History of Jainism
History of Jainism is the history of a religion founded in Ancient India. Jains trace their history through twenty-four tirthankara and revere Rishabhanatha as the first tirthankara; some artifacts found in the Indus Valley civilization have been suggested as a link to ancient Jain culture, but this is speculative and a subjective interpretation. This theory has not been accepted by most scholars because little is known about the Indus Valley iconography and script; the last two tirthankara, the 23rd tirthankara Parshvanatha and the 24th tirthankara Mahavira are considered historical figures. Mahavira was the elder contemporary of the Buddha. According to Jain texts, the 22nd Tirthankara Arshth-nemi lived about 85,000 years ago and was the cousin of Hindu god Krishna. Jains consider their religion eternal; the two main sects of Jainism, the Digambara and the Śvētāmbara sect started forming about the 3rd century BCE and the schism was complete by about 5th century CE. These sects subdivided into several sub-sects such as Sthānakavāsī and Terapanthis.
Jainism co-existed with Hinduism in ancient and medieval India. Many of its historic temples were built near the Buddhist and Hindu temples in 1st millennium CE. After the 12th-century, the temples and naked ascetic tradition of Jainism suffered persecution during the Muslim rule, with the exception of Akbar whose religious tolerance and support for Jainism led to a temporary ban on animal killing during the Jain religious festival of Paryusan; the origins of Jainism are obscure. The Jains claim their religion is eternal, consider Rishabhanatha the founder in the present time-cycle, someone who lived for 8,400,000 purva years. Rishabhanatha is the first tirthankar among the 24 Tirthankaras who are considered mythical figures by historians. Different scholars have had different views on the origin; some artifacts found in the Indus Valley civilization have been suggested as a link to ancient Jain culture, but this is speculative. According to a 1925 proposal of Glasenapp, Jainism's origin can be traced to the 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanatha, he considers the first twenty-two tirthankaras as legendary mythical figures.
According to another proposal by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the first vice president of India, Jainism was in existence long before the Vedas were composed. Jain texts and tradition believes in 24 Tirthankaras. Historians only consider the last two based on historical figures of the 1st millennium BCE. Buddhist sources don't mention Mahavira as a founder of new the tradition, but as part of an ascetic Nirgranthas tradition; this has led scholars to conclude that Mahavira was not the founder, but a reformer of a tradition established by his predecessor, Parsvanatha. During the 6th century BCE, Mahāvīra became one of the most influential teachers of Jainism. Jains revere him as the last tirthankara of present cosmic age. Though, Mahavira is sometimes mistakenly regarded as the founder, he appears in the tradition as one who, from the beginning, had followed a religion established long ago. There is reasonable historical evidence that the 23rd Tirthankara, the predecessor of Mahavira, lived somewhere in the 9th–7th century BCE.
Neminatha was the predecessor of Parshvanatha, 84,000 years ago, 22nd Tirthankara of the Jain tradition. The texts of Jainism call the Hindu god Krishna a cousin of Neminatha, say that Neminatha taught Krishna all the wisdom that he gave to Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita. According to Jeffery D. Long, a professor of Religion known for his publications on Jainism, this connection between Krishna and Neminatha has been a historic reason for Jains to accept and cite the Bhagavad Gita as a spiritually important text, celebrate Krishna related festivals and intermingle with Hindus as spiritual cousins; the Vedas mention the name Rishabha. However, the context in the Rigveda and the Upanishads suggests that it means the bull, sometimes "any male animal" or "most excellent of any kind", or "a kind of medicinal plant". Elsewhere it is an epithet for the Hindu god Shiva. Hindu mythical texts such as the Bhagavata Purana include Rishabha Jina as an avatar of Vishnu. After the nirvana of Parshvanatha, his disciple Subhadatta became the head of the monks.
Subhadatta was succeeded by Haridatta, Aryasamudra and lastly Kesi. Uttaradhyayana, a Svetambara text have records of a dialogue between Kesi; the Tirthankaras are believed in the Jain tradition to have attained omniscience, known as kevala jnana. After Mahavira, one of his disciples Sudharma Svami is said to have taken over the leadership, he was the head of Jain community till 515 BCE. After his death, Jambuswami, a disciple of Sudharma Svami became the head of the monks, he was the head till 463 BCE. Sudharma Svami and Jambu Svami are traditionally said to have attained keval jnana, it is said. After Sudharma svami, there followed five sutrakevalis, i.e. those who were well versed in the scriptures, who headed the monks of the Jain community. Bhadrabahu was the last sutrakevali. After Bhadrabahu, there were seven leaders. Knowledge of the scriptures was progressively being lost with each in turn. During Chandragupta Maurya's reign, Acharya Bhadrabahu moved to Karnataka to survive a twelve-year-long famine.
Sthulabhadra, a pupil of Acharya Bhadrabahu, stayed in Magadha. When followers of Acharya Bhadrabahu returned, there was a dispute between them regarding the authenticity of the Angas; those who stayed at magadha started wea
Rishabhanatha is the first Tirthankara of Jainism. A leader, he is believed in Jainism to have lived billions of billions of years ago, he was the first of twenty-four teachers in the present half-cycle of time in Jain cosmology, called a "ford maker" because his teachings helped one across the sea of interminable rebirths and deaths. He is known as Ādinātha of Jainism which translates into "First Lord", as well as Adishvara, Yugadideva and Nebheya. Along with Mahavira and Neminatha, Rishabhanatha is one of the four Tirthankaras that attract the most devotional worship among the Jains. According to Jain traditional accounts, he was born to king Nabhi and queen Marudevi in the north Indian city of Ayodhya called Vinita, he had two wives and Sumangala. Sumangala is described as one daughter, Brahmi. Sunanda is depicted as the mother of Sundari; the sudden death of Nilanjana, one of the dancers of Indra, reminded him of the world's transitory nature, he developed a desire for renunciation. After his renunciation, the Jain legends state Rishabhanatha wandered without food for an entire year.
The day on which he got his first ahara is celebrated by Jains as Akshaya Tritiya. He is said to have attained Moksha on Mount Asthapada; the text Adi Purana by Jinasena is an account of the events of his life. His iconography includes colossal statues such as Statue of Ahimsa and those erected in Gopachal hill, his icons include the eponymous bull as his emblem, the Nyagrodha tree, Gomukha Yaksha, Chakreshvari Yakshi. Guinness world record holder 113 ft. tall statue of lord Rishabh is situated at Mangitungi by inspiration of Sumpreme Jain Sadhvi Ganini Gyanmati Mataji. According to Jain cosmology, the universe does not have end, its "Universal History" divides the cycle of time into two halves with six aras in each half, the cycles keep repeating perpetually. Twenty-four Tirthankaras appear in the first Tirthankara founding Jainism each time. In the present time cycle, Rishabhanatha is credited as being the first tīrthaṅkara, born at the end of the third half. According to Jain texts, Rishabhanatha was born in a king's family in the age when there was happiness all around with no one needing to do any work because of Kalpavriksha.
As the cycle progressed, the efficacy of these trees decreased, people rushed to their king for help. Rishabhanatha is said to have taught the men six main professions; these were: Asi, Krishi, Vidya and Shilp. In other words, he is credited with introducing karma-bhumi by founding arts and professions to enable householders to sustain themselves, he is, in the Jain belief, the one who organized a social system that created the varna based on professions. Rishabhanatha is credited in Jainism to have invented and taught fire and all skills needed for human beings to live. In total, Rishabhanatha is said to have taught seventy-two sciences to men and sixty-four to women. According to Paul Dundas, Rishabhanatha in Jain mythology is thus not a spiritual teacher but one who founded knowledge in its various forms and a form of culture hero for the current cosmological cycle; the institution of marriage is stated to have come into existence after he married to set an example for other humans to follow.
His life is credited by Jains with starting the institution of charity from layperson to mendicants, when he received sugarcane juice in his hand from King Shreyansha, to break his fast. This is accepted in the Jain tradition as what started the tradition of alms giving in its various forms, one that has continued since ancient times in India. Rishabhanatha is said to be the founder of Jainism by the different Jain sub-traditions. Jain chronology places Rishabhanatha in historical terms, as someone, he is stated to have lived for 8,400,000 purva years. His height is described in the Jain texts to be about 1,200 feet; such descriptions of non-human heights and age are found for the next 21 Tirthankaras in Jain texts and according to Kristi Wiley – a scholar at University of California Berkeley known for her publications in Jainism, most Indologists and scholars consider all the first 22 of 24 Tirthankaras to be prehistorical, or historical and a part of Jain mythology. However, among Jain writers and some Indian scholars, some of the first 22 Tirthankaras are considered to reflect historical figures, with a few conceding that the inflated biographical statistics are mythical.
