The term tandoor refers to a variety of ovens. The most known is a cylindrical clay or metal oven used in cooking and baking in Northern Indian subcontinent; the tandoor is used for cooking in Southern and Western Asia, as well as in the South Caucasus. The heat for a tandoor was traditionally generated by a charcoal or wood fire, burning within the tandoor itself, thus exposing the food to live-fire, radiant heat cooking, hot-air, convection cooking, smoking by the fat and food juices that drip on to the charcoal. Temperatures in a tandoor can approach 480 °C, it is common for tandoor ovens to remain lit for long periods to maintain the high cooking temperature; the tandoor design is something of a transitional form between a makeshift earth oven and the horizontal-plan masonry oven. The word tonir is used in various languages like tannūr. However, according to Dehkhoda Persian Dictionary, the word originates from Akkadian tinûru "tin" means mud and nuro/nura means fire, is mentioned as early as in the Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh.
So tandoor may have originated from Semitic. In Sanskrit, the tandoor was referred to as kandu. A tandoor may be used to bake many different types of flatbread; some of the most common are tandoori roti, tandoori naan, tandoori laccha paratha, missi roti, tandoori kulcha. Roasted cashews and cottage cheese paste marinated in spiced thick cream grilled in a tandoor. Potatoes stuffed with cottage cheese and cashew nuts, roasted in a tandoor. Tandoori chicken is a roasted chicken delicacy that originated in Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent; the chicken is marinated in yogurt seasoned with garam masala, ginger, cayenne pepper, other spices depending on the recipe. In hot versions of the dish, red chili powder, or other spices give the typical red color. Turmeric produces a yellow-orange color, it is traditionally cooked at high temperatures in a tandoor, but can be prepared on a traditional grill. Chicken tikka is a dish from Mughlai cuisine made by grilling small pieces of boneless chicken which have been marinated in spices and yogurt.
It is traditionally cooked on skewers in a tandoor and is boneless. It is served and eaten with a green coriander chutney, or used in preparing the curry chicken tikka masala. Kalmi kabab, a popular snack in South Asian cuisine, is made by marinating chicken drumsticks and placing them in a tandoor. Various freshly ground spices are added to the yogurt to form a marinade for the chicken. Traditionally, the marinaded chicken is given 12 hours at the least; when prepared, the drumsticks are garnished with mint leaves and served with laccha onions. Samosa is a stuffed snack consisting of a fried or baked triangular, semilunar or tetrahedral pastry shell with a savory filling, which may include spiced potatoes, peas and lentils, or ground lamb or chicken; the size and shape of a samosa, as well as the consistency of the pastry used, can vary considerably. In some regions of Central Asia, samosas are baked in a tandoor, while they are fried elsewhere; the Afghan tandoor is made of bricks. The Punjabi tandoor from the Indian Subcontinent is traditionally made of clay and is a bell-shaped oven, which can either be set into the earth and fired with wood or charcoal reaching temperatures of about 480 degrees Celsius, or rest above the ground.
Tandoor cooking is a traditional aspect of Punjabi cuisine in undivided Punjab. In India and Pakistan, tandoori cooking was traditionally associated with the Punjab, as Punjabis embraced the tandoor on a regional level, became popular in the mainstream after the 1947 partition when Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus resettled in places such as Delhi. In rural Punjab, it was common to have communal tandoors; some villages still have a communal tandoor, a common sight prior to 1947. In ancient times, the tonir was worshiped by the Armenians as a symbol of the sun in the ground. Armenians made tonirs in resemblance with the setting sun "going into the ground"; the underground tonir, made of clay, is one of the first tools in Armenian cuisine, as an oven and as a thermal treatment tool. Armenians are said to have originated underground tonirs. In ancient times people used it to cook bread and various dishes. Tandir bread is widespread bread type in Azerbaijan. Tandir bread is baked from the heat of the tandir's walls, which ensures fast baking.
One of the world's biggest tandoors was built in Azerbaijan's southern city of Astara in 2015. The height of the tandoor is 6,5m and the diameter is 12 m; the tandoor consists of 3 parts
Suryavansha is a historical dynasty of ancient India. The term Suryavanshi refers to a person belonging to the Suryvansha dynasty. Raghuvanshi is an offshoot of the Suryavanshi clan. Rajput is Suryavanshi and some Rajput is Chandravanshi The Puranas the Vishnu Purana, the Ramayana of Valmiki and the Mahabharata of Vyasa all contain accounts of this dynasty; the Raghuvansha of Kalidasa mentions the names of some of the kings of this dynasty. Historical Rama, website
Gurjar or Gujjar is an ethnic agricultural and pastoral community of India and Afghanistan. They were known as Gurjaras during the medieval times, a name, believed to have been an ethnonym in the beginning as well as a demonym on. Although traditionally they have been involved in agriculture, Gurjars are a large heterogeneous group, internally differentiated in terms of culture, religion and socio-economic status; the historical role of Gurjars has been quite diverse in society, at one end they are founders of several kingdoms, cities and villages, at the other end, they are nomads with no land of their own. The pivotal point in the history of Gurjar identity is traced back to the emergence of a Gurjara kingdom in present-day Rajasthan during medieval times, it is believed that the Gurjars migrated to different parts of the Indian Subcontinent from the Gurjara kingdom. It was believed that the Gurjars did an earlier migration from Central Asia as well, that view is considered to be speculative.
Historical references speak of Gurjara warriors and commoners in North India in the 7th century CE, mention several Gurjara kingdoms and dynasities. The Gurjaras started fading way from the forefront of history after 10th century CE. Thereafter, several Gurjar chieftans and upstart warriors are mentioned in history, who were rather petty rulers in contrast to their predecessors; the modern forms "Gurjar" and "Gujjar" were quite common during the Mughal era, documents dating from the period mention Gurjars as a "turbulent" people. The Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan were known as Gurjaradesa and Gurjaratra for centuries prior to the arrival of the British power; the Gujrat and Gujranwala districts of Pakistani Punjab have been associated with Gujjars from as early as the 8th century CE, when there existed a Gurjara kingdom in the same area. The Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh was known as Gujarat due to the presence of a large number of Gujjar zamindars, or land holding farmer class, in the area.
Gurjars are religiously diverse. Although they are able to speak the language of the region and country where they live, Gurjars have their own language, known as Gujari, they variously follow Hinduism and Sikhism. The Hindu Gurjars are found in Indian states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab Plains and Maharashtra, while the Muslim Gujjars are found in Pakistan and Indian Himalayan regions such as Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Garhwal and Kumaon divisions of Uttarakhand; the Gurjars are classified as Other Backward Class in some of UTs. Hindu Gurjars were assimilated into various varnas in the medieval period. Historians and anthropologists differ on the issue of Gurjar origin. According to one view, the ancient ancestors of Gurjars came from central Asia via Georgia from near the Caspian Sea. According to this view, between 1 BCE and 1 CE, the ancient ancestors of Gurjars came in multiple waves of migration and they were accorded status as high-caste warriors in the Hindu fold in the North-Western regions.
Aydogdy Kurbanov states that some Gurjars, along with people from northwestern India, merged with the Hephthalites to become the Rajput clan. According to scholars such as Baij Nath Puri, the Mount Abu region of present-day Rajasthan had been an abode of the Gurjars during the medieval period; the association of the Gurjars with the mountain is noticed in many inscriptions and epigraphs including Tilakamanjari of Dhanpala. These Gurjars migrated from the Arbuda mountain region and as early as in the 6th century A. D. they set up one or more principalities in Gujarat. The whole or a larger part of Rajasthan and Gujarat had been long known as Gurjaratra or Gurjarabhumi for centuries prior to the Mughal period. In Sanskrit texts, the ethnonym has sometimes been interpreted as "destroyer of the enemy": gur meaning "enemy" and ujjar meaning "destroyer"). In its survey of The People of India, the Anthropological Survey of India – a government-sponsored organisation – noted that The Gurjars/Gujjars were no doubt a remarkable people spread from Kashmir to Gujarat and Maharashtra, who gave an identity to Gujarat, established kingdoms, entered the Rajput groups as the dominant lineage of Badgujar, survive today as a pastoral and a tribal group with both Hindu and Muslim segments.
