Uttanasana or Standing Forward Bend, with variants such as Padahastasana where the toes are grasped, is a standing forward bending asana in modern yoga. The name comes from the Sanskrit words उत्तान uttāna, "intense stretch"; the pose is a modern one, first seen in the 20th century. A pose with the name Uttānāsana is illustrated in the 19th century Sritattvanidhi but it is quite different from the modern pose; the modern pose is described in Krishnamacharya's 1934 Yoga Makaranda, in the works of his pupils, B. K. S. Iyengar's 1966 Light on Yoga and Pattabhi Jois's Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga. Theos Bernard however illustrates the related pose "Padhahasthasana" in his 1944 report of his experience of hatha yoga on the border of India and Tibet, suggesting the existence of a separate tradition; the pose is entered from the standing position of Tadasana, bending forward at the hips until the palms can be placed on the floor behind the heels. Variations include: Ardha Uttanasana is a halfway stage, the trunk horizontal and the palms resting on the calves.
Niralamba Uttanasana has the hands touching the waistband rather than reaching down. Padahastasana has the hands under the feet, palms up. Paschimottanasana, a sitting forward bend Iyengar, B. K. S.. Illustrated Light On Yoga. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-81-7223-606-9. Saraswati, Swami Janakananda. Yoga and Meditation in Daily Life. Weiser Books. ISBN 978-0-87728-768-1. Saraswati, Swami Satyananda. Asana Pranayama Mudra Bandha. Nesma Books India. ISBN 978-81-86336-14-4. Saraswati, Swami Satyananda. A Systematic Course in the Ancient Tantric Techniques of Yoga and Kriya. Nesma Books India. ISBN 978-81-85787-08-4. "Witold Fitz-Simon - Uttanasana"
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th
Raja, is a title for a monarch or princely ruler in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. The title has a long history in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, being attested from the Rigveda, where a rājan- is a ruler, see for example the dāśarājñá, the "Battle of Ten Kings". While most of the Hindu salute states were ruled by a Maharaja exclusively from 13 guns up, a number had Rajas: Hereditary salutes of 11-guns the Raja of Rajouri the Raja of Ali Rajpur the Raja of Bilaspur the Raja of Chamba the Raja of Faridkot the Raja of Jhabua the Raja of Mandi the Raja of Manipur the Raja of Narsinghgarh the Raja of Pudukkottai the Raja of Rajgarh the Raja of Sailana the Raja of Samthar the Raja of Sitamau the Raja of SuketHereditary salutes of 9-guns the Raja of Dharampur the Raja of SangliHereditary salute of 9-guns the Raja of SavantwadiHereditary salutes of 9-guns the Raja of Baraundha the raja of Jawhar, Hereditory salute of 9-guns the Raja of Bhor the Raja of Chhota Udepur the Raja of Khilchipur the Raja of Maihar the Raja of Mudhol the Raja of Nagod the Raja of Sant the Raja of ShahpuraPersonal salute of 9-guns the Raja of Bashahr Rajadharma is the dharma which applies to the king, or the Raja.
Dharma is that which upholds, supports, or maintains the order of the universe and is based on truth. It is of central importance in achieving order and balance within the world and does this by demanding certain necessary behaviors from people; the king served two main functions as the Raja: Religious. The religious functions involved certain acts for propitiating gods, removing dangers, guarding dharma, among other things; the secular functions involved helping prosperity, dealing out even-handed justice, protecting people and their property. Once he helped the Vibhore to reach his goal by giving the devotion of his power in order to reduce the poverty from his kingdom. Protection of his subjects was seen as the foremost duty of the king; this was achieved by punishing internal aggression, such as thieves among his people, meeting external aggression, such as attacks by foreign entities. Moreover, the king possessed executive and legislative dharmas, which he was responsible for carrying out.
If he did so wisely, the king believed that he would be rewarded by reaching the pinnacle of the abode of the sun, or heaven. However, if the king carried out his office poorly, he feared that he would suffer hell or be struck down by a deity; as scholar Charles Drekmeier notes, "dharma stood above the king, his failure to preserve it must accordingly have disastrous consequences". Because the king's power had to be employed subject to the requirements of the various castes' dharma, failure to "enforce the code" transferred guilt on to the ruler, according to Drekmeier some texts went so far as to justify revolt against a ruler who abused his power or inadequately performed his dharma. In other words, Danda as both the king's tool of coercion and power, yet his potential downfall, "was a two-edged sword"; the executive duty of the king was to carry out punishment, or danda. For instance, a judge who would give an incorrect verdict out of passion, ignorance, or greed is not worthy of the office, the king should punish him harshly.
Another executive dharma of the king is correcting the behavior of brahmanas that have strayed from their dharma, or duties, through the use of strict punishment. These two examples demonstrated how the king was responsible for enforcing the dharmas of his subjects, but was in charge of enforcing rulings in more civil disputes; such as if a man is able to repay a creditor but does not do so out of mean-spiritedness, the king should make him pay the money and take five percent for himself. The judicial duty of the king was deciding any disputes that arose in his kingdom and any conflicts that arose between dharmasastra and practices at the time or between dharmasastra and any secular transactions; when he took the judgment seat, the king was to abandon all selfishness and be neutral to all things. The king would hear cases such as thefts, would use dharma to come to a decision, he was responsible for making sure that the witnesses were honest and truthful by way of testing them. If the king conducted these trials according to dharma, he would be rewarded with wealth, respect, an eternal place in heaven, among other things.
