Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
The Janamsakhis birth stories, are writings which profess to be biographies of the first Sikh guru, Guru Nanak. These compositions have been written at various stages after the death of the first guru; the four Janamsakhis that have survived into the modern era include the Bala, Miharban and Puratan versions, each hagiography contradicts the other. These mythological texts are ahistorical and do not offer chronological, geographical or objective accuracy about Guru Nanak's life; the Sikh writers were competing with mythological stories about Muhammad created by Sufi Muslims in medieval Punjab region of South Asia. The various editions of Janamsakhi include stories such as fortune tellers and astrologers predicting at his birth that he will start a new religion, cobra snake offerings made to Guru Nanak while he was sleeping, Guru Nanak visiting and performing miracles at Mecca - a holy place for Muslims, at Mount Meru - a mythical place for Hindus and Jains. At Mecca, the Janamsakhis claim Guru Nanak slept with his feet towards the Kaba which Muslims objected to but when they tried to rotate his feet away the Kaba, all of Kaba and earth moved to remain in the direction of.
Guru Nanak's feet. The texts claim Guru Nanak's body vanished after his death and left behind fragrant flowers, which Hindus and Muslims divided, one to cremate and other to bury; the earliest Janamsakhi was written towards the end of decades after Nanak's death. All the Janamsakhis record miraculous supernatural conversations. Many of them contradict each other on material points and some have been touched up to advance the claims of one or the other branches of the Guru's family, or to exaggerate the roles of certain disciples. Macauliffe compares the manipulation of Janamsakhs to the way Christian gospels were manipulated in the early Church: "Vast numbers of spurious writings bearing the names of apostles and their followers, claiming more or less direct apostolic authority, were in circulation in the early Church - Gospels according to Peter, to Thomas, to James, to Judas, according to the Apostles, or according to the Twelve, to Barnabas, to Matthias, to Nicodemus, & co.. - Supernatural Religion, vol.i, p.292.
The falsification of old or the composition of new Janamsakhis were the result of three great schisms of the Sikh religion: The Udasis, the Minas and the Handalis. Though from the point of view of a historian the janamsakhis may be inadequate, they cannot be wholly discarded because they were based on legend and tradition which had grown up around the Guru in the years following his physical passing away, furnish useful material to augment the bare but proved facts of his life; the main janamsakhis which scholars over the years have referred to are as follows: This is the most popular and well known Janamsakhi, in that most Sikhs and their Janamsakhi knowledge comes from this document. This work claims to be a contemporary account written by one Bala Sandhu in the Vikram Samvat year 1592 at the instance of the second Guru, Guru Angad. According to the author, he was a close companion of Guru Nanak and accompanied him on many of his travels. There are good reasons to doubt this contention: Guru Angad, said to have commissioned the work and was a close companion of the Guru in his years, according to Bala's own admission, ignorant of the existence of Bala.
Bhai Gurdas, who has listed all Guru Nanak's prominent disciples whose names were handed down, does not mention the name of Bhai Bala Sandhu. Bhai Mani Singh's Bhagat Ratanwali, which contains the same list as that by Bhai Gurdas, but with more detail does not mention Bala Sandhu, it is only in the heretic janamsakhis of the Minas. The language used in this janamsakhi was not spoken at the time of Guru Nanak or Guru Angad, but was developed at least a hundred years later; some of the hymns ascribed to Nanak are not his but those of the fifth Gurus. At several places expressions which gained currency only during the lifetime of the last Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, are used e.g. Waheguru ji ki Fateh. Bala's janamsakhi is not a contemporary account; this janamsakhi has had an immense influence over determining what is accepted as the authoritative account of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s life. Throughout the nineteenth century the authority of the Bala version was unchallenged. An important work based on the Bhai Bala janam-sakhi is Santokh Singh’s Gur Nanak Purkash known as Nanak Parkash.