Irawati Karve, the Indologist and historian, believed that the Gurjars position in society and the caste system varied from one linguistic area of India to another. In Maharashtra, Karve thought that they were absorbed by the Rajputs and Marathas but retained some of their distinct identity, she based her theories on analysis of clan names and tradition, noting that while most Rajputs claim their origins to lie in the mythological Chandravansh or Suryavansh dynasties, at least two of the communities in the region claimed instead to be descended from the Agnivansh. A 2009 study conducted by Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation, under the supervision of Gurjar scholar Javaid Rahi, claimed that the word "Gojar" has a Central Asian Turkic origin, written in romanized Turkish as Göçer; the study claimed that according to the new research, the Gurjar race "remained one of the most vibrant identity of Central
Krishna is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshipped as the eighth avatar of the god Vishnu and as the supreme God in his own right, he is the god of compassion and love in Hinduism, is one of the most popular and revered among Indian divinities. Krishna's birthday is celebrated every year by Hindus on Janmashtami according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar, which falls in late August or early September of the Gregorian calendar; the anecdotes and narratives of Krishna's life are titled as Krishna Leela. He is a central character in the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana and the Bhagavad Gita, is mentioned in many Hindu philosophical and mythological texts, they portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero, as the universal supreme being. His iconography reflects these legends, shows him in different stages of his life, such as an infant eating butter, a young boy playing a flute, a young man with Radha or surrounded by women devotees, or a friendly charioteer giving counsel to Arjuna.
The synonyms of Krishna have been traced to 1st millennium BCE literature. In some sub-traditions, Krishna is worshipped as Svayam Bhagavan, this is sometimes referred to as Krishnaism; these sub-traditions arose in the context of the medieval era Bhakti movement. Krishna-related literature has inspired numerous performance arts such as Bharatnatyam, Kuchipudi and Manipuri dance, he is a pan-Hindu god, but is revered in some locations such as Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh, the Jagannatha aspect in Odisha, Mayapur in West Bengal and Junagadh in Gujarat, in the form of Vithoba in Pandharpur, Nathdwara in Rajasthan, Guruvayur in Kerala. Since the 1960s, the worship of Krishna has spread to the Western world and to Africa due to the work of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness; the name "Krishna" originates from the Sanskrit word Kṛṣṇa, an adjective meaning "black", "dark", or "dark blue". The waning moon is called Krishna Paksha, relating to the adjective meaning "darkening"; the name is interpreted sometimes as "all-attractive".
As a name of Vishnu, Krishna is listed as the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Based on his name, Krishna is depicted in idols as black- or blue-skinned. Krishna is known by various other names and titles that reflect his many associations and attributes. Among the most common names are Mohan "enchanter"; some names for Krishna hold regional importance. Krishna is with some common features, his iconography depicts him with black, dark, or blue skin, like Vishnu. However and medieval reliefs and stone-based arts depict him in the natural color of the material out of which he is formed, both in India and in southeast Asia. In some texts, his skin is poetically described as the color of Jambul. Krishna is depicted wearing a peacock-feather wreath or crown, playing the bansuri. In this form, he is shown standing with one leg bent in front of the other in the Tribhanga posture, he is sometimes accompanied by a calf, which symbolise the divine herdsman Govinda. Alternatively, he is shown as a romantic and seductive man with the gopis making music or playing pranks.
In other icons, he is a part of battlefield scenes of the epic Mahabharata. He is shown as a charioteer, notably when he is addressing the Pandava prince Arjuna character, symbolically reflecting the events that led to the Bhagavad Gita – a scripture of Hinduism. In these popular depictions, Krishna appears in the front as the charioteer, either as a counsel listening to Arjuna, or as the driver of the chariot while Arjuna aims his arrows in the battlefield of Kurukshetra. Alternate icons of Krishna show him as a baby, a toddler crawling on his hands and knees, a dancing child, or an innocent-looking child playfully stealing or consuming butter, holding Laddu in his hand or as a cosmic infant sucking his toe while floating on a banyan leaf during the Pralaya observed by sage Markandeya. Regional variations in the iconography of Krishna are seen in his different forms, such as Jaganatha in Odisha, Vithoba in Maharashtra, Shrinathji in Rajasthan and Guruvayoorappan in Kerala. Guidelines for the preparation of Krishna icons in design and architecture are described in medieval-era Sanskrit texts on Hindu temple arts such as Vaikhanasa agama, Vishnu dharmottara, Brihat samhita, Agni Purana.
Early medieval-era Tamil texts contain guidelines for sculpting Krishna and Rukmini. Several statues made according to these guidelines are in the collections of the Government Museum, Chennai; the earliest text containing detailed descriptions of Krishna as a personality is the epic Mahabharata, which depicts Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu. Krishna is central to many of the main stories of the epic; the eighteen chapters of the sixth book of the epic that constitute the Bhagavad Gita contain the advice of Krishna to Arjuna on the battlefield. The Harivamsa, a appendix to the Mahabharata contains a detailed version of Krishna's childhood and youth; the Chandogya Upanishad, estimated to have been composed sometime between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE, has been another source of speculation regarding Krishna in ancient India. The
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 miles northeast of Delhi, it erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions chiefly in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, though incidents of revolt occurred farther north and east. The rebellion posed a considerable threat to British power in that region, was contained only with the rebels' defeat in Gwalior on 20 June 1858. On 1 November 1858, the British granted amnesty to all rebels not involved in murder, though they did not declare the hostilities formally to have ended until 8 July 1859; the rebellion is known by many names, including the Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Revolt of 1857, the Indian Insurrection, the First War of Independence.
