Open Library is an online project intended to create "one web page for every book published". Created by Aaron Swartz, Brewster Kahle, Alexis Rossi, Anand Chitipothu, Rebecca Malamud, Open Library is a project of the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization, it has been funded in part by grants from the California State Library and the Kahle/Austin Foundation. Open Library provides online access to many public out-of-print books, its book information is collected from the Library of Congress, other libraries, Amazon.com, as well as from user contributions through a Wiki-like interface. If books are available in digital form, a button labelled "Read" appears next to its catalog listing. Links to where books can be purchased or borrowed are provided. There are different entities in the database: authors works editions Open Library claims to have 6 million authors and 20 million books, about one million public domain books available as digitized books. Tens of thousands of modern books were made available from four and 150 libraries and publishers for ebook digital lending.
Other books including in-print and in-copyright books have been scanned from copies in library collections, library discards, donations, are being distributed in digital form. Open Library began in 2006 with Aaron Swartz as the original engineer and leader of Open the Library's technical team; the project was led by George Oates from April 2009 to December 2011. Oates was responsible for a complete site redesign during her tenure. In 2015, the project was continued by Giovanni Damiola and Brenton Cheng and Mek Karpeles in 2016; the site was redesigned and relaunched in May 2010. Its codebase is on GitHub; the site uses Infobase, its own database framework based on PostgreSQL, Infogami, its own Wiki engine written in Python. The source code to the site is published under the GNU Affero General Public License; the website was relaunched adding ADA compliance and offering over 1 million modern and older books to the print disabled in May 2010 using the DAISY Digital Talking Book. Under certain provisions of United States copyright law, libraries are sometimes able to reproduce copyrighted works in formats accessible to users with disabilities.
As of February 2019, the Open Library has been accused of mass copyright violation, via the systematic distribution of in-print, in-copyright books, by the American Authors Guild, the British Society of Authors, the Australian Society of Authors, the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, the US National Writers Union, a coalition of 37 national and international organizations of "writers, translators and graphic artists. The UK Society of Authors threatened legal action unless the Open Library agreed to cease distribution of copyrighted works by 1-Feb-2019. Individual authors reported that Open Library had ignored multiple DMCA takedown notices until after they made a fuss on the Internet Archive blog Free Software licensing Google Books LibraryThing List of AGPL web applications List of digital library projects Online Computer Library Center – creator of WorldCat Online Public Access Catalog Meadows, Chris. "The Internet Archive's OpenLibrary project violates copyright, the Authors Guild warns".
TeleRead. Official website The Open Library public domain audiobook at LibriVox [
Genetic engineering called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. A construct is created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism; the first recombinant DNA molecule was made by Paul Berg in 1972 by combining DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with the lambda virus. As well as inserting genes, the process can be used to remove, or "knock out", genes; the new DNA can be targeted to a specific part of the genome. An organism, generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism; the first GMO was a bacterium generated by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973.
Rudolf Jaenisch created the first GM animal when he inserted foreign DNA into a mouse in 1974. The first company to focus on genetic engineering, was founded in 1976 and started the production of human proteins. Genetically engineered human insulin was produced in 1978 and insulin-producing bacteria were commercialised in 1982. Genetically modified food has been sold with the release of the Flavr Savr tomato; the Flavr Savr was engineered to have a longer shelf life, but most current GM crops are modified to increase resistance to insects and herbicides. GloFish, the first GMO designed as a pet, was sold in the United States in December 2003. In 2016 salmon modified with a growth hormone were sold. Genetic engineering has been applied in numerous fields including research, industrial biotechnology and agriculture. In research GMOs are used to study gene function and expression through loss of function, gain of function and expression experiments. By knocking out genes responsible for certain conditions it is possible to create animal model organisms of human diseases.
As well as producing hormones and other drugs genetic engineering has the potential to cure genetic diseases through gene therapy. The same techniques that are used to produce drugs can have industrial applications such as producing enzymes for laundry detergent and other products; the rise of commercialised genetically modified crops has provided economic benefit to farmers in many different countries, but has been the source of most of the controversy surrounding the technology. This has been present since its early use. Although there is a scientific consensus that available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, GM food safety is a leading concern with critics. Gene flow, impact on non-target organisms, control of the food supply and intellectual property rights have been raised as potential issues; these concerns have led to the development of a regulatory framework, which started in 1975. It has led to an international treaty, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, adopted in 2000.
