Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research
Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research known as Bharath Institute of Science and Technology, informally Bharath University, Bharath Engineering College is a Deemed University and an Indian institute of higher education located in Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu, India. It is recognised by the University Grants Commission and is accredited by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council with the highest grade of A, it is approved by the All India Council for Technical Education. Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research was founded in 1984 as Bharath Institute of Science and Technology by S. Jagathrakshakan, it is among the first autonomous engineering colleges in Tamil Nadu. It was first affiliated to Madras University followed by Anna University; the institute was awarded deemed university status in 2002 by the University Grants Commission in recognition of its academic excellence. Hence, the name was changed to Bharath Institute of Higher Research. In September 2006, it was renamed as Bharath University as per a decree issued by the University Grants Commission enabling deemed universities to include the word "university" in their names.
In November 2017, it was again renamed as Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research following a directive issued by University Grants Commission and an order by the Supreme Court of India to all the deemed universities in India. The university offers undergraduate and doctoral programs in fields such as science, engineering, medicine and management. Bharath University has won awards in recognition of its academic and research excellence. A few are listed below, it was awarded the "Best Private University of the Year" by World Education Congress for 2014. The university was awarded the "Best Multi Stream University" in 2014 by ASSOCHAM. Bharath University has three in Chennai and one in Puducherry; the details of the campuses and their departments are in the list below. This is the main campus of the university, established in 1984, it is in Chennai and was known as Bharath Engineering College. The name was changed to Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research in 2002 when it attained deemed university status.
In 2003, the college was again renamed as Bharath Institute of Science and Technology and brought under Bharath University with the other constituent colleges. Departments: This college was established in 2004 and is in Chennai. Departments: College on the same campus: Sree Balaji College of Nursing, Chennai This college was established in 2007 and is in Puducherry. Departments: This college was established in 2002 and is in Chennai. Departments: College on the same campus: Sree Balaji College of Physiotherapy, Chennai The National Institutional Ranking Framework has ranked Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research 35 overall and 21 among universities in 2018. List of deemed universities Deemed University Official website
Bhārat Mātā is the national personification of India as a mother goddess. She is depicted as a woman clad in a saffron sari holding the Indian national flag, sometimes accompanied by a lion; the image of Bhāratmātā formed with the Indian independence movement of the late 19th century. A play by Kiran Chandra Bannerjee, Bhārat Mātā, was first performed in 1873; the play set in 1770 Bengal famine depicted a woman and her husband who went to forest and encounters rebels. The priest takes them to temple, thus they are led rebellion which result in defeat of the British. The Manushi magazine story traces origin to a satirical work Unabimsa Purana or The Nineteenth Purana by Bhudeb Mukhopadhyay, first published anonymously in 1866. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1882 wrote a novel Anandamath and introduced the hymn "Vande Mātaram", which soon became the song of the emerging freedom movement in India; as the British Raj created cartographic shape of India through the Geological Survey of India, the Indian nationalist developed it into an icon of nationalism.
In 1920s, it became more political image sometimes including images of Mahatma Gandhi and Bhagat Singh. The Tiranga flag was started being included during this period. In 1930s, the image entered in religious practice; the Bharat Mata temple was built in Benaras in 1936 by Shiv Prashad Gupt and was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi. This temple does not have any statuary but only a marble relief of the map of India. Bipin Chandra Pal elaborated its meaning in idealizing and idealist terms, along with Hindu philosophical traditions and devotional practices, it represented an archaic spiritual essence, a transcendental idea of Universe as well as expressing Universal Hinduism and nationhood. Abanindranath Tagore portrayed Bhārat Mātā as a four-armed Hindu goddess wearing saffron-colored robes, holding the manuscripts, sheaves of rice, a mala, a white cloth; the image of Bharatmata was an icon to create nationalist feeling in Indians during the freedom struggle. Sister Nivedita, an admirer of the painting, opined that the picture was refined and imaginative, with Bharatmata standing on green earth and blue sky behind her.
Indian Independence activist Subramania Bharati saw Bharat Mata as the land of Ganga. He identified Bharat Mata as Parashakti, he says that he has got the Darśana of Bharat Mata during his visit with his guru Sister Nivedita. In the book Everyday Nationalism: Women of the Hindu Right in India, Kalyani Devaki Menon argues that "the vision of India as Bharat Mata has profound implications for the politics of Hindu nationalism" and that the depiction of India as a Hindu goddess implies that it is not just the patriotic but the religious duty of all Hindus to participate in the nationalist struggle to defend the nation; this association with Hinduism has caused controversy with India's religious minorities its Muslim population. The motto Bharat Mata ki; the temple is located in the Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapeeth campus in Varanasi. The temple houses a marble idol of Bharat Mata along with a marble relief map of India; the Temple, a gift from the nationalists Shiv Prasad Gupta and Durga Prasad Khatri, was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi in 1936.
Mahatma Gandhi said, "I hope this temple, which will serve as a cosmopolitan platform for people of all religions and creeds including Harijans, will go a great way in promoting religious unity and love in the country." The temple was founded by Swami Satyamitranand Giri on the banks of the Ganges in Haridwar. It is 180 feet tall, it was inaugurated by Indira Gandhi in 1983. Floors are dedicated to religious deities, freedom fighters and leaders; the temple is located in Michael Nagar on Jessore Road 2 km away from the Kolkata Airport. Here, Bharat Mata is portrayed through the image of'Jagattarini Durga'; this was inaugurated on October 2015 by Shri Keshari Nath Tripathi, the Governor of West Bengal. The initiative to build the temple, named'Jatiya Shaktipeeth', was taken by the Spiritual Society of India in order to mark the 140th Anniversary of'Vande Mataram', the hymn to the Mother Land. Bharat Mata Mandir Banga Mata Mother India Media related to Bharat Mata at Wikimedia Commons Patriotic fervour The Hindu, August 17, 2003.
The life and times of Bharat Mata Sadan Jha, Issue 142. Bharat Mata Images Prof. Pritchett, Columbia University The Idea Of Bharat Mata Is Ancient And Originally Indian
Bharat Electronics Limited
Bharat Electronics Limited is an Indian state-owned aerospace and defence company with about nine factories, several regional offices in India. It is owned by the Indian Government and manufactures advanced electronic products for the Indian Armed Forces. BEL is one of nine PSUs under the Ministry of Defence of India, it has been granted Navratna status by the Government of India. Starting with the manufacture of a few communication equipment in 1956, BEL started producing receiving valves in 1961, germanium semiconductors in 1962 and radio transmitters for AIR in 1964. In 1966, BEL set up a radar manufacturing facility for the army and in-house R&D. In 1967, BEL began manufacturing transmitting silicon devices and integrated circuits; the PCB manufacturing facility was established in 1968. In 1970, BEL started making white TV picture tubes, X-ray tubes and microwave tubes. In 1971, BEL set up facilities for the manufacture of hybrid micro circuits. 1972, BEL established manufacturing facilities for TV transmitters for Doordarshan.
In 1973, BEL began manufacturing frigate radars for the navy. Under the government's policy of decentralisation and due to strategic reasons, BEL set up new units at different location across the country; the second unit of BEL was set up at Ghaziabad in 1974 to manufacture radars and Tropo communication equipment for the Indian Air Force. The third unit was established at Pune in 1979 to manufacture image converter and image intensifier tubes. In 1980, the first overseas office of BEL was set up in New York for the procurement of components and materials. In 1981, a manufacturing facility for magnesium manganese dioxide batteries was set up at Pune; the Space Electronic Division was set up at Bangalore to support the satellite programmes in 1982. That year, BEL achieved a turnover of Rs. 1 billion. In 1983, the Andhra Scientific Company was taken over by BEL converted it to its fourth manufacturing unit at Machilipatnam. In 1985, the fifth unit was set up in Chennai for supply of tank electronics, with proximity to HVF, Avadi.
The sixth unit was set up at Panchkula the same year to manufacture military communication equipment. In 1986, BEL set up three units, its seventh unit was set up at Kotdwara to manufacture switching equipment, the eighth unit to manufacture TV glass shell at Taloja and the ninth unit at Hyderabad to manufacture electronic warfare equipment. In 1987, a separate Naval Equipment Division was set up at Bangalore to give greater focus to naval projects; the first Central Research Laboratory was established at Bangalore in 1988 to focus on futuristic research and development. In 1989, BEL started manufacturing telecom switching and transmission systems and the set up the Mass Manufacturing Facility in Bangalore and the manufacture of the first batch of 75,000 electronic voting machines; the agreement for setting up BEL's first joint venture company, BE DELFT, with M/s Delft of Holland, was signed in 1990. This became a subsidiary of BEL with the exit of the foreign partner and has been renamed BEL Optronic Devices Limited.
The second Central Research Laboratory was established at Ghaziabad in 1992. The first disinvestment and listing of the company's shares in the Bangalore and Mumbai Stock Exchanges took place in same year-1992. In 1996, BEL achieved ₹10 billion turnover. In 1997, GE BEL, the second joint venture company with M/s GE, USA, was formed as the third JVC with M/s Multitone, UK, BEL Multitone; the same year, the US imposed supply restrictions on BEL. In 1998, BEL set up its second overseas office at Singapore to source components from South East Asia. In the same year US and Europe imposed sanctions on BEL; the company was able to overcome the effects of the sanctions and kept up the promised deliveries to customers. In 2000, BEL reorganised its Bangalore unit into six Strategic Business Units; the R&D groups in Bangalore were restructured into Specific Core Groups and Product Development Groups. The same year, BEL shares were listed in the National Stock Exchange. In 2002, BEL became. In 2003, the company's turnover crossed the ₹25 billion mark.
In 2005, BEL had a turnover of ₹32.20 billion. BEL achieved a turnover of ₹35.60 billion in 2005–06. On May 12, 2010, Boeing announced that it received the Data Link II communications technology for the Indian Navy's P-8I from Bharat Electronics Limited in April, one month ahead of schedule. BEL delivered the Indian-designed communications system that will enable exchange of tactical data and messages between Indian Navy aircraft and shore establishments. Boeing will install the system during P-8I final assembly. In 2011, the Indian government-owned Bharat Electronic Limited showcased its entire range of C4ISR capabilities including network centric warfare technologies developed in-house at Aero India 2011; these include command and control system, air space management multi sensor tracking, situation simulator and tactical algorithm for air defence applications. In addition, new products and technologies including software defined radios, next generation bulk encryptor and high data tactical radio were on show.
Airborne products displayed included radar finger printing system, data link, digital flight control computer and identification friend or foe. On display were the complete range of optoelectronic equipment, including night vision devices, digital handheld compass and an advanced land navigation system. BEL is the lead integrator of Akash, the Indian-made guided missile a
The Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award of the Republic of India. Instituted in 1954, the award is conferred "in recognition of exceptional service/performance of the highest order", without distinction of race, position, or sex; the award was limited to achievements in the arts, literature and public services, but the government expanded the criteria to include "any field of human endeavour" in December 2011. The recommendations for the Bharat Ratna are made by the Prime Minister to the President, with a maximum of three nominees being awarded per year. Recipients receive a Sanad signed by a peepal-leaf -- shaped medallion. Bharat Ratna recipients rank seventh in the Indian order of precedence; the first recipients of the Bharat Ratna were politician C. Rajagopalachari, philosopher Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, scientist C. V. Raman, who were honoured in 1954. Since the award has been bestowed upon 48 individuals, including 14 who were awarded posthumously; the original statutes did not provide for posthumous awards but were amended in January 1955 to permit them.
Former Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri became the first individual to be honoured posthumously. In 2014, cricketer Sachin Tendulkar aged 40, became the youngest recipient. Though conferred on India-born citizens, the Bharat Ratna has been awarded to one naturalised citizen, Mother Teresa, to two non-Indians, Pakistan national Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and former South African President Nelson Mandela. On 25 January 2019, the government announced the award to social activist Nanaji Deshmukh, singer-music director Bhupen Hazarika and to former President of India Pranab Mukherjee; the Bharat Ratna, along with other personal civil honours, was suspended from July 1977 to January 1980, during the change in the national government. In 1992, the government's decision to confer the award posthumously on Subhas Chandra Bose was opposed by those who had refused to accept the fact of his death, including some members of his extended family. Following a 1997 Supreme Court decision, the press communiqué announcing Bose's award was cancelled.
Several bestowals of the award have met with criticism. The posthumous award for M. G. Ramachandran was considered to have been aimed at placating the voters for the upcoming assembly election and posthumous awards of Madan Mohan Malaviya and Vallabhbhai Patel drew criticism for they died before the award was instituted. On 2 January 1954, a press communiqué was released from the office of the secretary to the President announcing the creation of two civilian awards—Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award, the three-tier Padma Vibhushan, classified into "Pahela Warg", "Dusra Warg", "Tisra Warg", which rank below the Bharat Ratna. On 15 January 1955, the Padma Vibhushan was reclassified into three different awards. There is no formal provision, it has been awarded to a naturalised Indian citizen, Mother Teresa in 1980, to two non-Indians, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan of Pakistan in 1987 and the former South African president Nelson Mandela in 1990. M. S. Subbulakshmi from Tamil Nadu became the first musician to receive the honour.
Sachin Tendulkar, at the age of 40, became the youngest person and first athlete to receive the honour. In a special ceremony on 18 April 1958, Dhondo Keshav Karve was awarded on his 100th birthday; as of 2015, the award has been conferred upon 45 people with 12 posthumous declarations. The award was suspended twice in its history; the first suspension occurred after Morarji Desai was sworn in as the fourth Prime Minister in 1977. His government withdrew all personal civil honours on 13 July 1977; the suspension was rescinded on 25 January 1980. The civilian awards were suspended again in mid-1992, when two Public-Interest Litigations were filed, one in the Kerala High Court and another in the Madhya Pradesh High Court, challenging the "constitutional validity" of the awards; the awards were reintroduced by the Supreme Court in December 1995, following the conclusion of the litigation. The Bharat Ratna is conferred "in recognition of exceptional service/performance of the highest order", without distinction of race, position, or sex.
The award was confined to the arts, literature and public services, as per the 1954 regulations. In December 2011, the rules were changed to include "any field of human endeavour"; the 1954 statutes did not allow posthumous awards, but this was subsequently modified in the January 1955 statute, Lal Bahadur Shastri became the first recipient to be honoured posthumously in 1966. Although there is no formal nomination process, recommendations for the award can only be made by the Prime Minister to the President with a maximum number of three nominees being awarded per year. However, in 1999, four individuals were awarded the honour; the recipient receives a Sanad signed by a medallion without any monetary grant. Under the terms of Article 18 of the Constitution, the recipients cannot use the award as a prefix or suffix to their name, although recipients may use either the expression
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited owned and founded by the Government of India, is an engineering and manufacturing company based in New Delhi, India. Established in 1964, BHEL is India's largest power generation equipment manufacturer. BHEL was established in 1964 ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India. Heavy Electricals Limited was merged with BHEL in 1974. In 1991, BHEL was converted into a public limited company. Over time, it developed the capability to produce a variety of electrical and mechanical equipments for all sectors, including transmission, transportation and gas and other allied industries. However, the bulk of the revenue of the company is derived from sale of equipment for power generation such as turbines, etc; as of 2017, BHEL supplied equipment contributed to about 55% of the total installed power generation capacity of India. The company has supplied thousands of Electric Locomotives to Indian Railway, as well as defence equipment such as the Super Rapid Gun Mount naval guns and Defence Simulators to the Indian Armed Forces.
BHEL is engaged in the design, manufacturing, testing and servicing of a wide range of products and services for the core sectors of the economy, viz. power, industry, renewable energy, oil & gas and defence. It has a network of 17 manufacturing units, 2 repair units, 4 regional offices, 8 service centres, 8 overseas offices, 15 regional centres, 7 joint ventures, infrastructure allowing it to execute more than 150 projects at sites across India and abroad; the company has established the capability to deliver 20,000 MW p.a. of power equipment to address the growing demand for power generation equipment. BHEL has retained its market leadership position during 2015-16 with 74% market share in the Power Sector. An improved focus on project execution enabled BHEL record its highest commissioning/synchronization of 15059 MW of power plants in domestic and international markets in 2015-16, marking a 59% increase over 2014-15. With the all-time high commissioning of 15000 MW in a single year FY2015-16, BHEL has exceeded 170 GW installed base of power generating equipments.
It has been exporting its power and industry segment products and services for over 40 years. BHEL's global references are spread across over 76 countries across all the six continents of the world; the cumulative overseas installed capacity of BHEL manufactured power plants exceeds 9,000 MW across 21 countries including Malaysia, Iraq, UAE, Bhutan and New Zealand. Their physical exports range from turnkey projects to after sales services. BHEL's investment in R&D is amongst the largest in the corporate sector in India. During the year 2012-13, the company invested about Rs. 1,252 Crore on R&D efforts, which corresponds to nearly 2.50% of the turnover of the company, focusing on new product and system developments and improvements in existing products. The IPR capital of BHEL grew by 21.5% in the year, taking the total to 2170. The Corporate R&D division at Hyderabad leads BHEL’s research efforts in a number of areas of importance to BHEL’s product range. Research & product development Groups for each product group at the manufacturing divisions play a complementary role.
BHEL has established Centres of Excellence for Simulators, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Permanent Magnet Machines, Surface Engineering, Machine Dynamics, Centre for Intelligent Machines and Robotics, Compressors & Pumps, Centre for Nano Technology, Ultra High Voltage Laboratory at Corporate R&D. BHEL has established four specialized institutes, viz. Welding Research Institute at Tiruchirappalli, Ceramic Technological Institute at Bangalore, Centre for Electric Traction at Bhopal and Pollution Control Research Institute at Haridwar. Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell plant at Gurgaon pursues R&D in Photo Voltaic applications. BHEL is one of the only four Indian companies and the only Indian Public Sector Enterprise figuring in'The Global Innovation 1000' of Booz & Co. a list of 1,000 publicly traded companies which are the biggest spenders on R&D in the world. BHEL is to construct 1,320-megawatt coal power plant in Rampal, close to the Sundarban mangrove forest for Bangladesh-India Friendship Power Company Limited.
The project has faced criticism for the environmental impact and the potential harm to the largest mangrove forest in the world. In 2017 Norway’s sovereign wealth fund removed BHEL from its investment portfolio over concerns about the Rampal coal plant. Bharathidasan Institute of Management, a college that functions within the BHEL campus.