click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bharata (Ramayana)

Bharata is a Hindu deity depicted in the epic Grantha, Ramayana. According to the Grantha Bharata was the younger half brother of Lord Rama. Ramayana holds Bharata as a symbol of idealism. According to the Ramayana, Rama is the seventh avatar of Vishnu while Lakshmana and Shatrughna are considered as part-incarnations of Sheshanaga and Sudarshana chakra respectively. Bharatá is a Vedic Sanskrit word. Monier Monier-Williams states that it means "to be or being maintained." Bharata was born to the virtuous king of Ayodhya and his second wife, Queen Kaikeyi. He was married to daughter of Kushadhwaja, Janaka's younger brother. Thus, Mandavi was Sita's cousin, they had two sons - Pushkala. In the Ramayana Bharata, the second eldest son of Dasharatha and Kakeyi and half-brother of Rama, served as the king of Ayodhya as a sage for the 14 years of Rama and Lakshman's exile, his mother was the reason that Lord Ram was exiled, since she wished Bharat to become the King instead of Ram. Bharat was sad with his mother's act.

He attempted to bring Rama back to Ayodhya after his family sage Vashisht advised him to ascend the throne. He never sat on the throne instead he placed them on the throne. After 11,000 years of Rama's rule, Bharata merges with Rama's Mahavishnu form followed by Shatrughana. According to Valmiki Ramayana the four sons of king Dasharatha i.e. shree Rama, Lakshmana and Shatrughna were close to each other. Ram was in line to become the king of Ayodhya, as dictated by Primogeniture policy followed in the Ikshvaku clan, which they belonged to. But, Bharat's mother Kaikeyi; the Kopa Bhawan was a place where the wives of the ruling king could go when they felt neglected, in order to compel the king to come visit her and hear her complaints. When king Dasharatha arrived, she reminded him of the two wishes he had offered to her when she had saved his life in a battle. For her first boon, she asked for Vanvas of Rama for 14 years, her second wish was to make her son Bharata, the second in line to throne, the heir apparent.

Since the clan of Raghu was known for keeping their word, Dasharatha had no choice but to adhere to her wishes. Once the order was announced, Rama went to exile with his wife Sita and younger brother Lakshmana. Bharata was visiting his maternal relatives, on returning a few days heard the news of his elder brother's exile and his crowning as the heir apparent. Due to the bond shared between the brothers, he became angry with his mother Kaikeyi and her maid Manthara, who had sown the seeds of discord in Kaikeyi's mind; as King Dasharatha lay on his death bed, he cried for his eldest son Rama. On his death, Bharata along with the mothers and Shatrughan went to meet Rama and requested him to come back; when Rama refused to dishonor his father's word, Bharata asked for his slippers. He placed the slippers on the royal seat of Ayodhya, thus laying clear the fact that Ram was the de facto ruler of Ayodha, Bharata would only rule in his stead, for the time he wasn't there. In the 14 years that followed, he went to Nandi Gram to pray to gods for his brother's safe arrival, living in austere conditions and leaving the amenities of the royal palace.

There, he survived by wearing the rough clothes of rishi munis or hermits. After 14 years, Ram was reunited with him and they went back to Ayodhya. There, Ram was crowned the king. Genealogy of Rama Ramayana, translated in English by Griffith, from Project Gutenberg Poddar, Hanuman Prasad, Balkand, 94, Gorakhpur: Gita Press, ISBN 81-293-0406-6, archived from the original on 13 July 2010 Bhalla, Prem P; the Story Of Sri Ram, Peacock Books, ISBN 978-81-248-0191-8

Stonewalling

Stonewalling is a refusal to communicate or cooperate. Such behaviour occurs in situations such as marriage guidance counseling, diplomatic negotiations and legal cases. Body language may indicate and reinforce this by avoiding contact and engagement with the other party. People use deflection in a conversation in order to render a conversation pointless and insignificant. Tactics in stonewalling include giving sparse, vague responses, refusing to answer questions, or responding to questions with additional questions. In most cases, stonewalling is used to create a delay, rather than to put the conversation off forever. In politics, stonewalling is used to refuse to answer or comment on certain questions about policy and issues if the committee or politician in question is under investigation. Stonewalling in politics and in the world of business can sometimes create a critical advantage. William Safire wrote that stonewalling was used in Australian cricket, but its use during president Richard Nixon's Watergate affair brought it into usage in American politics as a "refusal to comment".

Stonewalling can be seen as filibustering, or delaying or stalling the passage of bills until they become outdated or changed when engaging in parliamentary procedures. When one or both members of a couple refuse to communicate, this can mark the final step in the breakdown of their relationship. John Gottman characterised this stage as the fourth horseman of the Apocalypse in his cascade model of divorce prediction. In his studies, "stonewalling" was overwhelmingly done by men, with women overwhelmingly using "criticism". In his studies, men's physiology reached a state of arousal prior to them doing "stonewalling", while the female partner showed a physiological reaction of increased heart rate after her partner had "stonewalled" her; as stonewalling perpetuates in a relationship and becomes a continuous cycle or the negative effects of stonewalling outweigh the positive effects, stonewalling becomes the greatest predictor of divorce in a marriage. When one or both partners in a relationship stonewall, their ability to hear each other or listen to each other's disagreement, side or argument, reduces their ability to engage and help address the situation.

Stonewalling can be detrimental to relationships because there is no chance for resolution of conflict. When stonewalling occurs, it has both a physiological and psychological effect on the person, stonewalling. Physiologically, the person, stonewalling can shut down when people stonewall as a self-soothing mechanism; the person doing stonewalling may be aware or unaware that this is taking place, because of an increase in adrenaline due to an increase in stress, where the person can either engage or flee the situation. Because stonewalling is a physiological reaction, the stonewalling can be thought of as a fight or flight response. Psychologically, stonewalling is a defense mechanism used to preserve one's self and emotions. Other signs of stonewalling are silence, mumbling monotone utterances, changing the subject and physically removing oneself from the situation. Witnesses in court or other legal actions may refuse to cooperate with a counsel by not volunteering information and refusing to testify.

Prosecutors may try to break their united front by offering incentives such as immunity from prosecution. Another tactic of stonewalling is providing the jurors with misleading information or purposefully withholding certain pieces of information that can be self incriminating; when witnesses practice the stonewalling practice they are in an agreement with other witnesses to do the same in order for the tactic to be effective

County Route 511 (New Jersey)

County Route 511, abbreviated CR 511, is a county highway in the U. S. state of New Jersey. The highway extends 37.44 miles from Columbia Avenue in Morris Township to the New York state line in West Milford. CR 511 begins at an intersection with CR 510 in Morris Township, Morris County, heading northeast on four-lane undivided Whippany Road; the route passes business parks before running between business parks to the northwest and homes to the southeast. The road widens into a divided highway and comes to the CR 650 intersection, where it forms the border between Hanover Township to the northwest and Morris Township to the southeast as it interchanges with the Route 24 freeway. CR 511 turns east into residential neighborhoods as an undivided road, becoming a divided highway again as it comes to the CR 623 junction. At this point, the route enters Hanover Township and heads northeast past more homes, alternating between a four-lane divided and undivided road. CR 511 splits from Whippany Road by turning northwest onto two-lane Parsippany Road, with CR 622 continuing northeast along Whippany Road.

The road turns north and passes over the Whippany River and crosses the Morristown and Erie Railway's Whippany Line at-grade before intersecting CR 622 Alternate and coming to an interchange with Route 10. Past this interchange, the road runs through wooded neighborhoods before entering Parsippany-Troy Hills. At this point, CR 511 widens to four lanes and passes business parks widening into a divided highway; the route narrows into a two-lane undivided road as it interchanges with I-287 and passes through residential and commercial areas a short distance to the east of Lake Parsippany. CR 511 widens back to four lanes passes more business parks prior to coming to a bridge over I-80 and reaching an intersection with US 202 and CR 630, where CR 511 forms a concurrency with US 202; the two routes continue north on Parsippany Boulevard, a two-lane road that comes to an intersection with US 46, where the road is state maintained. Past US 46, the road continues north, intersecting ramps that provide access to and from southbound I-287.