However, not all cases fell upon the shoulders of the king. It was the king's duty to appoint judges that would decide cases with the same integrity as the king; the king had a legislative duty, utilized when he would enact different decrees, such as announcing a festival or a day of rest for the kingdom. Rajadharma portrayed the king as an administrator above all else; the main purpose for the king executing punishment, or danda, was to ensure that all of his subjects were carrying out their own particular dharmas. For this reason, rajadharma was seen as the root of all dharma and was the highest goal; the whole purpose of the king was to make everyone prosper. If they were not prospering, the king was not fulfilling his dharma, he had to carry out his duties as laid down in the science of government and "not act at his sweet will." Indeed, in the major writings on dharma, the dharma of the king was regarded as the "capstone" of the other castes' dharma both due to the king's goal of securing the happiness and prosperity of his people as well as his ability to act as the "guarantor" of the whole social structure through the enforcement of Danda.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Yoga for therapeutic purposes
Yoga for therapeutic purposes is the use of modern yoga, consisting of postures called asanas, as a gentle form of exercise and relaxation to maintain or improve health. This postural form of yoga is practised in classes, may involve meditation, breath work and music. At least three types of health claim have been made for yoga: magical claims for medieval haṭha yoga, including the power of healing. Modern yoga exercise classes used as therapy consist of asanas and relaxation in savasana; the physical asanas of modern yoga are related to medieval haṭha yoga tradition, but they were not practiced in India before the early 20th century. The number of schools and styles of yoga in the Western world has grown from the late 20th century. By 2012, there were at least 19 widespread styles from Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga to Viniyoga; these emphasise different aspects including aerobic exercise, precision in the asanas, spirituality in the haṭha yoga tradition. These aspects can be illustrated by schools with distinctive styles.
Thus, Bikram Yoga has an aerobic exercise style with rooms heated to 105 °F and a fixed pattern of 2 breathing exercises and 26 asanas. Iyengar Yoga emphasises correct alignment in the postures, working if necessary with props, ending with relaxation. Sivananda Yoga focuses more on spiritual practice, with 12 basic poses, chanting in Sanskrit, pranayama breathing exercises and relaxation in each class, importance is placed on vegetarian diet. At least three different types of claim of therapeutic benefit have been made for yoga from medieval times onwards, not counting the more general claims of good health made throughout this period: magical powers. Medieval authors asserted that haṭha yoga brought physical benefits, provided magical powers including of healing; the Hatha Yoga Pradipika states that asanas in general, described as the first auxiliary of haṭha yoga, give "steadiness, good health, lightness of limb." Specific asanas, bring additional benefits. These claims lie within a tradition across all forms of yoga that practitioners can gain supernatural powers.
Hemachandra's Yogashastra lists the magical powers, which include healing and the destruction of poisons. Advocates of some schools of modern yoga, such as B. K. S. Iyengar, have for various reasons made claims for the effects of yoga on specific organs, without adducing any evidence; the yoga scholar Andrea Jain describes such claims in terms of "elaborating and fortifying his yoga brand" and "mass-marketing", calling his book Light on Yoga "arguably the most significant event in the process of elaborating the brand". Jain suggests that "Its biomedical dialect was attractive to many." For example, in the book, Iyengar claims that the asanas of the Eka Pada Sirsasana cycle tone up the muscular and circulatory systems of the entire body. The spine receives a rich supply of blood, which increases the nervous energy in the chakras, the flywheels in the human body machine; these poses make the breathing fuller and the body firmer. The history of such claims has been reviewed by William J. Broad in his 2012 book The Science of Yoga.
Broad argues that while the health claims for yoga began as Hindu nationalist posturing, it turns out that there is "a wealth of real benefits". Researchers have studied the medical and psychological effects of yoga in a wide range of trials and observational studies, sometimes with careful controls, providing evidence of differing quality about yoga's possible benefits; the various types of claim, the evidence for them, are discussed below. Much of the research on the therapeutic use of modern yoga has been in the form of preliminary studies or clinical trials of low methodological quality, including small sample sizes, inadequate control and blinding, lack of randomization, high risk of bias. For example, a 2010 literature review on the use of yoga for depression stated, "although the results from these trials are encouraging, they should be viewed as preliminary because the trials, as a group, suffered from substantial methodological limitations." A 2015 systematic review on the effect of yoga on mood and the brain recommended that future clinical trials should apply more methodological rigour.
The practice of asanas has been claimed to improve flexibility and balance. A review of five studies noted that three psychological and four biological mechanisms that might act on stress had been examined empirically, whereas many other
Poona Sarvajanik Sabha
Pune Sarvajanik Sabha, was a sociopolitical organisation in British India which started with the aim of working as a mediating body between the government and people of India and to popularise the peasants' legal rights. It started as an elected body of 95 members elected by 6000 persons on April 2, 1870; the organisation was a precursor to the Indian National Congress which started with its first session from Maharashtra itself. The Pune Sarvajanik Sabha provided many of the prominent leaders of national stature to the Indian freedom struggle including Bal Gangadhar Tilak, it was formed in 1870 by Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi, Mahadev Govind Ranade, et al.. The ruler of the Aundh State, Bhawanrao Shriniwasrao Pant Pratinidhi was the first President of the organisation. Many eminent personalities such as Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gopal Hari Deshmukh, Maharshi Annasaheb Patwardhan, etc. served as the Presidents of the organisation. In 2016, Meera Pavagi was elected as the first woman President of the organisation.
Madras Mahajana Sabha The Pune Sarvajanik Sabha: the early phase, 1870-1880 - S. R. Mehrotra Johari, JC. Voices of India Freedom Movement. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 978-81-7158-225-9. Bakshi, SR. Mahadev Govind Ranade. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 978-81-7041-605-0
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges