Bharathi (1948 film)
Bharathi is a 1948 Indian Kannada film directed by R. M. Veerabhadraiah, it stars Tanguturi Suryakumari, Sampath, making his debut, M. V. Krishnaswamy in the lead roles; the screenplay and songs for the film were written by M. Narendrababu. About the plot of the film, The Indian Express wrote, "The story aims at giving salutary guidance to our modern womenfolk from blindly apeing western civilisation, forgetting India's time-honoured traditions, it appeals for the promotion of indigenous culture while assimilating the best in the Occident." Tanguturi Suryakumari Rajkumari Sampath M. V. Krishnaswamy Madhava Rao Bharathi on IMDb
Bharati braille, or Bharatiya Braille, is a unified braille script for writing the languages of India. When India gained independence, eleven braille scripts were in use, in different parts of the country and for different languages. By 1951 a single national standard had been settled on, Bharati braille, which has since been adopted by Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. There are slight differences in the orthographies for Nepali in India and Nepal, for Tamil in India and Sri Lanka. There are significant differences in Bengali Braille between India and Bangladesh, with several letters differing. Pakistan has not adopted Bharati braille, so the Urdu Braille of Pakistan is an different alphabet than the Urdu Braille of India, with their commonalities due to their common inheritance from English or International Braille. Sinhalese Braille conforms to other Bharati, but differs toward the end of the alphabet, is covered in its own article. Bharati braille alphabets use a 6-dot cell with values based on English Braille.
Letters are assigned as as possible across the various regional scripts of India as they are transliterated in the Latin script, so that, for example, Urdu and English are rendered the same in braille. Although alphabetic, Bharati braille retains one aspect of Indian abugidas, in that the default vowel a is not written unless it occurs at the beginning of a syllable or before a vowel; this has been called a "linearized alphasyllabary ". For example, taking Devanagari as a representative printed script, the braille letter ⠅ renders print क ka, braille ⠹ renders print थ tha. To indicate that a consonant occurs without a following vowel, a virama prefix is used: ⠈⠅ is क k, ⠈⠹ is थ th. However, unlike in print, there are no vowel diacritics in Bharati braille. For example, in print the vowel i is prefixed to a consonant in a reduced diacritic form, कि ki, but in braille it follows the consonant in its full form: ⠅⠊, equivalent to writing ⟨कइ⟩ for ki in print, thus print क्लिक klika is written in braille as ⠈⠅⠇⠊⠅.
The one time a non-initial short a is written in braille is. In this environment the a must be written, because otherwise the subsequent vowel will be read as following the consonant immediately, thus print ⟨ कइ ⟩ kai is rendered in braille as ⠅ ⠁ ⠊. Apart from the kṣ and jñ, Bharati braille does not handle conjuncts. Consonant clusters written as conjuncts in print are handled with the virama in braille, just as they are with computer fonts that lack the conjuncts. Bharati braille is thus equivalent to Grade-1 English braille, though there are plans to extend all the Bharati alphabets to include conjuncts. Following are the charts of the braille correspondences of the main Indian scripts. Irregularities, where a letter does not match the romanized heading, are placed in parentheses. In Hindi, halanta is not used with the last letter; some of the punctuation marks duplicate letters. The caps mark is only used. The'accent', ⠈, transcribes Urdu ّ shaddah, the colon, ⠒, is used for Urdu ة ta marbuta.
In Bangladesh and Nepal, several additional punctuation marks are noted, but they do not agree with each other. It is not clear; the pointing symbol, ⠐, is used for consonant letters that in print are derived by adding a dot to another consonant. For Urdu, the base letter in Devanagari is used: the pointing of the Arabic/Persian script is not reflected. For example, Gurmukhi ਗ਼ / Urdu غ / Devanagari ग़ ġa, formed by adding a dot to g in Gurmukhi and Devanagari, is written ⠐⠛ point-G in all three. With Urdu, this is only done in India. Ethnologue 17 reports braille usage for Mizo and Meitei, it is not clear if they have been unified with Bharati Braille. Digits follow international conventions and are marked by ⠼. Sinhalese Braille Bengali Braille Urdu Braille Devanagari Braille Gujarati Braille Kannada Braille Malayalam Braille Oriya Braille Punjabi Braille Telugu Braille Tamil Braille Moon type is a simplification of the Latin alphabet for embossing. An adaptation for "Hindustanee"-reading blind people as proposed.