According to Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, a professor of comparative religions and philosophy at Oxford who became the second President of India, there is evidence to show that Rishabhdeva was being worshipped by the first century BCE. The Yajurveda mentions the name of three Tirthankaras – Rishabha and Arishtanemi, states Radhakrishnan, "the Bhāgavata Purāṇa endorses the view that Rishabha was the founder of Jainism"; the Vedas mention the name Rishabha. However, the context in the Rigveda and the Upanishads suggests that it means the bull, sometimes "any male animal" or "most excellent of any kind", or "a kind of medicinal plant". Elsewhere it is an epithet for the Hindu god Shiva.. 0 Rudra-like Div
Samantabhadra (Jain monk)
Samantabhadra was a Digambara acharya who lived about the part of the second century CE He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada. The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived before Pujyapada. Samantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE, he was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty. He was a poet, eulogist and an accomplished linguist, he is credited with spreading Jainism in southern India. Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka. As, digambara monks don't eat more than once in a day, he endured great pain, he sought the permission of his preceptor to undertake the vow of Sallekhana. The preceptor asked him to leave monasticism and get the disease cured. After getting cured he became a great Jain Acharya. Samantabhadra affirmed Kundakunda's theory of the two nayas - niścayanaya, he argued however that the mundane view is not false, but is only a relative form of knowledge mediated by language and concepts, while the ultimate view is an immediate form of direct knowledge.
Samantabhadra developed further the Jain theory of syādvāda. Jain texts authored by Acharya Samantabhadra are: Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra - The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra discusses the conduct of a Śrāvaka in detail. Gandhahastimahabhasya, a monumental commentary on the Tattvartha Sutra; the Gandhahaslimahahhasya, with the exception of its Manglacharana, is extant now. The Manglacharana is known as the'Devagama stotra' or Āpta-mīmāṁsā. Āpta-mīmāṁsā- A treatise of 114 verses, it discusses the Jaina concept of omniscience and the attributes of the Omniscient. Svayambhustotra- An adoration of The Twenty-four Tirthankaras - 143 verses Yuktyanusasana- Sixty-four verses in praise of Tirthankara Vardhamāna Mahāvīra Jinasatakam - Poetical work written in Sanskrit in praise of twenty-four Jinas. Tattvanusasana Vijayadhavala tika Jinasena, in his celebrated work, Ādi purāṇa praises the Samantabhadra as Ghoshal, Saratchandra, Āpta-mīmāṁsā of Āchārya Samantabhadra, ISBN 9788126307241 Jain, Vijay K. Acarya Samantabhadra's Svayambhustotra: Adoration of The Twenty-four Tirthankara, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-7-6, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain.
Jain, Samantabhadrabhāratī, Budhānā, Muzaffarnagar: Achārya Shāntisāgar Chani Smriti Granthmala, ISBN 978-81-90468879 Jain, Champat Rai, The Ratna Karanda Sravakachara, The Central Jaina Publishing House, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain. Long, Jeffery D. Jainism: An Introduction, I. B. Tauris, ISBN 978-1-84511-625-5 Shah, Jainism: The World of Conquerors, I, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1938-1
Paryushana is the most important annual holy events for Jains and is celebrated in August or September in Hindi calendar Bhadrapad Month's Shukla Paksha. It lasts 10 days for Digambara sect of Jains. Jains increase their level of spiritual intensity using fasting and prayer/meditation to help; the five main vows are emphasized during this time. There are no set rules, followers are encouraged to practice according to their ability and desires. Digambaras refer it as Das Lakshana Dharma while Śvētāmbaras refer to it as Paryushana; the duration of Paryushana is for eight days for Śvētāmbara Jains and ten days for Jains belonging to the Digambara sect. The festival ends with the celebration of Kshamavani. Paryushana means "abiding and coming together", it is a time when the Jains take on vows of fasting. The Digambara Jains recite the ten chapters of the sacred Jain text, Tattvartha Sutra on ten days of fasting. Digambaras celebrate Ananta Chaturdashi. Many towns have a procession leading to the main Jain temple.
Ananta Chaturdashi marks the day. At the conclusion of the festival, followers request forgiveness from others for any offenses committed during the last year. Forgiveness is asked by saying Micchami Dukkadam to others, which means, "If I have offended you in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought, word or action I seek your forgiveness." During the eight-day festival, the Śvētāmbara Murtipujakas recite the Kalpa Sūtra, which includes a recitation of the section on birth of Mahavira on the fifth day. Some Śvētāmbara Sthānakavāsīs recite the Antagada Sutra, which details the life of great men and women who attained moksha during the eras of Neminatha and Mahavira. During Paryushana, Jains observe a fast; the span of the fast can last from a day to 30 days or more. In Digambara Jainism, śrāvakas do not take food and/or water more than once in a day when observing fasts, while Śvētāmbaras observing a fast survive on boiled water, consumed only between sunrise and sunset. At the conclusion of the festival, śrāvakas request each other for forgiveness for all offenses committed during the last year.
