Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
Postal Index Number
A Postal Index Number, or sometimes redundantly a PIN code, is a code in the post office numbering or postal code system used by India Post, the Indian postal entity. The code is six digits long; the PIN system was introduced on 15 August 1972 by Shriram Bhikaji Velankar, an additional secretary in the Union Ministry of Communications. The system was introduced to simplify the manual sorting and delivery of mail by eliminating confusion over incorrect addresses, similar place names, different languages used by the public. There are nine postal zones including eight regional zones and one functional zone; the first digit of the PIN indicates the zone. The second digit indicates the sub-zone, the third digit indicates the sorting district within that zone; the final three digits are assigned to individual post offices. The first digit of the PIN is allocated over the 9 zones as follows: 1 — Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Chandigarh 2 — Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand 3 — Rajasthan, Gujarat and Diu, Dadra and Nagar 4 — Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh 5 — Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka 6 — Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Lakshadweep 7 — West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Nicobar Islands, Sikkim 8 — Bihar, Jharkhand 9 — Army Post Office and Field Post Office The first three digits of the PIN represent a specific geographical region called a sorting district, headquartered at the main post office of the largest city and is known as the sorting office.
A state may have one or more sorting districts depending on the volume of mail handled. The fourth digit represents the route; this is 0 for offices in the core area of the sorting district. The last two digits represent the delivery office within the sorting district starting from 01 which would be the General Post Office or head office; the numbering of the delivery office is done chronologically with higher numbers assigned to newer delivery offices. If the volume of mails handled at a delivery office is too large, a new delivery office is created and the next available PIN is assigned. Thus, two delivery offices situated next to each other will only have the first four digits in common; each PIN is mapped to one delivery post office which receives all the mail to be delivered to one or more lower offices within its jurisdiction, all of which share the same code. The delivery office can either be a General Post Office, a head office, or a sub-office which are located in urban areas; the post from the delivery office is sorted and routed to other delivery offices for a different PIN or to one of the relevant sub-offices or branch offices for the same PIN.
Branch offices have limited postal services. Find Pincode – India Post
The Vijayanagara Empire was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India. It was established in 1336 by his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty; the empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates; the empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes, Niccolò Da Conti, the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empire's wealth; the empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of, the group at Hampi. Different temple building traditions in South and Central India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style.
This synthesis inspired architectural innovation in Hindu temples' construction. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation; the empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor. Karnata Rajya was another name for the Vijayanagara Empire, used in some inscriptions and literary works of the Vijayanagara times including the Sanskrit work Jambavati Kalyanam by King Krishnadevaraya and Telugu work Vasu Charitamu. Differing theories have been proposed regarding the origins of the Vijayanagara empire. Many historians propose that Harihara I and Bukka I, the founders of the empire, were Kannadigas and commanders in the army of the Hoysala Empire stationed in the Tungabhadra region to ward off Muslim invasions from the Northern India.
Others claim that they were Telugu people, first associated with the Kakatiya Kingdom, who took control of the northern parts of the Hoysala Empire during its decline. Irrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India. Writings by foreign travelers during the late medieval era combined with recent excavations in the Vijayanagara principality have uncovered much-needed information about the empire's history, scientific developments and architectural innovations. Before the early 14th-century rise of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Hindu states of the Deccan – the Yadava Empire of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, the Pandyan Empire of Madurai had been raided and attacked by Muslims from the north, by 1336 these upper Deccan region had all been defeated by armies of Sultan Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad bin Tughluq of the Delhi Sultanate. Further south in the Deccan region, a Hoysala commander, Singeya Nayaka-III declared independence after the Muslim forces of the Delhi Sultanate defeated and captured the territories of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri in 1294 CE.
He created the Kampili kingdom. Kampili existed near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka state, it ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate. The triumphant army led by Malik Zada sent the news of its victory, over Kampili kingdom, to Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi by sending a straw-stuffed severed head of the dead Hindu king. Within Kampili, on the day of certain defeat, the populace committed a jauhar in 1327/28 CE. Eight years from the ruins of the Kampili kingdom emerged the Vijayanagara Kingdom in 1336 CE. In the first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the area south of the Tungabhadra river and earned the title of Purvapaschima Samudradhishavara. By 1374 Bukka Raya I, successor to Harihara I, had defeated the chiefdom of Arcot, the Reddys of Kondavidu, the Sultan of Madurai and had gained control over Goa in the west and the Tungabhadra-Krishna River doab in the north; the original capital was in the principality of Anegondi on the northern banks of the Tungabhadra River in today's Karnataka.