Bharati Braille Implementation
Chinnaswami Subramania Bharathi known as Bharathiyar, was a Tamil writer, journalist, Indian independence activist and a social reformer from Tamil Nadu. Popularly known as "Mahakavi Bharathi", he was a pioneer of modern Tamil poetry and is considered one of the greatest Tamil literary figures of all time, his numerous works included fiery songs kindling patriotism during the Indian Independence movement. Born in Ettayapuram of Tirunelveli district in 1882, Bharathi had his early education in Tirunelveli and Varanasi and worked as a journalist with many newspapers, including The Hindu, Bala Bharata, Chakravarthini, the Swadesamitran and India. In 1908, an arrest warrant was issued against Bharati by the government of British India for his revolutionary writings, forcing him to flee to Pondicherry, where he lived until 1918. Bharathi's influence on Tamil literature is phenomenal, he was prolific in his output. He covered political and spiritual themes; the songs and poems composed by Bharati are often used in Tamil cinema and have become staples in the literary and musical repertoire of Tamil artistes throughout the world.
He paved the way for modern blank verse. Bharati was born on 11 December 1882 in the village of Ettayapuram, to Chinnaswami Subramania Iyer and Lakshmi Ammal. Subbaiah, as he was named, went to the M. D. T. Hindu College in Tirunelveli. From a young age, he was musically and poetically inclined. Bharati lost his mother at the age of five and was brought up by his father who wanted him to learn English, excel in arithmetic, become an engineer. A proficient linguist, he was well-versed in Sanskrit, Telugu, English and had a smattering of Arabic. Around the age of 11, he was conferred the title of "Bharati", the one blessed by Saraswati, the goddess of learning, he lost his father at the age of sixteen, but before that when he was 15, he married Chellamma, seven years old. During his stay in Varanasi, Bharati was exposed to Hindu nationalism; this broadened his outlook and he learned Sanskrit and English. In addition, he changed his outward appearance, he grew a beard and wore a turban due to his admiration of Sikhs, influenced by his Sikh friend.
Though he passed an entrance exam for a job, he returned to Ettayapuram during 1901 and started as the court poet of Raja of Ettayapuram for a couple of years. He was a Tamil teacher from August to November 1904 in Sethupathy High School in Madurai. During this period, Bharati understood the need to be well-informed of the world outside and took interest in the world of journalism and the print media of the West. Bharati joined as Assistant Editor of the Swadeshamitran, a Tamil daily in 1904. In December 1905, he attended the All India Congress session held in Benaras. On his journey back home, he met Swami Vivekananda's spiritual heir, she inspired Bharati to recognise the privileges of women and the emancipation of women exercised Bharati's mind. He visualised the new woman as an emanation of Shakti, a willing helpmate of man to build a new earth through co-operative endeavour. Among other greats such as Bal Gangadhar Tilak, he considered Nivedita as his Guru, penned verses in her praise, he attended the Indian National Congress session in Calcutta under Dadabhai Naoiroji, which demanded Swaraj and boycott of British goods.
By April 1907, he started editing the Tamil weekly India and the English newspaper Bala Bharatham with M. P. T. Acharya; these newspapers were a means of expressing Bharati's creativity, which began to peak during this period. Bharati started to publish his poems in these editions. From hymns to nationalistic writings, from contemplations on the relationship between God and Man to songs on the Russian and French revolutions, Bharati's subjects were diverse. Bharati participated in the historic Surat Congress in 1907 along with V. O. Chidambaram Pillai and Mandayam Srinivachariar, which deepened the divisions within the Indian National Congress with a section preferring armed resistance led by Tilak over moderate approach preferred by certain other sections. Bharati supported Tilak with V. O. Chidambaram Kanchi Varathachariyar. Tilak supported armed resistance against the British. In 1908, the British instituted a case against V. O. Chidambaram Pillai. In the same year, the proprietor of the journal India was arrested in Madras.
Faced with the prospect of arrest, Bharati escaped to Pondicherry, under French rule. From there he edited and published the weekly journal India, Vijaya, a Tamil daily, Bala Bharatham, an English monthly, Suryodayam, a local weekly in Pondicherry; the British tried to suppress Bharati's output by stopping letters to the papers. Both India and Vijaya were banned in India in 1909. During his exile, Bharati had the opportunity to meet many other leaders of the revolutionary wing of the Independence movement like Aurobindo, Lajpat Rai and V. V. S. Aiyar, who had sought asylum under the French. Bharati assisted Aurobindo in the Arya journal and Karma Yogi in Pondicherry; this was the period when he started learning Vedic literature. Three of his greatest works namely, Kuyil Pattu, Panchali Sapatham and Kannan Pattu were composed during 1912, he translated Vedic hymns, Patanjali's Yoga Sutra and Bhagavat Gita to Tamil. Bharati was promptly arrested, he was imprisoned in the Central prison in Cuddalore in custody for three weeks from 20 November to 14 December and was released after the intervention of Annie Besant and C.