The Indian rebellion was fed by resentments born of diverse perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, as well as skepticism about the improvements brought about by British rule. Many Indians rose against the British. Violence, which sometimes betrayed exceptional cruelty, was inflicted on both sides, on British officers, civilians, including women and children, by the rebels, on the rebels, their supporters, including sometimes entire villages, by British reprisals. After the outbreak of the mutiny in Meerut, the rebels quickly reached Delhi, whose 81-year-old Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah Zafar, they declared the Emperor of Hindustan. Soon, the rebels had captured large tracts of the North-Western Provinces and Awadh; the East India Company's response came as well. With help from reinforcements, Kanpur was retaken by mid-July 1857, Delhi by the end of September. However, it took the remainder of 1857 and the better part of 1858 for the rebellion to be suppressed in Jhansi and the Awadh countryside.
Other regions of Company controlled India—Bengal province, the Bombay Presidency, the Madras Presidency—remained calm. In the Punjab, the Sikh princes crucially helped the British by providing support; the large princely states, Mysore and Kashmir, as well as the smaller ones of Rajputana, did not join the rebellion, serving the British, in the Governor-General Lord Canning's words, as "breakwaters in a storm."In some regions, most notably in Awadh, the rebellion took on the attributes of a patriotic revolt against European presence. However, the rebel leaders proclaimed no articles of faith. So, the rebellion proved to be an important watershed in Indian- and British Empire history, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company, forced the British to reorganize the army, the financial system, the administration in India, through passage of the Government of India Act 1858. India was thereafter administered directly by the British government in the new British Raj. On 1 November 1858, Queen Victoria issued a proclamation to Indians, which while lacking the authority of a constitutional provision, promised rights similar to those of other British subjects.
In the following decades, when admission to these rights was not always forthcoming, Indians were to pointedly refer to the Queen's proclamation in growing avowals of a new nationalism. Although the British East India Company had established a presence in India as far back as 1612, earlier administered the factory areas established for trading purposes, its victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 marked the beginning of its firm foothold in eastern India; the victory was consolidated in 1764 at the Battle of Buxar, when the East India Company army defeated Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. After his defeat, the emperor granted the Company the right to the "collection of Revenue" in the provinces of Bengal, known as "Diwani" to the Company; the Company soon expanded its territories around its bases in Madras. In 1806, the Vellore Mutiny was sparked by new uniform regulations that created resentment amongst both Hindu and Muslim sepoys. After the turn of the 19th century, Governor-General Wellesley began what became two decades of accelerated expansion of Company territories.
This was achieved either by subsidiary alliances between the Company and local rulers or by direct military annexation. The subsidiary alliances created the princely states of the Muslim nawabs. Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Kashmir were annexed after the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849; the border dispute between Nepal and British India, which sharpened after 1801, had caused the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16 and brought the defeated Gurkhas under British influence. In 1854, Berar was annexed, the state of Oudh was added two years later. For practical purposes, the Company was the government of much of India; the Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. The sepoys were Indian soldiers who were recruited into the Company's army
Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent
Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century. With the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, Islam spread across large parts of the subcontinent. In 1204, Bakhtiyar Khalji led the Muslim conquest of Bengal, marking the eastern-most expansion of Islam at the time. Prior to the rise of the Maratha Empire, followed by the conquest of India by the British East India Company, the Muslim Mughal Empire was able to annex or subjugate most of India's kings. However, it was never able to conquer the kingdoms in the upper reaches of the Himalayas, such as those of modern Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Bhutan. Islam in South Asia existed in communities along the Arab coastal trade routes in Sindh, Gujarat and Ceylon as soon as the religion originated and had gained early acceptance in the Arabian Peninsula, though the first incursion by the new Muslim successor states of the Arab World occurred around 636 CE or 643 AD, during the Rashidun Caliphate, long before any Arab army reached the frontier of India by land.
