The Śāradā, Sarada or Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts. The script was in widespread use between the 8th and 12th centuries in the northwestern parts of India, for writing Sanskrit and Kashmiri; the Gurmukhī script was developed from Śāradā. More widespread, its use became restricted to Kashmir, it is now used except by the Kashmiri Pandit community for ceremonial purposes, it is a native script of Kashmir and is named after Goddess Śāradā,the main deity of the legendary Sharada Peeth temple. The Bakhshali manuscript uses an early stage of the Sharada script; the Sharda script was used in Afghanistan as well as in the Himachal region in India. In Afghanistan, the Kabul Ganesh has a 6th century Proto-Sharda inscription mentioning king Khingala. At the historic Markula Devi Temple, the goddess Mahishamardini has a Sharada inscription of 1569AD. Sharada script uses its own signs for the positional decimal numeral system. Śāradā script was added to the Unicode Standard in January, 2012 with the release of version 6.1.
The Unicode block for Śāradā script, called Sharada, is U+11180–U+111DF: The chart below will be visible only in computer systems or cell phones that support the Sharada script. Lipi – writing scripts in Buddhist and Jaina texts Sharada Peeth in Kashmir Sharada ancientscripts.com Download Noto Sans Sharada, a Sharada font by Google. Prevalence of the Śāradā Script in Afghanistan Akṣara List of the Manuscript of Abhidharmadīpa, ca. the 11th Century, Collection of Sanskrit Mss. Preserved in the China Ethnic Library Modern Kashmiri Dictionary: Android based electronic Kashmiri Dictionary
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphasyllabary writing systems. They are used throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia, including Japan in the form of Siddhaṃ, they are descended from the Brahmi script of ancient India, are used by languages of several language families: Indo-European, Tibeto-Burman, Austroasiatic and Tai. They were the source of the dictionary order of Japanese kana. Brahmic scripts descended from the Brahmi script. Brahmi is attested from the 3rd century BC during the reign of Ashoka, who used the script for imperial edicts, but there are some claims of earlier epigraphy found on pottery in South India and Sri Lanka; the most reliable of these were short Brahmi inscriptions dated to the 4th century BC and published by Coningham et al.. Northern Brahmi gave rise to the Gupta script during the Gupta period, which in turn diversified into a number of cursives during the medieval period. Notable examples of such medieval scripts, developed by the 7th or 8th century, include Nagari and Sharada.
The Siddhaṃ script was important in Buddhism, as many sutras were written in it. The art of Siddham calligraphy survives today in Japan; the syllabic nature and dictionary order of the modern kana system of Japanese writing is believed to be descended from the Indic scripts, most through the spread of Buddhism. Southern Brahmi evolved into Old-Kannada and Vatteluttu scripts, which in turn diversified into other scripts of South India and Southeast Asia. Bhattiprolu was a great centre of Buddhism during 3rd century BCE and from where Buddhism spread to east Asia; the present Telugu script is derived from Bhattiprolu Script or "Kannada-Telugu script" or Kadamba script known as "Old Telugu script", owing to its similarity to the same. Minor changes were made, now called Tamil Brahmi, which has far fewer letters than some of the other Indic scripts as it has no separate aspirated or voiced consonants; some characteristics, which are present in most but not all the scripts, are: Each consonant has an inherent vowel, a short'a'.
Other vowels are written by adding to the character. A mark, known in Sanskrit as a virama/halant, can be used to indicate the absence of an inherent vowel; each vowel has two forms, an independent form when not part of a consonant, a dependent form, when attached to a consonant. Depending on the script, the dependent forms can be either placed to the left of, to the right of, below, or on both the left and the right sides of the base consonant. Consonants can be combined in ligatures. Special marks are added to denote the combination of'r' with another consonant. Nasalization and aspiration of a consonant's dependent vowel is noted by separate signs; the alphabetical order is: vowels, velar consonants, palatal consonants, retroflex consonants, dental consonants, bilabial consonants, approximants and other consonants. Each consonant grouping had four stops, a nasal consonant. Below are comparison charts of several of the major Indic scripts, organised on the principle that glyphs in the same column all derive from the same Brahmi glyph.