P. Ramaswamy Aiyar, he was stricken by poverty during this period. The following year, 1919, Bharati met Mohandas
Saraswati is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, art and learning. She is a part of the trinity of Saraswati and Parvati. All the three forms help the trinity of Brahma and Shiva to create and regenerate-recycle the Universe, respectively; the earliest known mention of Saraswati as a goddess is in the Rigveda. She has remained significant as a goddess from the Vedic period through modern times of Hindu traditions; some Hindus celebrate the festival of Vasant Panchami in her honour, mark the day by helping young children learn how to write the letters of the alphabet on that day. The Goddess is revered by believers of the Jain religion of west and central India, as well as some Buddhist sects. Saraswati, is a Sanskrit fusion word of saras meaning "pooling water", but sometimes translated as "speech". Associated with the river or rivers known as Saraswati, this combination therefore means "she who has ponds and pooling water" or "she who possesses speech", it is a Sanskrit composite word of surasa-vati which means "one with plenty of water".
The word Saraswati appears both as a significant deity in the Rigveda. In initial passages, the word refers to the Sarasvati River and is mentioned as one among several northwestern Indian rivers such as the Drishadvati. Saraswati connotes a river deity. In Book 2, the Rigveda describes Saraswati as the best of mothers, of rivers, of goddesses. अम्बितमे नदीतमे देवितमे सरस्वति — Rigveda 2.41.16Best of mothers, best of rivers, best of goddesses, Sarasvatī. Saraswati is celebrated as a feminine deity with healing and purifying powers of abundant, flowing waters in Book 10 of the Rigveda, as follows: अपो अस्मान मातरः शुन्धयन्तु घर्तेन नो घर्तप्वः पुनन्तु | विश्वं हि रिप्रं परवहन्ति देविरुदिदाभ्यः शुचिरापूत एमि || — Rigveda 10.17May the waters, the mothers, cleanse us, may they who purify with butter, purify us with butter, for these goddesses bear away defilement, I come up out of them pure and cleansed. — translated by John Muir In Vedic literature, Saraswati acquires the same significance for early Indians as that accredited to the river Ganges by their modern descendants.
In hymns of Book 10 of Rigveda, she is declared to be the "possessor of knowledge". Her importance grows in Vedas composed after Rigveda and in Brahmanas, the word evolves in its meaning from "waters that purify", to "that which purifies", to "vach that purifies", to "knowledge that purifies", into a spiritual concept of a goddess that embodies knowledge, music, muse, rhetoric, creative work and anything whose flow purifies the essence and self of a person. In Upanishads and Dharma Sastras, Saraswati is invoked to remind the reader to meditate on virtue, virtuous emoluments, the meaning and the essence of one's activity, one's action. Saraswati is known by many names in ancient Hindu literature; some examples of synonyms for Saraswati include Brahmani, Bharadi and Vachi, Kavijihvagravasini. Goddess Saraswati is known as Vidyadatri, Pustakdharini, Veenapani and Vagdevi. In the Hindi language, her name is written Hindi: सरस्वती. In the Telugu, Sarasvati is known as Chaduvula Thalli and Shārada.
In Konkani, she is referred to as Shārada, Pustakadhārini, Vidyadāyini. In Kannada, variants of her name include Sharade, Sharadamba, Vāni, Veenapani in the famous Sringeri temple. In Tamil, she is known as Kalaimagal, Kalaivāni, Vāni and Bharathi, she is addressed as Sāradā, Shāradā, Veenā-pustaka-dhārini, Vāgdevi, Vāgishvari, Vāni, Varadhanāyaki, Sāvitri, Gāyatri. In India, she is locally spelled as ￼￼Assamese_language:সৰস্বতী,Saraswati, Bengali: সরস্বতী, Saraswati?, Malayalam: സരസ്വതി, Saraswati?, Tamil: சரஸ்வதி, Sarasvatī?. In Odia as ସରସ୍ଵତୀ Saraswati. Outside Nepal and India, she is known in Burmese as Thurathadi or Tipitaka Medaw, in Chinese as Biàncáitiān, in Japanese as Benzaiten and in Thai as Suratsawadi or Saratsawadi. In Hindu tradition, Sarasvati has retained her significance as a goddess from the Vedic age up to the present day. In Shanti Parva of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Saraswati is called the mother of the Vedas, as the celestial creative symphony who appeared when Brahma created the universe.