Here, the road becomes county maintained again. It passes by business parks and wooded residential areas paralleling I-287 again. At the intersection with Intervale Road, US 202 and CR 511 make a right turn interchanging with I-287, with access to the southbound direction and from the northbound direction; the routes follow Intervale Road before making a left turn to resume onto Parsippany Boulevard. The road crosses over the Jersey City Reservoir, which supplies drinking water to Jersey City, enters Boonton, where the road becomes Washington Street; this street carries the two routes through residential areas before coming to another interchange with I-287 that features access to the southbound direction and access from the northbound direction. Past this interchange, US 202 splits from CR 511 by heading to the northeast on Myrtle Avenue. Past US 202, CR 511 continues northwest on Main Street and passes over NJ Transit's Montclair-Boonton Line near the Boonton Station before passing through the commercial downtown of Boonton.

CR 511 splits from Main Street by turning north onto Boonton Avenue, with CR 624 continuing along Main Street. The road continues past homes before crossing into Boonton Township, where the route turns north into wooded mountain areas with some homes; the route continues north into Montville and turns northeast into less developed mountains, running to the east of the Taylortown Reservoir as it crosses into Kinnelon. In Kinnelon, CR 511 heads near wooded areas of residences, turning east near Fayson Lakes before winding north; the road reaches a junction with Route 23 in commercial areas. From here, the route continues past homes and some businesses, reaching the commercial downtown of Butler. In this area, CR 511 splits into a one-way pair, with the northbound direction turning east on Carey Avenue, north on Roberts Street, west on High Street, the southbound direction remaining on Boonton Avenue. At the north end of the one-way pair, the route intersects CR 618. After crossing the New York and Western Railway's New Jersey Subdivision line, CR 511 turns east onto Main Street and passes more downtown businesses.

Upon crossing the Pequannock River, CR 511 enters Bloomingdale in Passaic County and intersects CR 694, becoming the Paterson-Hamburg Turnpike. The route passes homes and businesses in the downtown of Bloomingdale before CR 511 turns north onto Union Avenue, with CR 694 continuing east on the Paterson-Hamburg Turnpike; the road continues north past residential areas, heading northeast into more wooded areas with some homes. The route runs to the north of a lake and crosses into Wanaque, heading east into commercial areas and reaching ramps to and from the southbound lanes of I-287 prior to a junction with the northern terminus of CR 511 Alternate. At this point, CR 511 turns north onto Ringwood Avenue and passes a mix of residences and businesses. Farther north, the road passes more development as it runs a short distance to the east of the Wanaque Reservoir; the route heads into more wooded areas of development as it forms the border between Ringwood to the east and Wanaque to the west before entering Ringwood.

In Ringwood, CR 511 enters dense mountain forests and winds along the eastern shore of the Wanaque Reservoir as Greenwood Lake Turnpike, intersecting Skyline Drive and CR 697. After the intersection with the latter, the road turns northwest and crosses over a few branches of the Wanaque Reservoir; the route curves north away from the reservoir and passes a few businesses as it comes to a junction with CR 698. From here, CR 511 turns northwest into more mountainous

Thimpu principles

The Thimpu principles or Thimpu Declaration were a set of four demands put forward by the Sri Lankan Tamil delegation at the first peace talks undertaken with respect to the Sri Lankan civil war. In July–August 1985 the Indian government organised peace talks in Thimphu, Bhutan aimed at bringing an end to the Sri Lankan civil war between Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups and the government of Sri Lanka; the declaration made by the Tamil delegation at Thimphu, in response to a government proposal, has come to be known as the Thimpu Declaration or Thimpu principles. The Sri Lankan government delegation consisted of Hector Jayawardene, three lawyers, an attorney; the Tamil delegation consisted of representatives from the Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front, Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam, Tamil Eelam Liberation Organisation and Tamil United Liberation Front. The Sri Lankan government delegation proposed draft legislation for devolution of power but this was rejected by the Tamil delegation.