This occurs on the Paryusha day for Śvētāmbaras and on the Prathama of the month of Ashvin Krashna for Digambaras. Forgiveness is asked by saying Micchami Uttam Kshama to each other, it means "If I have caused you offence in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought word or deed I seek your forgiveness". Das-Dharma are mentioned in Tattvartha Sutra; these are: Uttam Kshama - उत्तम क्षमा Uttam Mardava - उत्तम मार्दव Uttam Aarjava - उत्तम आर्जव Uttam Satya - उत्तम सत्य Uttam Soch - उत्तम सोच Uttam Sanyam - उत्तम संयम Uttam Tap - उत्तम तप Uttam Tyaga - उत्तम त्याग Uttam Aakinchanya and - उत्तम अकिंचन्य Uttam Brahmcharya - उत्तम बह्मचर्यIn the full form, it is a 10-day vrata that comes every year. It may be undertaken during Shukla Panchami to Chaturdashi of Magh or Chaitra months; however it is common to do it during Bhadrapada. The Das-dharmas are all prefixed by the word ‘Uttam’ to signify that they are practiced at the highest level by the Jain monks; the householder practises them to a lesser extent.
It lasts over a period of ten days, each day being dedicated to one of the ten Dharmas. In the sections below a) stands for the temporary point of view of modes and modification b) stands for the permanent point of view of underlying substance. A) We forgive those who have wronged us and seek forgiveness from those we have wronged. Forgiveness is sought not just from human colleagues, but from all living beings ranging from one sensed to five sensed. If we do not forgive or seek forgiveness but instead harbor resentment, we bring misery and unhappiness on ourselves and in the process shatter our peace of mind and make enemies. Forgiving and seeking forgiveness oils the wheel of life allowing us to live in harmony with our fellow beings, it attracts meritorious karma. B) Forgiveness here is directed to oneself; the soul, in a state of mistaken identity or false belief, assumes that it consists of the body, the karmas and the emotions – likes, anger, pride etc. As a result of this incorrect belief, it inflicts pain upon itself and is thus the cause of its own misery.
Nischay Kshama Dharma teaches the soul to identify itself by encouraging it to contemplate in its true nature and hence achieve the state of right Belief. It is only by achieving Samyak Darshan that the soul ceases to inflict pain on itself and attains supreme happiness. A) Wealth, good looks, reputable family or intelligence lead to pride. Pride means to believe one to look down on others. By being proud you are measuring your worth by temporary material objects; these objects will either leave you or you will be forced to leave them when you die. These eventualities will cause you unhappiness as a result of the ‘dent’ caused to your self-worth. Being humble will prevent this. Pride leads to the influx of the bad karmas. B) All the souls are equal, none being superior or inferior to another; the Nischay view encourages one to understand their true nature. All souls have the potential to be liberated souls; the only difference between the liberated souls and those in bondage is that the former have attained liberation as a result of their ‘effort’.
With effort the latter can achieve liberation. A) The action of a deceitful pe
In Jainism, a tīrtha is used to refer both to pilgrimage sites as well as to the four sections of the sangha. A tirtha provides the inspiration to enable one to cross over from worldly engagement to the side of moksha. Jain tirthas are located throughout India. A tirtha has a number of temples as well as residences for the pilgrims and wandering monks and scholars. Tirtha sites include: Siddhakshetras or site of moksha liberation of an arihant or Tirthankaras like Ashtapada Hill, Girnar, Palitana, Mangi-Tungi and Champapuri Atishayakshetras where divine events have occurred like Mahavirji, Kundalpur, Aharji etc. Puranakshetras associated with lives of great men like Ayodhya, Vidisha and Rajgir Gyanakshetra: associated with famous acharyas or centers of learning like Mohankheda and Ladnu Geographically, the tirthas are divided into six quarters: North India: Hastinapur and Ashtapada South India: Shravanabelagola, Moodabidri, Anantnath Swami Temple, Gummileru Eastern India: Shikharji, Champapuri, Pundravardhana Western India: Palitana, Mount Abu, Shankheshwar, Mahudi Central India: Vidisha, Sonagiri, Muktagiri Overseas: Siddhachalam, Nava Ashtapada, Siddhayatan Jain temple Vividha Tirtha Kalpa Tirtha jainuniversity.org, Jain Tirtha all over India http://www.jainteerth.com http://tirth.jinvani.com http://www.jainpilgrimages.com http://www.jaintirths.com http://www.siddhayatan.org First Hindu-Jain Tirth in North America http://www.jainheritagecentres.com Shri Nageshwar Parshwanath Jain Tirth Darshan on jainreligion.in