In Book 2 of Taittiriya Brahmana, she is called “the mother of eloquent speech and melodious music”. Saraswati is the active power of Brahma, she is mentioned in many minor Sanskrit publications such as Sarada Tilaka of 8th century CE as follows, May the goddess of speech enable us to attain all possible eloquence, she who wears on her locks a young mo
Bharathiraja is an Indian film director who works in the Tamil film industry. Making his debut in 1977 with 16 Vayathinile, he is known for realistic and sensitive portrayals of rural life in his films; as of 2017, he has won six National Film Awards, four Filmfare Awards South, two Tamil Nadu State Film Awards and a Nandi Award. He has directed films in Telugu and Hindi; the Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri award, India's fourth-highest civilian honour, in 2004 for his contribution to the film industry. Bharathiraja started his film career as an assistant to Kannada filmmaker Puttanna Kanagal, he assisted P. Pullaiah, M. Krishnan Nair, Avinasi Mani and A. Jagannathan, his first film 16 Vayathinile, for which he wrote the script, broke the existing convention to create a new genre of village cinema. The film is now regarded as a milestone in the history of Tamil Cinema. About the film, Bharathiraja said: "This movie was meant to be a black & white art film produced with the help of National Film Development Corporation", but turned out to be a commercially successful colour film and a starting point for several important careers.
His next film Kizhake Pogum Rail produced similar results and brought in criticisms that Bharathiraja was capable of catering only to village audiences. This led him to make Sigappu Rojakkal, about a psychopathic woman-hater, westernized in terms of both conception and production. Bharathiraja confirmed his versatility and refusal to be tied down to one particular genre with an experimental film Nizhalgal, the action thriller Tik Tik Tik, but undoubtedly, rural themes proved to be his strong suit as his biggest hits in the 1980s. Muthal Mariyathai starred Sivaji Ganesan in the lead. Radha is a poor young woman; the love that bonds these two humans separated not just by age but by caste and class, is told by Bharathiraja with poetic touches. Vedham Pudhithu dealt with the caste issue in a stronger manner; the film's narrative starred Sathyaraj as Balu Thevar. It contains some of Bharathiraja's trademark touches as well as several ground-breaking scenes. However, it does follow the anti-Brahmin trend common in Tamil films – in this respect it departed from his earlier success Alaigal Oiyvadhillai, where the caste and religion factor was given a more balanced treatment.
Bharathiraja has managed to modernise his film-making techniques for the 1990s. The commercial success of Kizhakku Cheemaiyile and the awards that Karuththamma garnered stand as testimony to his ability to thrill the younger generation as well. Bharathiraja was on the same stage in 1996 to receive another National Award for Anthimanthaarai. In late 1996, Bharathiraja was signed on to direct two films, with the Sarathkumar-starrer Vaakkapatta Bhoomi announced in October; the following month, he began work on a film titled Siragugal Murivadhillai, with Napolean, Heera Rajgopal and Prakash Raj in the leading roles. Both films were shelved, his 2001 film Kadal Pookal won him that year's National Film Award for Best Screenplay. The well-known Tamil film director Bhagyaraj was one of his assistant directors. During early 2016, Bharathiraja was embroiled in a legal tussle with director Bala on making a film titled Kutra Parambarai, though neither filmmaker made their respective films, he moved on to plan a film starring director Vasanth's son, Ritwik Varun, Vikram's nephew, but did not begin shooting for the venture.
In 2018, Bharathirajaa is working on a film titled November 8, Iravu 8 Mani starring Vidharth, which narrates events following the decision to demonetise certain banknotes in India. Bharathiraja was born as Chinnasamy to parents Karuthammal, he has two children Manoj Bharathiraja and Janani. Manoj is an actor, introduced in Tajmahal and he is married to actress Nandana. Janani is married to Malaysian Rajkumar Thambiraja. Bharathiraja's brother-in-law Manojkumar has directed films such as Mannukkul Vairam, Vandicholai Chinraasu and Guru Paarvai, his brother Jayaraj made his acting debut with Kaththukkutti. His relative Stalin is a television actor who acted in serials such as Saravanan Meenatchi and 7C. 2004 – Padmashri from the Government of India 1982 – National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Telugu for Seethakoka Chiluka 1986 – National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil for Mudhal Mariyathai 1988 – National Film Award for Best Film on Other Social Issues Vedham Pudhithu 1995 – National Film Award for Best Film on Family Welfare for Karuththamma 1996 – National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil for Anthimanthaarai 2001 – National Film Award for Best Screenplay for Kadal Pookkal 1978 – Best Tamil Director for Sigappu Rojakkal 1987 - Best Tamil Film for Vedham Pudhithu 1987 - Best Tamil Director for Vedham Pudhithu 1994 - Best Tamil Film for Karuthamma 1977 – Best Director Award for 16 Vayathinile 1979- Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Film - Second Prize - Puthiya Vaarpugal 1981 – Best Director Award for Alaigal Oivathillai 1994 - Best Film Portraying Woman in Good Light for Karuththamma 2001 - Tamil Nadu State Film Honorary Award- Arignar Anna Award in 2001 2003 – Best Film in First place Eera Nilam 1981 – Nandi Award for Best Director for Seethakoka Chiluka 2012 - Contribution to Tamil Cinema 2013 - Best Supporting Actor for Pandiya Naadu South Indian Film Technicians: Best Technician Award for Kallukkul Eeram He attended the Heroes Day conference at