Its lengthy sequel, Suraj Parkash carries the account up to the tenth Guru and contains a higher proportion of historical fact, this was completed in 1844. In the first journey or udasi Guru Nanak Dev Ji left Sultanpur towards eastern India and included, in the following sequence: Panipat, Hardwar, Banaras, Kauru, Kamrup in Assam, Pak Pattan, Goindval and Kartarpur; the Second udasi was to the south of India with companion Bhai Mardana. Delhi, Jagannath Puri, Sri Lanka, Vindhya mountains, Narabad River, Ujjain and Mathura The third udasi was to the north: Kashmir, Mount Sumeru and Achal The fourth udasi was to the west. Afghanistan and Baghdad In the year 1883 a copy of a janamasakhi was dispatched by the India Office Library in London for the use of Dr. Trumpp and the Sikh scholars assisting him. (I
Gurdwara Panja Sahib
Gurdwara Panja Sahib is a famous gurdwara located in Hasan Abdal, Pakistan. The shrine is considered to be important as the handprint of the founder of Sikhism, Guru Nanak, is believed to be imprinted on a boulder at the gurdwara. Shri Guru Nanak Dev Ji along with Bhai Mardana Ji reached Hasan Abdal in Baisakh Samwat 1578 B. K. corresponding to 1521 ACE in the summer season. Under a shady cool tree, Guru Nanak and Bhai Mardana started reciting Kirtan and their devotees gathered around; this annoyed Shah Wali Qandhari. According to legend, Bhai Mardana was sent three times to Shah Wali Qandhari by so that he would provide him with some water to quench his thirst. Wali Qandhari was rude to him. In spite of this, Mardana still politely stuck to his demand; the Wali remarked: "Why don't you ask your Master whom you serve?" Mardana Ji went back to the Guru in a miserable state and said "Oh lord! I prefer death to thirst but will not approach Wali the egoist." The Guru replied "Oh Bhai Mardana ji! Repeat the Name of God, the Almighty.
The Guru put aside a big rock lying nearby and a pure fountain of water sprang up and began to flow endlessly. Bhai Mardana felt grateful to the Guru. On the other hand, the fountain of Shah Wali Qandhari dried up. On witnessing this, the Wali in his rage threw a part of a mountain towards the Guru from the top of the hill; the Guru stopped the hurled rock with his hand leaving his hand print in the rock. Observing that miracle, Wali became the Guru's devotee; this holy and revered place was named Panja Sahib by Hari Singh Nalwa, the most famous general of the Kingdom of the Sikhs. He is credited with having built the first gurdwara at this place. Copybook Hasan Abdal Join Panja Sahib Network @ Ning Gurudwara Panja Sahib
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
Kabir was a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint, whose writings, according to some scholars, influenced Hinduism's Bhakti movement. Kabir's verses are found in Sikhism's scripture Guru Granth Sahib, his most famous writings include his couplets. Kabir is known for being critical of both Hinduism and Islam, stating that the former was misguided by the Vedas, questioning their meaningless rites of initiation such as the sacred thread and circumcision respectively. During his lifetime, he was threatened by both Muslims for his views; when he died, both Hindus and Muslims had claimed him as theirs. Kabir suggested that True God is with the person, on the path of righteousness, thus considered all creatures on earth as his own self, was passively detached from the affairs of the world. Kabir's legacy survives and continues through the Kabir panth, a religious community that recognises him as its founder and is one of the Sant Mat sects, its members are known as Kabir panthis. The years of Kabir's birth and death are unclear.
Some historians favor 1398–1448 as the period Kabir lived, while others favor 1440–1518. Many legends, inconsistent in their details, exist about early life. Kabir was picked up and raised by a Muslim family. However, modern scholarship has abandoned these legends for lack of historical evidence, Kabir is accepted to have brought up in a family of Muslim weavers; some scholars state that Kabir's parents may have been recent converts to Islam and Kabir were unaware of Islamic orthodox tradition, are to have been following the Nath school of Hinduism. This view, while contested by other scholars, has been summarized by Charlotte Vaudeville as follows: Circumcised or not, Kabir was a musalman, though it appears that some form of Nathism was his ancestral tradition; this alone would explain his relative ignorance of Islamic tenets, his remarkable acquaintance with Tantric-yoga practices and his lavish use of its esoteric jargon. He appears far more conversant with Nath-panthi basic attitudes and philosophy than with the Islamic orthodox tradition.
Kabir is believed to have become the first disciple of the Bhakti poet-saint Swami Ramananda in Varanasi, known for devotional Vaishnavism with a strong bent to monist Advaita philosophy teaching that God was inside every person, everything. It is believed that the Hindu saint Ramananda had refused to accept him as his disciple but Kabir cleverly accepted his disciplehood by covering himself in a rag and lying on the steps that led the Ganges where Ramananda was bound to go for a holy dip in the river before dawn: the saint accidentally touched him with his foot and habitually cried "Rama,Rama!", having touched him with feet and quoting Hinduism's most holy words were enough for the orthodox Ramananda to accept him as his disciple. Some legends assert that Kabir never led a celibate's life. Most scholars conclude from historical literature that this legend is untrue, that Kabir was married, his wife was named Dhania, they had at least one son named Kamal and a daughter named Kamali. Kabir's family is believed to have lived in the locality of Kabir Chaura in Varanasi.
Kabīr maṭha, a maṭha located in the back alleys of Kabir Chaura, celebrates his life and times. Accompanying the property is a house named Nīrūṭīlā which houses Niru and Nima's graves. Kabir's poems were in vernacular Hindi, borrowing from various dialects including Braj, they cover various aspects of call for a loving devotion for God. Kabir composed his verses with simple Hindi words. Most of his work were concerned with devotion and discipline. Kabir and his followers named his verbally composed poems of wisdom as "bāņīs"; these include songs and couplets, called variously dohe, śalokā, or sākhī. The latter term means "witness", implying the poems to be evidence of the Truth. Literary works with compositions attributed to Kabir include Kabir Bijak, Kabir Parachai, Sakhi Granth, Adi Granth, Kabir Granthawali. However, except for Adi Granth different versions of these texts exist and it is unclear which one is more original; the most in depth scholarly analysis of various versions and translations are credited to Charlotte Vaudeville, the 20th century French scholar on Kabir.
Kabir's poems were verbally composed in the 15th century and transmitted viva voce through the 17th century. Kabir Bijak was written down for the first time in the 17th century. Scholars state that this form of transmission, over geography and across generations bred change and corruption of the poems. Furthermore, whole songs were creatively fabricated and new couplets inserted by unknown authors and attributed to Kabir, not because of dishonesty but out of respect for him and the creative exuberance of anonymous oral tradition found in Indian literary works. Scholars have sought to establish poetry that came from Kabir and its historicity value. Numerous poems are attributed to Kabir, but scholars now doubt the authenticity of many songs credited to him. Rabindranath Tagore's English translation and compilation One Hundred Poems of Kabir was first published in 1915, has been a classic reprinted and circulated in the West. Scholars believe only six of its hundred poems are authentic, they have questioned whether Tagore introduced prevalent theological perspectives onto Kabir, as he translated poems in early 20th century that he presumed to be of Kabir's
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language with more than 100 million native speakers around the world and in the Indian subcontinent. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnic group of the cultural region called the Punjab, which encompasses northwest India and eastern Pakistan. Punjabi is the most spoken language in Pakistan, the 11th most spoken language in India, the third most-spoken native language in the Indian subcontinent, it is the fifth most-spoken native language, in Canada after English, French and Cantonese. Punjabi is unusual among Indo-European languages in its use of lexical tone; the Punjabi language is written in one of two alphabets: Gurmukhi. In the Punjab, both writing systems are used: Shahmukhi is used by Punjabi Muslims and Gurmukhi is used by Punjabi Sikhs; the word Punjabi has been derived from the word Panj-āb, introduced by Turko-Persian speakers, Persian for "Five Waters", referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. Panj is cognate with Sanskrit पञ्च and Greek πέντε "five", "āb" is cognate with Sanskrit अप् and with the Av- of Avon.