On 13 July the Tamil delegation responded. The four cardinal principles became known as the Thimpu principles; the declaration stated: It is our considered view that any meaningful solution to the Tamil national question must be based on the following four cardinal principles: recognition of the Tamils of Ceylon as a nation recognition of the existence of an identified homeland for the Tamils of Ceylon recognition of the right of self determination of the Tamil nation recognition of the right to citizenship and the fundamental rights of all Tamils of Ceylon Different countries have fashioned different systems of governments to ensure these principles. We have demanded and struggled for an independent Tamil state as the answer to this problem arising out of the denial of these basic rights of our people; the proposals put forward by the Sri Lankan government delegation as their solution to this problem is unacceptable. Therefore we have rejected them as stated by us in our statement of the 12th of July 1985.

However, in view of our earnest desire for peace, we are prepared to give consideration to any set of proposals, in keeping with the above mentioned principles, that the Sri Lankan Government may place before us. The Sri Lankan government rejected all but the last principle as they violated Sri Lanka's sovereignty; the peace talks collapsed on 18 August due to the intransigence of both delegations. Sri Lankan civil war Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism

List of United Kingdom Conservative MPs (2005–2010)

This is a list of Conservative Party Members of Parliament elected to the British House of Commons for the 43rd Parliament of the United Kingdom. This includes MPs elected at the 2005 general election and those subsequently elected in by-elections; the names in italics are those who did not serve throughout this Parliament and the names with a * next to them are MPs who first entered Parliament in a by-election. Results of the 2005 United Kingdom general election List of MPs elected in the 2005 United Kingdom general election Members of the House of Lords List of United Kingdom Labour MPs 2005- List of United Kingdom Labour Co-operative MPs 2005- List of United Kingdom Labour and Labour Co-operative MPs 2005- List of United Kingdom Liberal Democrat MPs 2005- List of MPs for English constituencies 2005-2010 List of MPs for Scottish constituencies 2005- List of MPs for Welsh constituencies 2005- List of MPs for Northern Irish constituencies 2005- Category:UK MPs 2005-2010

International Double Reed Society

The International Double Reed Society, located in Finksburg, Maryland, is an organization that promotes the interests of double reed players, instrument manufacturers and enthusiasts. Services provided by the IDRS include an international oboe and bassoon competition, an annual conference, member directory, a library, information about grants, publications, such as the society's own journal, The Double Reed; the IDRS grew out of a 1969 newsletter for bassoonists compiled by Gerald Corey. Professor Lewis Hugh Cooper at the University of Michigan and Alan Fox, president of bassoon manufacturer Fox Products, founded a “double reed club” to promote opportunities for double reed players. Together with Corey, they organized a meeting during the December 1971 meeting of the Mid-Western Band Masters convention, the first annual conference of the double reed society assembled in August 1972 at the University of Michigan; the IDRS Fernand Gillet-Hugo Fox International Competition for oboists and bassoonists takes place every year during the society's annual conference, with a first prize of $8,000, second prize $3,000, $1,000 for other finalists.

Five finalists are selected to compete. Oboists or bassoonists who have not yet reached their 31st birthday by the date of the final round of the competition are eligible to enter; the competition was founded in 1979 and dedicated to the memory of master oboist Fernand Gillet, solo oboist with the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1925 to 1946. The competition alternates between oboe each year; the IDRS Young Artist Competition for oboists and bassoonists takes place every year during the society's annual conference for the discordant instruments of the Gillet-Fox Competition, with a first prize of $2,000, a second prize of $1,000, a third prize of $500. Three finalists are selected to compete. Oboists or bassoonists who have not yet reached their 22nd birthday by the date of the final round of the competition are eligible to enter; the competition was founded with the first competition being for oboe. The Meg Quigley Vivaldi Competition was founded by Nicolasa Kuster, principal bassoonist in the Wichita Symphony in 2005 and Kristin Wolfe Jensen, bassoon professor at University of Texas at Austin.

It is open to young women bassoonists from North and South America and is held concurrently with the IDRS conference every other year. Namesakes for the competition are Italian Baroque composer Antonio Vivaldi, who taught music at the Ospedale della Pietà, a girls' orphanage in Venice, Meg Quigley, a philanthropist from California who supported women's issues and institutions. Prizes in the inaugural year included: first place, $9,000 plus performance opportunities. Official website