Individual countries have developed their own regulatory systems regarding GMOs, with the most marked differences occurring between the US and Europe. Genetic engineering is a process that alters the genetic structure of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA. Unlike traditional animal and plant breeding, which involves doing multiple crosses and selecting for the organism with the desired phenotype, genetic engineering takes the gene directly from one organism and inserts it in the other; this is much faster, can be used to insert any genes from any organism and prevents other undesirable genes from being added. Genetic engineering could fix severe genetic disorders in humans by replacing the defective gene with a functioning one, it is an important tool in research. Drugs and other products have been harvested from organisms engineered to produce them. Crops have been developed that aid food security by increasing yield, nutritional value and tolerance to environmental stresses; the DNA can be introduced directly into the host organism or into a cell, fused or hybridised with the host.
This relies on recombinant nucleic acid techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro-injection, macro-injection or micro-encapsulation. Genetic engineering does not include traditional breeding, in vitro fertilisation, induction of polyploidy and cell fusion techniques that do not use recombinant nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process. However, some broad definitions of genetic engineering include selective breeding. Cloning and stem cell research, although not considered genetic engineering, are related and genetic engineering can be used within them. Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline that takes genetic engineering a step further by introducing artificially synthesised material into an organism. Plants, animals or micro organisms that have been changed through genetic engineering are termed genetically modified organisms or GMOs.
If genetic material from another species is added to the host, the resulting organism is called transgenic. If genetic material from the same species or a species that can breed with the host is used the resulting organism is called cisgenic. If genetic engineering is used to r
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction
The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction is a U. S. fantasy and science fiction magazine first published in 1949 by Fantasy House, a subsidiary of Lawrence Spivak's Mercury Press. Editors Anthony Boucher and J. Francis McComas had approached Spivak in the mid-1940s about creating a fantasy companion to Spivak's existing mystery title, Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine; the first issue was titled The Magazine of Fantasy, but the decision was made to include science fiction as well as fantasy, the title was changed correspondingly with the second issue. F&SF was quite different in presentation from the existing science fiction magazines of the day, most of which were in pulp format: it had no interior illustrations, no letter column, text in a single column format, which in the opinion of science fiction historian Mike Ashley "set F&SF apart, giving it the air and authority of a superior magazine". F&SF became one of the leading magazines in the science fiction and fantasy field, with a reputation for publishing literary material and including more diverse stories than its competitors.
Well-known stories that appeared in its early years include Richard Matheson's Born of Man and Woman, Ward Moore's Bring the Jubilee, a novel of an alternative history in which the South has won the American Civil War. McComas left for health reasons in 1954, but Boucher continued as sole editor until 1958, winning the Hugo Award for Best Magazine that year, a feat his successor, Robert Mills, repeated in the next two years. Mills was responsible for publishing Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keyes, Rogue Moon by Algis Budrys, Starship Troopers by Robert Heinlein, the first of Brian Aldiss's Hothouse stories; the first few issues featured cover art by George Salter, Mercury Press's art director, but other artists soon began to appear, including Chesley Bonestell, Kelly Freas, Ed Emshwiller. In 1962, Mills was succeeded as editor by Avram Davidson; when Davidson left at the end of 1964, Joseph Ferman, who had bought the magazine from Spivak in 1954, took over as editor, though his son Edward soon began doing the editorial work under his father's supervision.
At the start of 1966 Edward Ferman was listed as editor, four years he acquired the magazine from his father and moved the editorial offices to his house in Connecticut. Ferman remained editor for over 25 years, published many well-received stories, including Fritz Leiber's Ill Met in Lankhmar, Robert Silverberg's Born with the Dead, Stephen King's The Dark Tower series. In 1991 he turned the editorship over to Kristine Kathryn Rusch, who began including more horror and dark fantasy than had appeared under Ferman. In the mid-1990s circulation began to decline. Gordon Van Gelder replaced Rusch in 1997, bought the magazine from Ferman in 2001, but circulation continued to fall, by 2011 it was below 15,000. Charles Coleman Finlay took over from Van Gelder as editor in 2015; the first magazine dedicated to fantasy, Weird Tales, appeared in 1923. By the end of the 1930s, the genre was flourishing in the United States, nearly twenty new sf and fantasy titles appearing between 1938 and 1941; these were all pulp magazines, which meant that despite the occasional high-quality story, most of the magazines presented badly written fiction and were regarded as trash by many readers.
In 1941, Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine appeared, edited by Fred Dannay and focusing on detective fiction. The magazine was published in digest format, rather than pulp, printed a mixture of classic stories and fresh material. Dannay attempted to avoid the sensationalist fiction appearing in the pulps, soon made the magazine a success. In the early 1940s Anthony Boucher, a successful writer of fantasy and sf and of mystery stories, got to know Dannay through his work on the Ellery Queen radio show. Boucher knew J. Francis McComas, an editor who shared his interest in fantasy and sf. By 1944 McComas and Boucher became interested in the idea of a fantasy companion to Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, spoke to Dannay about it. Dannay was interested in the idea, but paper was scarce because of World War II; the following year Boucher and McComas suggested that the new magazine could use the Ellery Queen name, but Dannay knew little about fantasy and suggested instead that they approach Lawrence Spivak, the owner of Mercury Press, which published Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine.
In January 1946, Boucher and McComas went to New York and met with Spivak, who let them know in the year that he wanted to go ahead. At Spivak's request they began acquiring material for the new magazine, including a new story by Raymond Chandler, reprint rights to stories by H. P. Lovecraft, John Dickson Carr, Robert Bloch. Spivak planned the first issue for early 1947, but delayed the launch because of poor newsstand sales of digest magazines, he suggested that it should be priced at 35 cents an issue, higher than the original plan, to provide a financial buffer against poor sales. In May 1949 Spivak suggested a new title, The Magazine of Fantasy, in August a press release announced that the magazine would appear in October. On October 6, 1949, Boucher and McComas held a luncheon at the Waldorf-Astoria in New York City to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the death of Edgar Allan Poe and to launch "a new fantasy anthology periodical". Invitees included Carr, Basil Rathbone, Boris Karloff.
The first issue, published by Fantasy House, a subsidiary of American Mercury, sold 57,000 co
Orphans of the Sky
Orphans of the Sky is a science fiction novel by American writer Robert A. Heinlein, consisting of two parts: "Universe" and its sequel, "Common Sense"; the two novellas were first published together in book form in 1963. "Universe" was published separately in 1951 as a 10¢ Dell paperback. These works contain one of the earliest fictional depictions of a generation ship; the gigantic, cylindrical generation ship Vanguard destined for "Far Centaurus", is cruising without guidance through the interstellar medium as a result of a long-ago mutiny that killed most of the officers. Over time, the descendants of the surviving loyal crew have forgotten the purpose and nature of their ship and lapsed into a pre-technological culture marked by superstition, they come to believe the "Ship" is the entire universe, so that "To move the ship" is considered an oxymoron, references to the Ship's "voyage" are interpreted as religious metaphor. They are ruled by an oligarchy of "officers" and "scientists". Most crew members are simple illiterate farmers or never venturing to the "upper decks", where the "muties" dwell.
Among the crew, all identifiable mutants are killed at birth. The story centers upon a young man of insatiable curiosity, Hugh Hoyland, selected as an apprentice by a scientist; the scientists ritualistically perform the tasks required to maintain the Ship while remaining ignorant of their true functions. On a hunt for muties, Hugh is captured by them, he avoids getting eaten, instead becomes the slave of Joe-Jim Gregory, the two-headed leader of a powerful mutie gang. Joe and Jim have separate identities, but both are intelligent, between them have come to a crude understanding of the Ship's true nature. Having become convinced of the Ship's true purpose, Hugh persuades Joe-Jim to complete the Vanguard's mission of colonization, having noticed that there is a nearby star that Joe-Jim remember as growing larger over the years. Intent on this mission, he returns to the lower levels of the Ship to convince others to help him, but is arrested by his former boss Bill Ertz and sentenced to death, he is viewed as either insane or a unrecognized mutant – he was a borderline case at birth, with a head viewed as too large.
Hugh persuades his old friend. He shows a view of the stars. Convinced, Bill enlists the captain's aide, Phineas Narby, to Hugh's crusade. Inspired by one of Joe-Jim's favorite books, The Three Musketeers, they manufacture swords, superior to the daggers everyone else has, overthrow the captain and install Narby in his place, they embark on a campaign to bring the entire Ship under their control. But things go wrong. Narby never was only playing along as a means to gain power. Once in control, he treacherously sets out to eliminate the muties. Joe is killed in the fighting. Jim sacrifices himself to hold off their pursuers long enough for Hugh, Bill and their wives to get to a automated lifeboat. Hugh manages to land on the habitable moon of a gas giant; the colonists disembark to uneasily explore their alien surroundings. Avram Davidson described Orphans of the Sky as "a modern classic", praising "the magnitude and magnificence of Orphans' concepts" despite expressing disappointment in "the limitations of its conclusion".
Damon Knight said: "Nobody has improved on Universe, although a good many reckless people have tried, because Heinlein said it all." Algis Budrys said that "Many hands have worked at improving Heinlein's impeccable statement of this theme", with none succeeding until James White's The Watch Below. A paragraph at the start of the novel shows an excerpt from "The Romance of Modern Astrography", explaining that the ship was part of the "Proxima Centauri Expedition, sponsored by the Jordan Foundation in 2119". A discovered ship's log begins in June 2172. In Heinlein's novel Time Enough for Love, the Vanguard is mentioned as the sister ship of the New Frontiers, commandeered by the Howard Families in the novel Methuselah's Children, it never landed colonists there. The Vanguard has been discovered, with its crew long dead due to some unexplained failure in its mechanisms, its records destroyed or illegible, its path is traced back, the descendants of Hugh's people are found, flourishing as intelligent savages, on a planet which scientists dub "Pitcairn Island".
This was the only star where settlement was possible on the Vanguard's path. This conversation takes place in 4291, it is mentioned that the settlers have been there for 800 years. Another reference to Heinlein's Future History is a passage describing Joe-Jim's enthusiasm for the works of "Rhysling, the blind singer of the spaceways", a poet and the central character of the Heinlein story "The Green Hills of Earth". "Universe" was performed as a radio play on the NBC Radio Network programs Dimension X and X Minus One. These versions have several drastic changes to the story in their conclusions, in which Hugh is killed showing the crew of the Vanguard the true nature of the Ship. Two-headed humans do exist – one variation of conjoined twins; the physics of The Ship are correct: it spins to give artificial gravity, w
Robert A. Heinlein bibliography
The science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein was productive during a writing career that spanned the last 49 years of his life. Four films, two TV series, several episodes of a radio series, a board game derive more or less directly from his work, he wrote a screenplay for one of the films. Heinlein edited an anthology of other writers' SF short stories. Three non-fiction books and two poems have been published posthumously. One novel has been published posthumously and another, an unusual collaboration, was published in 2006. Four collections have been published posthumously. Heinlein's fictional works can be found in the library under PS3515. E288, or under Dewey 813.54. Known pseudonyms include Anson MacDonald, Lyle Monroe, John Riverside, Caleb Saunders, Simon York. All the works attributed to MacDonald, Saunders and York, many of the works attributed to Lyle Monroe, were reissued in various Heinlein collections and attributed to Heinlein. Novels marked with an asterisk * are the Scribner's "juvenile" series.
Rocket Ship Galileo, 1947 * Beyond This Horizon, 1948 Space Cadet, 1948 * Red Planet, 1949 * Sixth Column, 1949 Farmer in the Sky, 1950 * Between Planets, 1951 * The Puppet Masters, 1951 The Rolling Stones, 1952 * Starman Jones, 1953 * The Star Beast, 1954 * Tunnel in the Sky, 1955 * Double Star, 1956—Hugo Award, 1956 Time for the Stars, 1956 * Citizen of the Galaxy, 1957 * The Door into Summer, 1957 Have Space Suit—Will Travel, 1958—Hugo Award nominee, 1959 * Methuselah's Children, 1958 Starship Troopers, 1959—Hugo Award, 1960 Stranger in a Strange Land, 1961—Hugo Award, 1962, Podkayne of Mars, 1963 Orphans of the Sky, 1963 Glory Road, 1963—Hugo Award nominee, 1964 Farnham's Freehold, 1964 The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, 1966—Hugo Award, 1967 I Will Fear No Evil, 1970 Time Enough for Love, 1973—Nebula Award nominated, 1973. The reconstructed novel, tentatively entitled 666 was an alternative version of The Number of the Beast, with the first one-third of 666 the same as the first one-third of The Number of the Beast but the remainder of 666 deviating from The Number of the Beast, with a different story-line.
The newly reconstructed novel pays homage to Edgar Rice Burroughs and E. E. "Doc" Smith. The reconstructed novel 666 is being edited by Patrick LoBrutto. Both 666 and a new edition of The Number of the Beast are planned to be published in the fourth quarter of 2019. "Life-Line", 1939 "Let There Be Light", 1940 "Misfit", 1939 "The Roads Must Roll", 1940 "Requiem", 1940 "If This Goes On—", 1940, first novel. "Coventry", 1940 "Blowups Happen", 1940 "Universe", 1941 "—We Also Walk Dogs", 1941 "Common Sense", 1941 "Methuselah's Children", 1941 "Logic of Empire", 1941 "Space Jockey", 1947 "It's Great to Be Back!", 1947 "The Green Hills of Earth", 1947 "Ordeal in Space", 1948 "The Long Watch", 1948 "Gentlemen, Be Seated!", 1948 "The Black Pits of Luna", 1948 "Delilah and the Space Rigger", 1949 "The Man Who Sold the Moon", 1950 "The Menace From Earth", 1957 "Searchlight", 1962 All the works attributed to Anson MacDonald, Caleb Saunders, John Riverside and Simon York, many of the works attributed to Lyle Monroe, were reissued in various Heinlein collections and attributed to Heinlein.
At Heinlein's insistence, the three Lyle Monroe stories marked with the symbol'§' were never reissued in a Heinlein anthology during his lifetime. "Magic, Inc.", 1940 "Solution Unsatisfactory", 1940 "Let There Be Light", 1940 "Successful Operation" 1940 "They", 1941 "—And He Built a Crooked House—", 1941 "By His Bootstraps", 1941 "Lost Legacy", 1941 "Elsewhen", 1941 § "Beyond Doubt", 1941 "The Unpleasant Profession of Jonathan Hoag", 1942 "Waldo", 1942 § "My Object All Sublime", 1942 "Goldfish Bowl", 1942 § "Pied Piper", 1942 "Free Men", 1946 "Jerry Was a Man", 1947 "Columbus Was a Dope", 1947 "On the Slopes of Vesuvius", 1947 "Our Fair City", 1948 "Gulf", 1949 "Nothing Ever Happens on
Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books. Since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El; as a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin, his foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there.
Depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as the genius inventor Lex Luthor, he is a friend of many other superheroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman. Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions, he remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises outside of comic books. He is regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time. Superman was created by Joe Shuster. A duo who met met in 1932 in a high school in Cleveland and bonded over their mutual love of fiction. Siegel aspired to become a writer and Shuster aspired to become an illustrator. Siegel wrote amateur science fiction stories, which he self-published a magazine called Science Fiction: The Advance Guard of Future Civilization.
His friend Shuster provided illustrations for his work. In January 1933, Siegel published a short story in his magazine titled "The Reign of the Superman"; the titular character is a vagrant named Bill Dunn, tricked by an evil scientist into consuming an experimental drug. The drug gives Dunn the powers of mind-reading, mind-control, clairvoyance, he uses these powers maliciously for profit and amusement, but the drug wears off, leaving him a powerless vagrant again. Shuster provided illustrations. Siegel and Shuster shifted with a focus on adventure and comedy, they wanted to become syndicated newspaper strip authors, so they showed their ideas to various newspaper editors. However, the newspaper editors told them. If they wanted to make a successful comic strip, it had to be something more sensational than anything else on the market; this prompted Siegel to revisit Superman as a comic strip character. Siegel modified Superman's powers to make him more sensational: Like Bill Dunn, the second prototype of Superman is given powers against his will by an unscrupulous scientist, but instead of psychic abilities, he acquires superhuman strength and bullet-proof skin.
Additionally, this new Superman was a crime-fighting hero instead of a villain, because Siegel noted that comic strips with heroic protagonists tended to be more successful. In years, Siegel once recalled that this Superman wore a "bat-like" cape in some panels, but he and Shuster agreed there was no costume yet, there is none apparent in the surviving artwork. Siegel and Shuster showed this second concept of Superman to Consolidated Book Publishers, based in Chicago. In May 1933, Consolidated had published a comic book titled Detective Dan: Secret Operative 48, it contained all-original stories as opposed to reprints of newspaper strips, a novelty at the time. Siegel and Shuster put together a comic book in similar format called The Superman. A delegation from Consolidated visited Cleveland that summer on a business trip, Siegel and Shuster took the opportunity to present their work in person. Although Consolidated expressed interest, they pulled out of the comics business without offering a book deal because the sales of Detective Dan were disappointing.
Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster. When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover, they continued collaborating on other projects, but for the time being Shuster was through with Superman. Siegel wrote to numerous artists; the first response came in July 1933 from Leo O'Mealia, who drew the Fu Manchu strip for the Bell Syndicate. In the script that Siegel sent O'Mealia, Superman's origin story changes: He is a "scientist-adventurer" from the far future, when humanity has evolved "super powers". Just before the Earth explodes, he escapes in a time-machine to the modern era, whereupon he begins using his super powers to fight crime. O'Mealia produced a few strips and showed them to his newspaper syndicate. Nothing of Siegel and O'Mealia's collaboration survives, except in Siegel's memoir. In June 1934, Siegel found another partner: an artist in Chicago named Russell Keaton.
Keaton drew the Buck R