion, the same image as the silhouette when looking at the object from the sun-side, hence the mirror image of the silhouette seen from the other side; the names umbra and antumbra are used for the shadows cast by astronomical objects, though they are sometimes used to describe levels of darkness, such as in sunspots.
An astronomical object casts human-visible shadows when its apparent magnitude is equal or lower than -4. The only astronomical objects able to produce visible shadows on Earth are the sun, the moon and, in the right conditions, Venus or Jupiter. A shadow cast by the Earth on the Moon is a lunar eclipse. Conversely, a shadow cast by the Moon on the Earth is a solar eclipse; the sun casts shadows which change through the day. The length of a shadow cast on the ground is proportional to the cotangent of the sun's elevation angle—its angle θ relative to the horizon. Near sunrise and sunset, when θ = 0° and cot = ∞, shadows can be long. If the sun passes directly overhead θ = 90°, cot = 0, shadows are cast directly underneath objects; such variations have long aided travellers during their travels in barren regions such as the Arabian Desert. The farther the distance from the object blocking the light to the surface of projection, the larger the silhouette. If the object is moving, the shadow cast by the object will project an image with dimensions expanding proportionally faster than the object's own rate of movement.
The increase of size and movement is true if the distance between the object of interference and the light source are closer. This, does not mean the shadow may move faster than light when projected at vast distances, such as light years; the loss of light, which projects the shadow, will move towards the surface of projection at light speed. Although the edge of a shadow appears to "move" along a wall, in actuality the increase of a shadow's length is part of a new projection which propagates at the speed of light from the object of interference. Since there is no actual communication between points in a shadow, a shadow that projects over a surface of large distances cannot convey information between those distances with the shadow's edge. Visual artists are very aware of colored light emitted or reflected from several sources, which can generate complex multicolored shadows. Chiaroscuro and silhouette are examples of artistic techniques which make deliberate use of shadow effects. During the daytime, a shadow cast by an opaque object illuminated by sunlight has a bluish tinge.
This happens because of the same property that causes the sky to appear blue. The opaque object is able to block the light of the sun, but not the ambient light of the sky, blue as the atmosphere molecules scatter blue light more effectively; as a result, the shadow appears bluish. A shadow occupies a three-dimensional volume of space, but this is not visible until it projects onto a reflective surface. A light fog, mist, or dust cloud can reveal the 3D presence of volumetric patterns in light and shadow. Fog shadows may look odd to viewers. A thin fog is just dense enough to be illuminated by the light that passes through the gaps in a structure or in a tree; as a result, the path of an object's shadow through the fog becomes visible as a darkened volume. In a sense, these shadow lanes are the inverse of crepuscular rays caused by beams of light, but caused by the shadows of solid objects. Theatrical fog and strong beams of light are sometimes used by lighting designers and visual artists who seek to highlight three-dimensional aspects of their work.
Oftentimes shadows of chain-linked fences
GamePro was an American multiplatform video game magazine media company that published online and print content covering the video game industry, video game hardware and video game software. The magazine featured content on PC computers and mobile devices. Gamepro Media properties included their website; the company was a part subsidiary of the held International Data Group, a media and research technology group. Published in 1989, GamePro magazine provided feature articles, news and reviews on various video games, video game hardware and the entertainment video gaming industry; the magazine was published monthly with October 2011 being its last issue, after over 22 years of publication. GamePro's February 2010 issue introduced a redesigned layout and a new editorial direction focused on the people and culture of its gaming. GamePro.com was launched in 1998. Updated daily, the website’s content included feature articles, previews, reviews and videos covering video games, video game hardware and the entertainment gaming industry.
The website included user content such as forums and blogs. In January 2010, the website was redesigned to reflect the same new editorial changes being made in the print magazine; the website was based at Gamepro's headquarters in San Francisco from 1998–2002 and in Oakland, California from 2002–11. Gamepro.com had international variants that have now outlasted their parent publication in countries such as Germany, France. Gamepro was first established in late 1988 by Patrick Ferrell, his sister-in-law Leeanne McDermott, the husband-wife design team of Michael and Lynne Kavish, they worked out of their houses throughout the San Francisco Bay Area before leasing their first office in Redwood City, California at the end of 1989. Lacking the cashflow to be able to sustain growth after publishing the first issue, the founding management team sought a major publisher and in 1989 found one with IDG Peterborough, a New Hampshire-based division of the global giant IDG. Led by a merger and acquisition team comprising IDG Peterborough President Roger Murphy and two other executives, Jim McBrian and Roger Strukhoff, the magazine was acquired a few months spun off as an independent business unit of IDG, under the leadership of Ferrell as president/CEO.
The addition of John Rousseau as publisher and editor-in-chief Wes Nihei, as well as renowned artist Francis Mao, established Gamepro as a large, profitable magazine worldwide publication. Francis Mao, acting in his role as art director for the nascent GamePro, contracted game illustrator Marc Ericksen to create the premiere cover for the first addition of the magazine. Ericksen would go on to produce five of the first ten covers for GamePro creating eight in total, would continue a secondary role creating a number of the double page spreads for the popular monthly Pro Tips section. Over the years, the Gamepro offices have moved from Redwood City to San Mateo to San Francisco and lastly Oakland. In 1993, the company was renamed from Gamepro Inc. to Infotainment World in reflection of its growing and diverse publication lines. The magazine was known for its editors using comic book-like avatars and monikers when reviewing games; as of January 2004, Gamepro ceased to use the avatars due to a change in the overall design and layout of the magazine.
Meanwhile, editorial voices carried over to the community on its online sister publication, www.gamepro.com. Gamepro was most famous for its ProTips, small pieces of gameplay tips and advice depicted with game screenshot captions, it features a special corner section known as Code Vault, where secret codes are all posted. These particular features have since vanished. Code Vault was published in print format and sold as a quarterly cheats and strategy magazine on newsstands. There was a TV show called GamePro TV; the show was hosted by J. D. Brennan Howard; the show was nationally syndicated for one year moved to cable for a second year. In 1993, Patrick Ferrell sent Debra Vernon, VP of marketing, to a meeting between the games industry and the Consumer Electronics Show. Realizing an opportunity, the team at the now-entitled Infotainment World launched E3, the Electronic Entertainment Expo; the industry backed Ferrell partnered with the IDSA to produce the event. It was one of the biggest trade show launches in history.
Early in its lifespan, the magazine included comic book pages about the adventures of a superhero named Gamepro, a video game player from the real world brought into a dimension where video games were real to save it from creatures called the Evil Darklings. In 2003, Joyride Studios produced limited-edition action figures of some of the Gamepro editorial characters. Gamepro appeared in several international editions, including France, Spain, Italy, Australia and Greece; some of these publications share the North American content, while some others share only the name and logo but do feature different content. Early in 2006, IDG Entertainment began to change internally and shift operational focus from a "Print to Online" to "Online to Print" publishing mentality; the first steps. Enter: George Jones, industry veteran. In February 2006, Gamepro's online video channel, Games.net, launched a series of video-game related shows. The extensive online programming is geared towards an more mature audience.
In August 2006, the Gamepro onli
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie