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Bharadwaja

Bharadwaja referred to as Gugu or Bharadvaja, Bṛhaspatya, was one of the revered Vedic sages in Ancient India, a renowned scholar, economist and an eminent physician. His contributions to the ancient Indian literature in Puranas and Rig Veda, played a significant role in giving an insight to the Indian society, he and his family of students are considered the authors of the sixth book of the Rigveda. Bharadwaja was father of warrior Brahmin Droṇācārya, a main character in Mahabharata, an instructor to both Pandava and Kaurava princes, he was the grandfather of a legendary warrior in Mahabharata. Both Droncharya and Ashwatthama fought in different battles of Mahabharata alongside Kauravas. Bharadwaja is mentioned in Charaka Samhita, an authoritative ancient Indian medical text, he is one of the Saptaṛṣis. His full name in Vedic texts is Bharadvaja Barhaspatya, the last name referring to his father and Vedic sage Brihaspati, his mother was Mamata, the wife of Utathya Rishi, the elder brother of Brhaspati.

He is one of the seven rishis mentioned four times in the Rigveda as well as in the Shatapatha Brahmana, thereafter revered in the Mahabharata and the Puranas. In Puranic legends, he is stated to be the son of Vedic sage Atri. In Buddhist Pali canonical texts such as Digha Nikaya, Tevijja Sutta describes a discussion between the Buddha and Vedic scholars of his time; the Buddha names ten rishis, calls them "early sages" and makers of ancient verses that have been collected and chanted in his era, among those ten rishis is Bharadvaja. The ancient Hindu medical treatise Charaka Samhita attributes Bharadvaja learning medical sciences from god Indra, after pleading that "poor health was disrupting the ability of human beings from pursuing their spiritual journey", Indra provides both the method and specifics of medical knowledge; the word Bharadvaja is a compound Sanskrit from "bhara and vaja", which together mean "bringing about nourishment". Bharadvaja is considered to be the initiator of the Bharadvāja gotra of the Brahmin caste.

Bharadvaja is the third in the row of the Pravara Rishis and is the first in the Bharadvaja Gotris, with the other two rishis being initiators of Gotras with their respective names. Bharadvaja and his family of students are 55. Bharadvaja and his family of students were the traditional poets of king Marutta of the Vedic era, in the Hindu texts. Bharadvaja is a revered sage in the Hindu traditions, like other revered sages, numerous treatises composed in ancient and medieval era are reverentially named after him; some treatises named after him or attributed to him include: Dhanur-veda, credited to Bharadvaja in chapter 12.203 of the Mahabharata, is an Upaveda treatise on archery. Bharadvaja samhita, a Pancharatra text. Bharadvaja srautasutra and grhyasutra, a ritual and rites of passage text from 1st millennium BCE. After the Kalpasutra by Baudhayana, these Bharadvaja texts are among the oldest srauta and grhya sutras known. Sections in Ayurveda. Bharadvaja theories on medicine and causal phenomenon is described in Charaka Samhita.

Bharadvaja states, for example, that an embryo is not caused by wish, urging of mind or mystical causes, but it is produced from the union of a man's sperm and menstrual blood of a woman at the right time of her menstrual cycle, in her womb. According to Gerrit Jan Meulenbeld, Bharadvaja is credited with many theories and practical ideas in ancient Indian medicine. Niti sastra, a treatise on ethics and practical conduct. Bharadvaja-siksa, is one of many ancient Sanskrit treatises on phonetics. According to one legend, Bharadvaja married Susheela and had a son named Garga and a daughter named Devavarshini. According to some other legends, Bharadvaja had two daughters named Ilavida and Katyayani, who married Vishrava and Yajnavalkya respectively. According to Vishnu Purana, Bharadwaja had a brief liaison with an apsara named Ghritachi, together they had a child who grew up into a warrior-Brahmin named Droṇācārya. Bharadvaja is therefore directly linked to two important characters of the epic Mahabharata — Dronacharya and Aśvatthāma, the son of Dronacharya.

According to the Mahabharata, Bharadvaja trained Drona in the use of weapons. In the epic Ramayana, Rama and Lakshmana meet Bharadvaja at his asrama at the start of their fourteen-year exile; the sage asks them to stay with him through the exile, but they insist on going deeper into the forest to Chitrakuta, three kosla away from ashram. Bharadvaja gives them directions. Bharath along with Sumanth received at Ashram by Bharadvaja while Bharath went on to forest in search of Lord Ram for re-union and to bring Lord Rama and Laxmana back to Ayodhya, he reappears at various times in the epic. According to James Lochtefeld, the Bharadvaja in the Ramayana is different from the Vedic sage mentioned in Panini's Ashtadhyayi. Kaviratna, Avinash C.. The Charaka Samhita 5 Vols. Sri Satguru Publications. ISBN 81-7030-471-7

Owen J. Roberts High School

Owen J. Roberts High School is a high school in the Owen J. Roberts School District, it is located in Pottstown and serves Chester County. The current serving interim principal is Dr. Sean Earley. Owen J Roberts High School drafts students from five elementary schools in Pottstown, including East Vincent Elementary School, West Vincent Elementary School, North Coventry Elementary School, East Coventry Elementary School, French Creek Elementary School; the school district is named for Owen Josephus Roberts, a supreme court justice born in 1875. He was known for being the deciding vote and controller of the majority opinion between the liberals and the conservatives, he purchased land in the Birchrunville area, to be used for a country home and cattle, he spent a large portion of his time volunteering in his community. He died in 1955; the current high school unit was built in 1957, though through the years many renovations have been done to accommodate for an increasing class size, including the construction of a new wing and a neighboring middle school on the property, built in 2009.

The principal was Dr. Richard Marchini until he was promoted in 2018 to be the Director of Pupil Services; the current interim principal is Dr. Sean Earley, who will serve until a new candidate is hired in December 2018. In 2018, Dr. Susan T. Lloyd was hired to be the Superintendent of Schools, replacing Dr. Michael L. Christian. Though somewhat of a contentious choice after her tenure as a principal at North Coventry Elementary School, she is working to open a dialogue and a course of action about incidents of gun-related violence in schools; the Owen J Roberts drama department led by teachers Ms. Dawn Galambos and Ms. Elizabeth Seiler, has received local acclaim for past productions. Two straight plays are performed annually, as well as one musical; the musical directors have changed many times in the past years. The fall play—directed by Ms. Dawn Galambos—of 2017 was William Gibson's The Miracle Worker and the fall play of 2018 was Jules Tasca's Telling Wilde Tales: An Adaptation of Oscar Wilde’s Fairy Tales.

The spring play has been led by Ms. Elizabeth Seiler for many years. Daryl Hall Jerry Ostroski Don Strock Jackson Shimkonis Matthew Shimkonis

Common Era

Common Era is one of the notation systems for the world's most used calendar era. BCE is the era before CE. BCE and CE are alternatives to AD system respectively; the Dionysian era distinguishes eras using AD and BC. Since the two notation systems are numerically equivalent, "2020 CE" corresponds to "AD 2020" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC". Both notations refer to the Gregorian calendar; the year-numbering system used by the Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world today, is an international standard for civil calendars. The expression has been traced back to 1615, when it first appeared in a book by Johannes Kepler as the Latin annus aerae nostrae vulgaris, to 1635 in English as "Vulgar Era"; the term "Common Era" can be found in English as early as 1708, became more used in the mid-19th century by Jewish religious scholars. In the 20th century, the use of CE and BCE was popularized in academic and scientific publications as a culturally neutral term, it is used by some authors and publishers who wish to emphasize sensitivity to non-Christians by not explicitly referencing Jesus as "Christ" and Dominus through use of the abbreviation "AD".

The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number years from an initial reference date, an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus. Dionysius labeled the column of the table in which he introduced the new era as "Anni Domini Nostri Jesu Christi"; this way of numbering years became more widespread in Europe with its use by Bede in England in 731. Bede introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus, the practice of not using a year zero. In 1422, Portugal became the last Western European country to switch to the system begun by Dionysius; the term "Common Era" is traced back in English to its appearance as "Vulgar Era" to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar in popular use from dates of the regnal year, the year of reign of a sovereign used in national law.

The first use of the Latin term anno aerae nostrae vulgaris discovered so far was in a 1615 book by Johannes Kepler. Kepler uses it again, as ab Anno vulgaris aerae, in a 1616 table of ephemerides, again, as ab anno vulgaris aerae, in 1617. A 1635 English edition of that book has the title page in English – so far, the earliest-found use of Vulgar Era in English. A 1701 book edited by John LeClerc includes "Before Christ according to the Vulgar Æra, 6". A 1716 book in English by Dean Humphrey Prideaux says, "before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation." A 1796 book uses the term "vulgar era of the nativity". The first known use of "Christian Era" is as the Latin phrase annus aerae christianae on the title page of a 1584 theology book. In 1649, the Latin phrase annus. A 1652 ephemeris is the first instance found so far of the English use of "Christian Era"; the English phrase "common Era" appears at least as early as 1708, in a 1715 book on astronomy it is used interchangeably with "Christian Era" and "Vulgar Era".

A 1759 history book uses common æra in a generic sense. The first use found so far of the phrase "before the common era" is in a 1770 work that uses common era and vulgar era as synonyms, in a translation of a book written in German; the 1797 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica uses the terms vulgar era and common era synonymously. In 1835, in his book Living Oracles, Alexander Campbell, wrote: "Anno Domini; the Catholic Encyclopedia in at least one article reports all three terms being understood by the early 20th century. The phrase "common era", in lower case appeared in the 19th century in a generic sense, not to refer to the Christian Era, but to any system of dates in common use throughout a civilization. Thus, "the common era of the Jews", "the common era of the Mahometans", "common era of the world", "the common era of the foundation of Rome"; when it did refer to the Christian Era, it was sometimes qualified, e.g. "common era of the Incarnation", "common era of the Nativity", or "common era of the birth of Christ".

An adapted translation of Common Era into Latin as Era Vulgaris was adopted in the 20th century by some followers of Aleister Crowley, thus the abbreviation "e.v." or "EV" may sometimes be seen as a replacement for AD. Although Jews have their own Hebrew calendar, they use the Gregorian calendar, without the AD prefix; as early as 1825, the abbreviation VE was in use among Jews to denote years in the Western calendar. As of 2005, Common Era notation has been in use for Hebrew lessons for more than a century. In 1856, Rabbi and historian Morris Jacob Raphall used the abbreviations CE and BCE in his book Post-Biblical History of