Uthman b. Abul As Al Sakifi, governor of Bahrain and Oman, sent out ships to raid Thane, near modern-day Mumbai, while his brother Hakam sailed to Broach and a third fleet sailed to Debal under his younger brother Mughira either in 636 CE or 643 AD. According to one source all three expeditions were successful, another source states Mughira was defeated and killed at Debal; these expeditions were sent without the Caliph Umar's consent, he rebuked Uthman, saying that had the Arabs lost any men the Caliph would have killed an equal number of men from Utham's tribe in retaliation. The expeditions were sent to attack pirate nests, to safeguard Arabian trade in the Arabian Sea, not to start the conquest of India; the kingdoms of Kapisa-Gandhara in modern-day Afghanistan and Sindh in modern-day Pakistan, all of which were culturally and politically part of India since ancient times, were known as "The Frontier of Al Hind". The first clash between a ruler of an Indian kingdom and the Arabs took place in 643 AD, when Arab forces defeated Rutbil, King of Zabulistan in Sistan.
Arabs led by Suhail b. Abdi and Hakam al Taghilbi defeated an Indian army in the Battle of Rasil in 644 AD at the Indian Ocean sea coast reached the Indus River. Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab denied them permission to cross the river or operate on Indian soil and the Arabs returned home. Abdullah ibn Aamir led the invasion of Khurasan in 650 AD, his general Rabi b. Ziyad Al Harithi attacked Sistan and took Zaranj and surrounding areas in 651 AD while Ahnaf ibn Qais conquered the Hepthalites of Herat in 652 AD and advanced up to Balkh by 653 AD. Arab conquests now bordered the Kingdoms of Kapisa and Sindh in modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan; the Arabs levied annual tributes on the newly captured areas, leaving 4,000 men garrisons at Merv and Zaranj retired to Iraq instead of pushing on against the frontier of India. Caliph Uthman b. Affan sanctioned an attack against Makran in 652 AD, sent a recon mission to Sindh in 653 AD; the mission described Makran as inhospitable, Caliph Uthman assuming the country beyond was much worse, forbade any further incursions into India.
This was the beginning of a prolonged struggle between the rulers of Kabul and Zabul against successive Arab governors of Sistan and Makran in modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Kabul Shahi kings and their Zunbil kinsmen blocked access to the Khyber Pass and Gomal Pass routes into India from 653 to 870 AD, while modern Balochistan, comprising the areas of Kikan or Qiqanan, Turan, Qufs and Makran, would face several Arab expeditions between 661 - 711 AD; the Arabs launched several raids against these frontier lands, but repeated rebellions in Sistan and Khurasan between 653 - 691 AD diverted much of their military resources in order to subdue these provinces and away from expansion into Al Hind. Muslim control of these areas ebbed and flowed as a result until 870 AD. Arabs troops disliked being stationed in Makran, were reluctant to campaign in the Kabul area and Zabulistan, the difficult terrain and underestimation of Zunbil's power, Arab strategy to extract tribute instead of systematic conquest, the fierce resistance of Zunbil and Turki Shah stalled Arab progress in the "Frontier Zone".
Muawiyah established Umayyad rule over the Arabs after the first First Fitna in 661 AD, resumed expansion of the Muslim Empire. After 663/665 AD, the Arabs launched an invasion against Kapisa and what is now Pakistani Balochistan. Abdur Rahman b. Samurra besieged Kabul in 663 AD, while Haris b Marrah advanced against Kalat after marching through Fannazabur and Quandabil and moving through the Bolan Pass. King Chach of Sindh sent an army against the Arabs, the enemy blocked the mountain passes, Haris was killed and his army was annihilated. Al-Muhallab ibn Abi Sufra took a detachment through the Khyber pass towards Multan in Southern Punjab in modern-day Pakistan in 664 AD pushed south into Kikan, may have raided Quandabil. Turki Shah and Zunbil expelled Arabs from their respective kingdoms by 670 AD, Zunbil began assisting in organizing resistance in Makran. Arabs launched several campaigns in eastern Balochistan between 661 - 681 AD, four Arab commanders were killed during the campaigns, but Sinan b.
Salma managed to conquer parts of Makran including the Chagai area, establish a perman
Jaisalmer pronunciation, nicknamed "The Golden city", is a city in the Indian state of Rajasthan, located 575 kilometres west of the state capital Jaipur. Once known as Jaisalmer state it is a World Heritage Site; the town stands on a ridge of yellowish sandstone, is crowned by the ancient Jaisalmer Fort. This fort contains several ornate Jain temples. Many of the houses and temples of both the fort, of the town below, are built of finely sculptured sandstone; the town lies in the heart of the Thar Desert and has a total population, including the residents of the fort, of about 78,000. It is the administrative headquarters of Jaisalmer District. Jaisalmer is named after Rawal Jaisal, a Bhati ruler who founded the city in 1156 AD. Jaisalmer means the Hill Fort of Jaisal. Jaisalmer is sometimes called the "Golden City of India" because the yellow sandstone used throughout the architecture of both the fort and the town below, imbues both with a certain golden-yellow light, it is the largest district of Rajasthan and 3rd largest district by territorial region in the country, hugged on the west & south-west by the Pakistani border.
The length of the international border attached to Jaisalmer District is 471 km. It is located 790 kilometres away from the national capital Delhi. Jaisalmer, being an arid desert region, is prone to extremes in terms of temperature; the temperature varies from day to night in both summer and winter. The maximum summer temperature is around 49 °C while the minimum is 25 °C; the maximum winter temperature is around 23.6 °C and the minimum is 5 °C. The average rainfall is 209.5 millimetres. Highest recorded temperature was 50.0 °C. Temperatures of up to 52.4 °C have been recorded near the international border close to Pakistan, but standard conditions of this temperature recording remain unverified. Water is scarce, brackish. There are no perennial streams, only one small river, the Kakni, after flowing a distance of 48 kilometres, spreads over a large surface of flat ground, forms Lake Orjhil; the climate is dry. Throughout Jaisalmer only raincrops, such as bajra, motif, etc. are grown. Tourism is a major industry in Jaisalmer.
The Government of India initiated departmental exploration for oil in 1955–56 in the Jaisalmer area. Oil India Limited discovered natural gas in 1988 in the Jaisalmer basin. Musicians and dancers are a major cultural export from Jaisalmer to the rest of the world. Merasi musicians have played the world over, Queen Harish, the dancing desert drag queen, is touring the world and has featured in international movies. Jaisalmer is known for its leather messenger bags, made from wild camels native to the area. Jaisalmer is connected to the rest of Rajasthan by buses provided by Rajasthan State Transport Corporation as well as other private bus operators; the airport was inactive but Spice Jet has now started flight from Delhi and Mumbai since 29 October 2017, from Ahmedabad and Surat from November 2018. Jaisalmer railway station runs daily trains between Jaisalmer and Jaipur, through which it is connected to Delhi and other cities all over India; this station comes under JU division. Additionally, there exists a luxury tourist train known as Palace On Wheels, which covers the major tourist destinations of Rajasthan, including Jaisalmer.
The main occupation of people of Jaisalmer is farming. Many people work as drivers and cab owners who provide transportation to tourists. Built in 1156 by the Bhati Rajput ruler Jaisal, Jaisalmer Fort, situated on Meru Hill and named as Trikoot Garh has been the scene of many battles, its massive sandstone walls are a tawny lion colour during the day, turning to a magical honey-gold as the sun sets. The famous Indian film director Satyajit Ray wrote a detective novel and turned it into a film − Sonar Kella, based on this fort; this is about a quarter of city's population still live inside the fort. The main attractions inside the fort are: Jain temples and the Laxminath temple. Jaisalmer has been enriched by its Jain community, which has adorned the city with beautiful temples, notably the temples dedicated to the 16th Tirthankara, 23rd Tirthankara, Parshvanath. There are seven Jain temples in total which are situated within the Jaisalmer fort built during 12th and 15th centuries. Among these temples, the biggest is the Paraswanath Temple.
Known for their exquisite work of art and architecture, predominant in the medieval era the temples are built out of yellow sandstone and have intricate engravings on them. Jaisalmer boasts some of the oldest libraries of India which contain rarest of the manuscripts and artifacts of Jain tradition. There are many pilgrimage centers around Jaisalmer such as Lodhruva, Amarsagar and Pokharan. Desert Culture Centre & Museum Jaisalmer Folklore Museum Government Museum Jaisalmer Fort Palace Museum Jaisalmer War Museum Akal Fossil Park Museum Cactus Park Museum, Kuldhara Tanot Museum Ramdevra a village in Jaisalmer is named after Baba Ramdevji, a Tanwar Rajput and a saint who took Samādhi in 1384 CE, at the age of 33 years, he is worshiped today by many social groups of India as Ishta-deva. Gadsisar Lake – Excavated in 1367 by Rawal Gadsi Singh, it is a sce