Accordingly: The charts are not comprehensive. Glyphs may be unrepresented if they don't derive from any Brahmi character, but are inventions; the pronunciations of glyphs in the same column may not be identical. The pronunciation row is only representative; the transliteration is indicated in ISO 15919. Notes Vowels are presented in their independent form on the left of each column, in their corresponding dependent form combined with the consonant k on the right. A glyph for ka is an independent consonant letter itself without any vowel sign, where the vowel a is inherent. Notes The Brahmi script was divided into regional variants at the time of the earliest surviving epigraphy around the 3rd century BC. Cursives of the Brahmi script began to diversify further from around the 5th century AD and continued to give rise to new scripts throughout the Middle Ages; the main division in antiquity was between southern Brahmi. In the northern group, the Gupta script was influential, in the southern group the Vatteluttu and Old-Kannada/Pallava scripts with the spread of Buddhism sent Brahmic scripts throughout Southeast Asia.
Gupta script, 5th century Sharada, 8th century Gurmukhi, 14th century Landa, 10th century Khojki, 16th century Khudabadi, 1550s Mahajani Multani Takri Siddham, 7th century Anga Lipi, 720 Assamese script, 13th century Bengali script Tirhuta/Mithilakshar, 15th century Tibetan script, 7th century Lepcha alphabet Limbu alphabet'Phags-pa, 13th century Nagari, 8th century Devanagari, 13th century Gujarati, 16th century Modi, 17th century Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, 19th century Kaithi, 16th century Nandinagari, 8th century Sylheti Nagari, 16th century Bhaiksuki Nepal script Bhujimol, 6th century Ranjana, 12th century Soyombo, 17th century Prachalit Tocharian script, 7th century Meeitei Mayek Odia, 10th century Tamil-Brahmi Tamil script Vatteluttu Saurashtra alphabet Kolezhuthu Malayanma Pallava script Grantha alphabet Goykanadi Cham alphabet Tigalari alphabet Malayalam script Sinhala script Dhives akuru Thaana Kawi script Balinese script Batak script Baybayin Kulitan alphabet Buhid alphabet Hanunó'o alphabet Javanese script Lontara script Sundanese script Rencong script Rejang script Tagbanwa script Khmer alphabet Thai alphabet Lao alphabet Old Mon script Ahom
The Vaṭṭeḻuttu spelled Vattezhutthu was an abugida writing system in southern India and Sri Lanka in the latter half of the first millennium AD. Vatteluttu was the common script for writing various forms of the Tamil language in the region of the Pandyas and Cheras until the 9th century, after which it came to be replaced by the present-day Tamil script everywhere except in Kerala, it is known that the Tamil Script became current in the Chola and Pandya kingdoms by the 10th century. Southern Grantha script - used writing Sanskrit in south India - evolved into modern Malayalam script in Kerala. Derived from the Tamil-Brahmi script, the Vatteluttu was developed in southern India and was extensively used for writing various forms of Tamil and Malayalam; the early cave inscriptions discovered from southern India, in Tamil-Brahmi script, have supplied some of the connecting links between Brahmi script and Vatteluttu. Vatteluttu is attested from the 6th century AD. Vatteluttu was adopted by their successor-states in Kerala.
Kodungallur Chera epigraphs in Old Malayalam are composed in Vatteluttu. After the Kodungallur Chera period the Vatteluttu went on evolving and developed into "Kolezhuttu" in Kerala. Use of Vatteluttu - albeit in a decadent form - continued among certain classes in Kerala Muslims and Christians up to the 19th century Inhabitants of Kuccaveli, located north of Trincomalee, used the Vatteluttu between the 5th and 8th centuries AD, attested to on rock inscriptions found there; the following image shows the divergent evolution of the Vatteluttu script. The Vatteluttu script is shown on the left, the Tamil script is shown on the right. Here are the characters used in Vatteluttu: Tamil copper-plate inscriptions Indian copper plate inscriptions Laguna Copperplate Inscription Pallava script Tamil script Sivaramamurti, C, Indian Epigraphy and South Indian Scripts. Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum. Chennai 1999
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea
Siddhaṃ known in its evolved form as Siddhamātṛkā, is a medieval Brahmic abugida, derived from the Gupta script and ancestral to the Bengali alphabet, Maithili alphabet, the Tibetan alphabet. The word Siddhaṃ means "accomplished" or "perfected" in Sanskrit; the script received its name from the practice of writing Siddhaṃ, or Siddhaṃ astu, at the head of documents. Other names for the script include. "Brahma's characters" and "Sanskrit script" and Chinese: 悉曇文字. "Siddhaṃ script". Siddhaṃ is an abugida rather than an alphabet, as each character indicates a syllable, including a consonant and a vowel. If the vowel sound is not explicitly indicated, the short'a' is assumed. Diacritic marks are used to indicate other vowels, as well as the visarga. A virama can be used to indicate that the consonant letter stands alone with no vowel, which sometimes happens at the end of Sanskrit words. Many Buddhist texts taken to China along the Silk Road were written using a version of the Siddhaṃ script; this continued to evolve, minor variations are seen across time, in different regions.