It was moved to nearby Vijayanagara on the river's southern banks during the reign of Bukka Raya I, because it was easier to defend against the Muslim armies persistently attacking it from the northern lands. With the Vijayanagara Kingdom now imperial in stature, Harihara II, the second son of Bukka Raya I, further consolidated the kingdom beyond the Krishna River and brought the whole of South India under the Vijayanagara umbrella; the next ruler, Deva Raya I, emerged successful against the Gajapatis of Odisha and undertook important works of fortification and irrigation. Italian traveler Niccolo de Conti wrote of him as the most powerful ruler of India. Deva Raya II succeeded to the throne in 1424 and was the most capable of the Sangama Dynasty rulers, he quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as the Zamorin of Quilon in the south. He became overlord of the kings of Burma at Pegu and Tanasserim. Firuz Bahmani of Bahmani Sultanate entered into a treaty with Deva Raya I of Vijayanagara in 1407 that required the latter to pay Bahmani an annual trib
Hyder Ali, Haidarālī was the Sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. Born as Sayyid Mir Hyder Ali, he distinguished himself militarily drawing the attention of Mysore's rulers. Rising to the post of Dalavayi to Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, he came to dominate the titular monarch and the Mysore government, he became the de facto ruler of Mysore as Sarvadhikari by 1761. He offered strong resistance against the military advances of the British East India Company during the First and Second Anglo–Mysore Wars, he was the innovator of military use of the iron-cased Mysorean rockets, he significantly developed Mysore's economy. Though illiterate, Hyder Ali earned an important place in the history of southern India for his administrative acumen and military skills, he concluded an alliance with the French against the British and used the services of French workmen in raising his artillery and arsenal. His rule of Mysore was characterised by frequent warfare with his neighbours and rebellion within his territories.
This was not unusual for the time as much of the Indian subcontinent was in turmoil. He left his eldest son, Tipu Sultan, an extensive kingdom bordered by the Krishna River in the north, the Eastern Ghats in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west; the exact date of Hyder Ali's birth is not known with certainty. Various historical sources provide dates ranging between 1722 for his birth. There are some variations in reports of his ancestry. According to some accounts, his grandfather was descended from a line tracing their lineage back to Baghdad, while another traces his lineage instead to the area of present-day Afghanistan. In a third account, written by one of his French military officers, Hyder himself claimed descent from the Arabs Bani Hashim clan of the Quraysh, the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad, his father, Fath Muhammad, was born in Kolar, served as a commander of 50 men in the bamboo rocket artillery in the army of the Nawab of Carnatic. Fath Muhammad entered the service of the Wodeyar Rajas of the Kingdom of Mysore, where he rose to become a powerful military commander.
The Wodeyars awarded him Budikote as a jagir, where he served as Naik. Hyder Ali was born in Budikote, his early years are not well documented. After serving for a number of years under the rulers of Arcot, they came to Seringapatam, where Hyder's uncle served, he introduced them to Devaraja, the dalwai of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, his brother Nanjaraja, who held important ministerial posts. Hyder and his brother were both given commands in the Mysorean army. In 1748, Qamar-ud-din Khan, Asaf Jah I, the longtime Nizam of Hyderabad, died; the struggle to succeed him is known as the Second Carnatic War, pitted Asaf Jah's son Nasir Jung against a nephew, Muzaffar Jung. Both sides were supported by other local leaders, French and British forces were involved. Devaraja had started vesting more military authority in his brother, in 1749 Nanjaraja marched the Mysorean army in support of Nasir Jung; the army went to Devanhalli. The fort was held by Muzaffar Jung's forces and the siege was conducted by the Marquis de Bussy.
During the successful eight-month siege, the Hyder Ali and his brother distinguished themselves, were rewarded by the dalwai with enlarged commands. By 1755 Hyder Ali commanded 3,000 infantry and 1,500 cavalry, was reported to be enriching himself on campaigns by plunder. In that year he was appointed Faujdar of Dindigul. In this position he first retained French advisers to train his artillery companies, he is known to have served alongside de Bussy, is believed to have met both Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Shahib. In these early wars he came to dislike and mistrust Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah, the Nawab of the Carnatic. In fact Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah and the Mysorean leaders were long at odds with each other, seeking territorial gains at the other's expense. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah had by formed an alliance with the British, he was accused by Hyder Ali in years of preventing him from making any sort of long-lasting alliances or agreements with the British. Throughout the Carnatic Wars, Hyder Ali and his Mysore battalions served alongside French commanders such as Joseph Francois Dupleix, Count de Lally and de Bussy, he assisted Chanda Sahib on various occasions.
Hyder Ali supported the claims of Muzaffar Jung and sided with Salabat Jung. Early in his career, Hyder Ali retained as one of his chief financial assistants a Brahmin named Khande Rao. Hyder Ali, illiterate, was reported to be blessed with a prodigious memory and numerical acumen. Hyder Ali could rival or outperform expert accountants with his great arithmetic skills and worked to develop a system, with Rao, that included checks and balances so sophisticated that all manner of income, including plunder of physical goods of all types, could be accounted for with little possibility for fraud or embezzlement; this financial management may have played a role in Hyder Ali's rise in power. In 1757 Hyder Ali was called to Seringapatam to support Devaraja against threats from Hyderabad and the Marathas. Upon his arrival he found the Mysorean army in near mutiny over pay. While Devaraja bought his way out of the threats to Seringapatam, Hyder Ali ar
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in history. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire; as one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE. The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River, but they ruled a larger area at the height of their power from the half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century; the whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of three centuries and more between 907-1215 AD. Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I the dynasty became a military and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia; the power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the naval raids on cities of the maritime empire of Srivijaya, as well as by the repeated embassies to China.
The Chola fleet represented the zenith of ancient Indian sea power. During the period 1010–1153, the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh. Rajaraja Chola conquered peninsular South India, annexed parts of, now Sri Lanka and occupied the islands of the Maldives. Rajendra Chola sent a victorious expedition to North India that touched the river Ganges and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra, Mahipala, he successfully invaded cities of Srivijaya of Malaysia and Indonesia. The Chola dynasty went into decline at the beginning of the 13th century with the rise of the Pandyan dynasty, which caused their downfall; the Cholas left a lasting legacy. Their patronage of Tamil literature and their zeal in the building of temples has resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture; the Chola kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but as centres of economic activity.
They established a disciplined bureaucracy. The Chola school of art spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia; the Cholas are known as the Choda. There is little information available in regarding their origin, its antiquity is evident in inscriptions. Medieval Cholas claimed a long and ancient lineage. Mentions in the early Sangam literature indicate that the earliest kings of the dynasty antedated 100 CE. Cholas were mentioned in Ashokan Edicts of 3rd Century BCE as one of the neighboring countries existing in the South. A held view is that Chola is, like Chera and Pandya, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity; the annotator Parimelazhagar said: "The charity of people with ancient lineage are forever generous in spite of their reduced means". Other names in common use for the Cholas are Killi and Sembiyan. Killi comes from the Tamil kil meaning dig or cleave and conveys the idea of a digger or a worker of the land; this word forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedunkilli, Nalankilli and so on, but drops out of use in times.
Valavan is most connected with "valam" – fertility and means owner or ruler of a fertile country. Sembiyan is taken to mean a descendant of Shibi – a legendary hero whose self-sacrifice in saving a dove from the pursuit of a falcon figures among the early Chola legends and forms the subject matter of the Sibi Jataka among the Jataka stories of Buddhism. In Tamil lexicon Chola means Soazhi or Saei denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of Pandya or the old country. There is little written evidence available of the Cholas prior to the 7th century. Historic records exist thereafter, including inscriptions on temples. During the past 150 years, historians have gleaned significant knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, oral traditions, religious texts and copperplate inscriptions; the main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period. There are brief notices on the Chola country and its towns and commerce furnished by the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, in the later work of the geographer Ptolemy.
Mahavamsa, a Buddhist text written down during the 5th century CE, recounts a number of conflicts between the inhabitants of Ceylon and Cholas in the 1st century BCE. Cholas are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him; the history of the Cholas falls into four periods: the Early Cholas of the Sangam literature, the interregnum between the fall of the Sangam Cholas and the rise of the Imperial medieval Cholas under Vijayalaya, the dynasty of Vijayalaya, the Later Chola dynasty of Kulothunga Chola I from the third quarter of the 11th century. The earliest Chola kings for whom there is tangible evidence are mentioned in the Sangam literature. Scholars agree that this literature belongs to the second or first few centuries of the common era; the internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled, at present a connected account of the history of the period cannot be derived.
It records the names of the kings and the princ
Morocco the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country located in the Maghreb region of North West Africa with an area of 710,850 km2. Its capital is the largest city Casablanca, it overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa; the Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, allowing Morocco to remain the only northwest African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, it regained its independence in 1956, has since remained comparatively stable and prosperous by regional standards.
Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco occupies two thirds of the territory, peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock; the unitary sovereign state of Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors; the king can issue decrees called dahirs. He can dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court.
Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and Berber. E; the Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, French are widely spoken. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Sephardi Jews, West African and European influences. Morocco is a member of the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union, it has the fifth largest economy of Africa. The full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to "Kingdom of the West". For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers sometimes referred to Morocco as al-Maghrib al-Aqṣá to distinguish it from neighbouring historical regions called al-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ and al-Maghrib al-Adná; the basis of Morocco's English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad Caliphate. The origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most from the Berber words amur akush or "Land of God"; the modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc. In Turkish, Morocco is known as a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes.
However, this was not the case in other parts of the Islamic world: until the middle of the 20th century, the common name of Morocco in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Arabic literature was Marrakesh. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish "Marruecos", from which derives the Tuscan "Morrocco", the origin of the Italian "Marocco"; the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. A recent publication may demonstrate an earlier habitation period, as Homo sapiens fossils discovered in the late 2000s near the Atlantic coast in Jebel Irhoud were dated to 315,000 years before present. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, resembling a savanna more than today's arid landscape. Twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burials and European Cro-Magnon remains.
The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco. Mitochondrial DNA studies have discovered the Saami of Scandinavia; this supports theories that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers who repopulated northern Europe after the last ice age. Northwest Africa and Morocco were drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by the Phoenicians, who established trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Substantial Phoenician settlements were at Chellah and Mogador. Mogador was a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC. Morocco became a realm of the Northwest African civilisation of ancie