The historical Punjab region, now divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of the Sutlej. Punjabi developed from Sanskrit through Prakrit languages and Apabhraṃśa From 600 BC Sanskrit gave birth to many regional languages in different parts of India. All these languages are called Prakrit collectively. Shauraseni Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, spoken in north and north-western India and Punjabi and western dialects of Hindi developed from this Prakrit. In northern India Shauraseni Prakrit gave rise to Shauraseni Aparbhsha, a descendent of Prakrit. Punjabi emerged as an Apabhramsha, a degenerated form of Prakrit, in the 7th century A. D. and became stable by the 10th century. By the 10th century, many Nath poets were associated with earlier Punjabi works. Arabic and Persian influence in the historical Punjab region began with the late first millennium Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent.
The Persian language was introduced in the subcontinent a few centuries by various Turko-Persian dynasties. Many Persian and Arabic words were incorporated in Punjabi, it is noteworthy that the Hindustani language is divided into Hindi, with more Sanskritisation, Urdu, with more Persianisation, but in Punjabi both Sanskrit and Persian words are used with a liberal approach to language. It was influenced by Portuguese and English, though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic. However, in India, English words in the official language are more widespread than Hindi. Note: In more formal contexts, hypercorrect Sanskritized versions of these words may be used. Punjabi is spoken in many dialects in an area from Islamabad to Delhi; the Majhi dialect has been adopted as standard Punjabi in Pakistan and India for education, media etc. The Majhi dialect originated in the Majha region of the Punjab; the Majha region consists of several eastern districts of Pakistani Punjab and in India around Amritsar and surrounding districts.
The two most important cities in this area are Amritsar. In India technical words in Standard Punjabi are loaned from Sanskrit to other major Indian languages, but it generously uses Arabic and English words in the official language. In India, Punjabi is written in the Gurmukhī script in offices and media. Gurmukhi is the official standard script for Punjabi, though it is unofficially written in the Devanagari or Latin scripts due to influence from Hindi and English, India's two primary official languages at the Union-level. In Pakistan, Punjabi is written using the Shahmukhī script, created from a modification of the Persian Nastaʿlīq script. In Pakistan, Punjabi loans technical words from Arabic languages, just like Urdu does. Punjabi is the most spoken language in Pakistan, the eleventh -most spoken in India and spoken Punjabi diaspora in various countries. Punjabi is the most spoken language in Pakistan, being the native language of 44% of its population, it is the provincial language in the Punjab Province.
Beginning with the 1981 census, speakers of Saraiki and Hindko were no longer included in the total numbers for Punjabi, which could explain the apparent decrease. Punjabi is spoken as a native language, second language, or third language by about 30 million people in India. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian states of Punjab and Delhi; some of its major urban centres in northern India are Ambala, Patiala, Chandigarh, Jalandhar and Delhi. Punjabi is spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabi people have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, where it is the fourth-most-commonly used language. There were 76 million Punjabi speakers in Pakistan in 2008, 33 million in India in 2011, 368,000 in Canada in 2006, smaller numbers in other countries; the Majhi dialect spoken around Amritsar and Lahore is Punjabi's prestige dialect. Majhi is spoken in the heart of Punjab in the region of Majha, which spans Lahore, Gurdaspur, Tarn Taran, Nankana Sahib, Okara, Sahiwal, Sheikhupura
Guru Granth Sahib
Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the Sikh scriptures. It was compiled by the ten gurus of Sikhism and is itself regarded by Sikhs as the final and eternal living guru. Adi Granth, the first rendition, was compiled by Guru Arjan; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, added one shloka, dohra mahala 9 ang, 1429 and all 115 hymns of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur. This second rendition came to be known as Sri Guru Granth Sahib. After Guru Gobind Singh's death in 1708, Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh prepared many copies of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib for distribution; the text consists of 1,430 angs and 6,000 śabads, which are poetically rendered and set to a rhythmic ancient north Indian classical form of music. The bulk of the scripture is divided into sixty rāags, with each Granth rāga subdivided according to length and author; the hymns in the scripture are arranged by the rāgas in which they are read. The Guru Granth Sahib is written in the Gurmukhī script, in various languages, including Lahnda, Braj Bhasha, Sanskrit and Persian.
Copies in these languages have the generic title of Sant Bhasha. Guru Granth Sahib was composed by the Sikh Gurus: Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Angad Dev, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan Dev, Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh added 1 sloakh in mahala 9 Ang 1429, it contains the traditions and teachings of Indian sants, such as Ravidas, Ramananda and Namdev among others, two Muslim Sufi saints Bhagat Bhikan and: Sheikh Farid. The vision in the Guru Granth Sahib is of a society based on divine justice without oppression of any kind. While the Granth acknowledges and respects the scriptures of Hinduism and Islam, it does not imply a moral reconciliation with either of these religions, it is installed in a Sikh gurdwara. The Granth is revered as the spiritual authority in Sikhism. During the guruship of Guru Nanak Dev, collections of his holy hymns were compiled and sent to distant Sikh communities for use in morning and evening prayers, his successor Guru Angad Dev began collecting his predecessor's writings.
This tradition was continued by the fifth gurus as well. When the fifth guru Guru Arjan Dev was collecting religious writings of his predecessor, he discovered that pretenders to the guruship were releasing what he considered as forged anthologies of writings of the previous guru and including their own writings with them. In order to prevent spurious scriptures from gaining legitimacy, Guru Arjan Dev began compiling a sacred scripture for the Sikh community, he finished collecting the religious writings of Guru Ram Das, his immediate predecessor, convinced Mohan, the son of Guru Amar Das, to give him the collection of the religious writings of the first three gurus. In addition, he sent disciples to go across the country to find and bring back any unknown religious writings of theirs, he invited members of other religions and contemporary religious writers to submit writings for possible inclusion. Guru Arjan pitched a tent by the side of Ramsar tank in Amritsar and started the task of compiling the holy Granth.
He selected hymns for inclusion in the Adi Bhai Gurdas acted as his scribe. While the holy hymns and verses were being put together Akbar, the Mughal Emperor, received a report that the Adi Granth contained passages vilifying Islam. Therefore, while travelling north, he asked to inspect it. Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas brought him a copy of the Adi Granth. After choosing three random passages to be read, Akbar decided. In 1604, Adi Granth was completed and installed at the Harmandir Sahib, with Baba Buddha as the first granthi, or reader. Since communities of Sikh disciples were scattered all over northern India, copies of the holy scripture needed to be made for them; the sixth guru added the tunes of 9 out of 22 Vars. Seventh and eighth guru did not have writings of their own added to the holy scripture; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, included writings of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur in the Guru Granth Sahib, included 1 salokh in mahala 9 Ang 1429. In 1704 at Damdama Sahib, during a one-year respite from the heavy fighting with Aurangzeb which the Khalsa was engaged in at the time, Guru Gobind Singh and Bhai Mani Singh added the religious compositions of Guru Tegh Bahadur to Adi Granth to create a definitive compilation.
Religious verses of Guru Gobind Singh were not included in Guru Granth Sahib, but he added 1 sloak in mahala 9 Ang 1429. His banis are found in the Sri Dasam Granth, they are part in the daily prayers of Sikhs During this period, Bhai Mani Singh collected Guru Gobind Singh's religious writings, as well as his court poems, included them in a secondary religious volume, today known as the Dasam Granth Sahib. Sikhs consider the Guru Granth Sahib as the eternal living guru, the highest religious and spiritual guide for Sikhs and inspire all of humanity, its place in Sikh devotional life is based on two fundamental principles: on the "Gurbani", received by the Sikh gurus in their divine consciousness from God and revealed to mankind. The Guru Granth Sahib answers all questions regarding religion and that morality can be discovered within it; the word is the guru and the guru is the word. Thus, in Sikh theology, the revealed divine word was written by past gurus. Numerous holy men, aside from the Sikh gurus, are collectively referred to as Bhagats or "devotees."
In 1708 Guru Gobin