It was used for transmitting the Buddhist tantra texts. At the time it was considered important to preserve the pronunciation of mantras, Chinese was not suitable for writing the sounds of Sanskrit; this led to the retention of the Siddhaṃ script in East Asia. The practice of writing using Siddhaṃ survived in East Asia. Kūkai introduced the Siddhaṃ script to Japan when he returned from China in 806, where he studied Sanskrit with Nalanda-trained monks including one known as Prajñā. By the time Kūkai learned this script, the trading and pilgrimage routes over land to India had been closed by the expanding Abbasid Caliphate. In Japan, the writing of mantras and copying/reading of sutras using the Siddhaṃ script is still practiced in the esoteric schools of Shingon Buddhism and Tendai as well as in the syncretic sect of Shugendō; the characters are known as bonji. The Taishō Tripiṭaka version of the Chinese Buddhist canon preserves the Siddhaṃ characters for most mantras, Korean Buddhists still write bījas in a modified form of Siddhaṃ.
A recent innovation is the writing of Japanese language slogans on T-shirts using Bonji. Japanese Siddhaṃ has evolved from the original script used to write sūtras and is now somewhat different from the ancient script, it is typical to see Siddhaṃ written with a brush, as with Chinese writing. In Japan, a special brush called; the informal style is known as "fude". In the middle of the 9th century, China experienced a series of purges of "foreign religions", thus cutting Japan off from the sources of Siddhaṃ texts. In time, other scripts Devanagari, replaced Siddhaṃ in India, while in Eastern South Asia, Siddhaṃ evolved to become the Bengali script, Tirhuta script and Anga script, leaving East Asia as the only region where Siddhaṃ is still used. There were special forms of Siddhaṃ used in Korea that varied from those used in China and Japan, there is evidence that Siddhaṃ was written in Central Asia, as well, by the early 7th century; as was done with Chinese characters, Japanese Buddhist scholars sometimes created multiple characters with the same phonological value to add meaning to Siddhaṃ characters.
This practice, in effect, represents a'blend' of the Chinese style of writing and the Indian style of writing and allows Sanskrit texts in Siddhaṃ to be differentially interpreted as they are read, as was done with Chinese characters that the Japanese had adopted. This led to multiple variants of the same characters. With regards to directionality, Siddhaṃ texts were read from left-to-right top-to-bottom, as with Indic languages, but they were written in the traditional Chinese style, from top-to-bottom right-to-left. Bilingual Siddhaṃ-Japanese texts show the manuscript turned 90 degrees clockwise and the Japanese is written from top-to-bottom, as is typical of Japanese, the manuscript is turned back again, the Siddhaṃ writing is continued from left-to-right. Over time, additional markings were developed, including punctuation marks, head marks, repetition marks, end marks, special ligatures to combine conjuncts and to combine syllables, several ornaments of the scribe's choice, which are not encoded.
The nuqta is used in some modern Siddhaṃ texts. ↑ The combinations that contain adjoining duplicate letters should be deleted in this table. Alternative forms of conjuncts that contain ṇ. Siddhaṃ is still a hand written script; some efforts have been made to create computer fonts, though to date none of these are capable of reproducing all of the Siddhaṃ conjunct consonants. Notably, the Chinese Buddhist Electronic Texts Association has created a Siddhaṃ font for their electronic version of the Taisho Tripiṭaka, though this does not contain all possible conjuncts; the software Mojikyo contains fonts for Siddhaṃ, but split Siddhaṃ in different blocks and requires multiple fonts to render a single document. A Siddhaṃ input system which relies on the CBETA font Siddhamkey 3.0 has been produced. Siddhaṃ script was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0. The Unicode block for Siddhaṃ is U+11580–U+115FF: Bonji Taikan. Chaudhuri, Saroj Kumar. Siddham in China and Japan, Sino-Platonic papers No. 88 Stevens, John
The Rañjanā script is an abugida writing system which developed in the 11th century in Nepal. It is used till this day. Nowadays it is used in Buddhist monasteries in India, China in the Tibetan Buddhist areas within the Tibet Autonomous Region, Yunnan and Gansu, Japan, it is written from left to right but the Kutakshar form is written from top to bottom. It is considered to be the standard Nepali calligraphic script. Rañjanā is a Brahmi script and shows small similarities to the Devanagari script of the Indian subcontinent, notably in Nepal and North India; the script is used in most of the Mahayana and Vajrayana monasteries. Along with the Prachalit Nepal alphabet, it is considered as one of the scripts of Nepal, it is the formal script of Nepal duly registered in the United Nation while applying for the free Nation. Therefore, it is a vital script to all Nepalese as well; the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra lettered in gold ink by Bhiksu Ananda of Kapitanagar and dating back to the Nepal Sambat year 345 is an early example of the script.
These are the rules for vowel diacritics in Ranjana script. There are altogether three rules where the vowel diacritics of ग and ब are given. ख, ञ,ठ,ण,थ,ध,श uses the rule of ग घ,ङ,च,छ,झ,ट,ड,ढ,त,द,न,न्ह,प,फ,ब,भ,म,य,र,ह्र,ल,ल्ह,व,व्ह,ष,स,ह,त्रuses the rule of ब ज,म्ह,ह्य,क्ष, ज्ञuses the rule of क The Rañjanā script is used and to write Newari, though sometimes it is used to write Sanskrit. In Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhist traditions, it is famously used to write various mantras including the "Om mani padme hum" mantra of Avalokiteśvara, the mantra of Tara: "Om tare tuttare ture svaha", the mantra of Manjusri: "Om ara pa cana dhi." The script is used in Hindu scriptures. In Chinese Buddhism and other East Asian Buddhism, the standard Sanskrit script for mantras and dhāraṇīs was not the Rañjanā script, but rather the earlier Siddhaṃ script, propagated in China during the Tang dynasty. However, in late Imperial China, the influence of Tibetan Buddhism popularized the Rañjanā script as well, so this script is found throughout East Asia, but is not as common as Siddhaṃ.
When Rañjanā was introduced to Tibet, it was referred to as Lanydza, which derives from the Sanskrit word Rañja. This script varies from the standard Rañjanā. In Tibet, the Lanydza variant is used to write original texts of Sanskrit. Examples of such texts include the Mañjuśrīnāmasamgīti, the Diamond Sutra and the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra; the Lanydza script is found in manuscripts and printed editions of some Sanskrit-Tibetan lexicons like the Mahāvyutpatti. However, the most frequent use for this script today is on the title pages of Tibetan texts, where the Sanskrit title is written in Lanydza, followed by a transliteration and translation in the Tibetan script; the script is used decoratively on temple walls, on the outside of prayer wheels, in the drawing of mandalas. Numerous alternative spellings of the term Lanydza exist, including the following: Lanja Landzha Lantsa Lantsha Lentsa Lendza Kutākshar is a monogram of the Ranjana script, it is only one of the Nepalese scripts. After falling into disuse in the mid-20th century, the script has seen increased use.
It is used by many local governments such as those of Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City, Bhaktapur Municipality, Thimi Municipality, Kirtipur Municipality, Banepa Municipality, in signboards, letter pads, such. Regular programs are held in the Kathmandu Valley to promote the script and training classes are held to preserve the language; the script is being endorsed by the Nepal Bhasa movement and is used for headings in newspapers and websites. A Nepalese-German project is trying to conserve the manuscripts of Rañjanā script. A Unicode block for the script has been proposed by Evertype. Everson, Michael. 2009. Preliminary proposal for encoding the Rañjana script in the SMP of the UCS Everson, Michael. 2009. Roadmapping the scripts of Nepal Roadmapping the scripts of Nepal Fynn, Christopher John. Ranjana script Pandey, Anshuman. 2016. Towards an encoding for the Ranjana and Lantsa scripts Ranjana script on Omniglot Ranjana script Download Ranjana Newari Regular Font
Baybayin is an ancient script used by the Tagalog people. Baybayin is an indigenous Indic script, used in traditional Tagalog domains, it is one of many suyat scripts in the Philippines. It continued to be used during the early part of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines until being supplanted by usage of the Latin alphabet. Baybayin is well known because it was documented by scribes during the colonial era; the term baybayín means "to spell and syllabize" in Tagalog. Baybayin was extensively documented by the Spanish; some have incorrectly attributed the name Alibata to it, but that term was coined by Paul Rodríguez Verzosa after the arrangement of letters of the Arabic alphabet. For the Visayans, it is called Kudlit-kabadlit, it is one of a number of individual writing systems used in Southeast Asia, nearly all of which are abugidas where any consonant is pronounced with the inherent vowel a following it—diacritics being used to express other vowels. Many of these writing systems descended from ancient alphabets used in India over 2000 years ago.
The Archives of the University of Santo Tomas in Manila, one of the largest archives in the Philippines possesses the world’s biggest collection of ancient writings in Baybayin script. The chambers which house the scripts are part of a tentative nomination to UNESCO World Heritage List, still being deliberated on, along with the entire campus of the University of Santo Tomas. Baybayin was noted by the Spanish priest Pedro Chirino in 1604 and Antonio de Morga in 1609 to be known by most Filipinos, was used for personal writings, etc. However, according to William Henry Scott, there were some datus from the 1590s who could not sign affidavits or oaths, witnesses who could not sign land deeds in the 1620s; the best known evidence of where this Indic script we call today as Baybayin came about is from the "abecedaries" evidence. It is an example of letters of the script arranged more or less in the order the Spaniards knew, reproduced by the Spanish and other observers in the different regions of Luzon and Visayas.
Another source of evidence are the archival documents recovered. From these two sources, it is clear that the Baybayin script was used in Luzon, Mindoro, as far as Pangasinan in the north, in Ilocos, Panay and Iloilo, but there are no proof supporting that Baybayin reached Mindanao. From what is available, it seems clear that the Luzon and Palawan varieties have started to develop in different ways in the 1500s, way before the Spaniards conquered what we know today as the Philippines; this puts Palawan as the oldest regions where Baybayin was and is used. It is notable that the variety used in Pampanga had developed special shapes for four letters by the early 1600s, different from the ones used elsewhere, it is important to note that this ancient Baybayin Kapampangan variety is different from the experiment called "modern Kulitan", taught in the late 1990s. So we can say that there were three somewhat distinct varieties of a single script in the late 1500s and 1600s, though they could not be described as three different scripts any more than the different styles of Latin script across medieval or modern Europe with their different sets of letters and spelling systems.
The only modern scripts that descended directly from the original Baybayin script through natural development are the Pala'wan script inherited from the Tagbanwa in Palawan, the Buhid and Hanunóo scripts in Mindoro, the ancient Kapampangan script used in the 1600s but has been supplanted by a constructed script called "modern Kulitan", of course the Tagalog script. There is no evidence for any other regional scripts. Any other scripts are recent inventions based on one or another of the abecedaries from old Spanish descriptions; the confusion over the use of marks may have contributed to the demise of Baybayin over time. The desire of Francisco Lopez for Baybayin to conform to the Spanish alfabetos paved the way for the invention of a cross sign; such introduction was uniquely a standalone event, blindly copied by succeeding writers up to the present. Sevilla and Alvero said, “The marks required in the formation of syllables are: the tuldok or point and the bawas or minus sign.” The bawas or minus sign, placed before the script to remove the paired vowel appears more logical than the cross or plus sign of Lopez.
Southeast Asia was under the influence of Ancient India, where numerous Indianized principalities and empires flourished for several centuries in Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines and Vietnam. The influence of Indian culture into these areas was given the term indianization. French archaeologist, George Coedes, defined it as the expansion of an organized culture, framed upon Indian originations of royalty and Buddhism and the Sanskrit dialect; this can be seen in the Indianization of spread of Hinduism and Buddhism. Indian diaspora, both ancient and current, played an ongoing key role as professionals, traders and warriors. Indian honorifics influenced the Malay, Thai and Indonesian honorifics. Examples of these include Raja, Maharlika, etc. which were transmitted from Indian culture to Philippines via Malays and Srivijaya empire. Laguna Copperplate Inscription, a legal document inscribed on a copper plate in 900 AD, is the earliest known written document found in the