India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country, the historical home of the Sindhi people. Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, Punjab province to the north. Sindh borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's landscape consists of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh. Sindh has Pakistan's second largest economy, while its provincial capital Karachi is Pakistan's largest city and financial hub, hosts the headquarters of several multinational banks. Sindh is home to a large portion of Pakistan's industrial sector and contains two of Pakistan's commercial seaports, Port Bin Qasim and the Karachi Port; the remainder of Sindh has an agriculture based economy, produces fruit, food consumer items, vegetables for the consumption other parts of the country.
Sindh is known for its distinct culture, influenced by Sufism, an important marker of Sindhi identity for both Hindus and Muslims in the province. Several important Sufi shrines are located throughout the province which attract millions of annual devotees. Sindh's capital, Karachi, is Pakistan's most ethnically diverse city, with Muhajirs, or descendants of those who migrated to Pakistan from India after 1947 and throughout the 1950s and 1960s, making up the majority of the population. Karachi and other urban centres of Sindh have seen ethnic tensions between the native Sindhis and the Muhajirs boil over into violence on several occasions. Sindh is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites – the Historical Monuments at Makli, the Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro; the word Sindh is derived from the Sanskrit term Sindhu, a reference to Indus River. The official spelling "Sind" was discontinued in 1988 by an amendment passed in Sindh Assembly; the Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus.
The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind. Sindh's first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh in Balochistan, to the west expanded into Sindh; this culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization rivalled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in size and scope, numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems; the primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji. This was one of the most developed urban civilizations of the ancient world, it flourished between the 25th century BCE and 1500 BCE in the Indus valley sites of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. The people had a high standard of art and craftsmanship and a well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which remains un-deciphered.
The ruins of the well planned towns, the brick buildings of the common people, public baths and the covered drainage system suggest a organized community. According to some accounts, there is no evidence of large palaces or burial grounds for the elite; the grand and holy site might have been the great bath, built upon an artificially created elevation. This indigenous civilization collapsed around 1700 BCE; the cause may have been a massive earthquake, which dried up the Ghaggar River. Skeletons discovered in the ruins of Moan Jo Daro were thought to indicate that the city was attacked and the population was wiped out, but further examinations showed that the marks on the skeletons were due to erosion and not of violence; the ancient city of Roruka, identified with modern Aror/Rohri, was capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, finds mentioned early Buddhist literature as a major trading center. Sindh finds mention in the Hindu epic Mahabharata as being part of Bharatvarsha. Sindh was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC.
In the late 4th century BC, Sindh was conquered by a mixed army led by Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great. Alexander described his encounters with these trans-Indus tribes of Sindh: "I am involved in the land of lions and brave people, where every foot of the ground is like a well of steel, confronting my soldier. You have brought only one son into the world, but everyone in this land can be called an Alexander." The region remained under control of Greek satraps for only a few decades. After Alexander's death, there was a brief period of Seleucid rule, before Sindh was traded to the Mauryan Empire led by Chandragupta in 305 BC. During the rule of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Buddhist religion spread to Sindh. Mauryan rule ended in 185 BC with the overthrow of the last king by the Shunga Dynasty. In the disorder that followed, Greek rule returned when Demetrius I of Bactria led a Greco-Bactrian invasion of India and annexed most of the northwestern lands, including Sindh. Demetrius was defeated and killed by a usurper, but his descendants continued to rule Sindh and other lands as the Indo-Greek Kingdom.
Under the reign of Menander I, many Indo-Greeks converted to Buddhism. In the late 2nd century BC, Scythian tribes shattered the Greco-Bactrian empire and invaded the Indo-Greek lands. Unable to take the P
The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau in western and southern India. It rises to 100 metres in the north, to more than 1,000 metres in the south, forming a raised triangle within the South-pointing triangle of the Indian subcontinent's coastline, it extends over eight Indian states and encompasses a wide range of habitats, covering most of central and southern India. The plateau is located between two mountain ranges, the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats, each of which rises from its respective nearby coastal plain, converge at the southern tip of India, it is separated from the Gangetic plain to the north by the Satpura and Vindhya Ranges, which form its northern boundary. The Deccan produced some of the major dynasties in Indian history including Pallavas, Vakataka and Rashtrakuta dynasties, the Western Chalukya, the Kadamba Dynasty, Kakatiya Empire and Maratha empires and the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate, Deccan Sultanate, the Nizam of Hyderabad; the name Deccan is an anglicised form of the Prakrit word dakkhin or dakkhaṇa, itself derived from the Sanskrit word dákṣiṇa, as the Deccan Plateau is located in the southern part of the subcontinent.
The Deccan region has lacked an enduring geo-political centre, has been defined in various ways. Geographers have attempted to define it using indices such as rainfall, soil type or physical features; when considering physical features, it is taken to be the area bounded on North by the Narmada River, in East by the Eastern Ghats and on West by the Western Ghats. The 16th-century historian Firishta defined Deccan as the territory inhabited by the native speakers of Kannada and Telugu languages. Richard M. Eaton settled on this linguistic definition; the Western Ghats mountain range is tall and blocks the moisture from the southwest monsoon from reaching the Deccan Plateau, so the region receives little rainfall. The eastern Deccan Plateau is at a lower elevation spanning the southeastern coast of India, its forests are relatively dry but serve to retain the rain to form streams that feed into rivers that flow into basins and into the Bay of Bengal. Most Deccan plateau rivers flow south. Most of the northern part of the plateau is drained by the Godavari River and its tributaries, including the Indravati River, starting from the Western Ghats and flowing east towards the Bay of Bengal.
Most of the central plateau is drained by the Tungabhadra River, Krishna River and its tributaries, including the Bhima River, which run east. The southernmost part of the plateau is drained by the Kaveri River, which rises in the Western Ghats of Karnataka and bends south to break through the Nilgiri Hills at the island town of Shivanasamudra and falls into Tamil Nadu at Hogenakal Falls before flowing into the Stanley Reservoir and the Mettur Dam that created the reservoir, emptying into the Bay of Bengal; the climate of the region varies from semi-arid in the north to tropical in most of the region with distinct wet and dry seasons. Rain falls during the monsoon season from about June to October. March to June can be dry and hot, with temperatures exceeding 40 °C; the Deccan plateau is a topographically variegated region located south of the Gangetic plains-the portion lying between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal-and includes a substantial area to the north of the Satpura Range, which has popularly been regarded as the divide between northern India and the Deccan.
The name derives from the Sanskrit daksina. The plateau is bounded on the east and west by the Ghats, while its northern extremity is the Vindhya Range; the Deccan's average elevation is about 2,000 feet, sloping eastward. The plateau's climate is arid in places. Although sometimes used to mean all of India south of the Narmada River, the word Deccan relates more to that area of rich volcanic soils and lava-covered plateaus in the northern part of the peninsula between the Narmada and Krishna rivers. Having once constituted a segment of the ancient continent of Gondwanaland, this land is the oldest and most stable in India; the Deccan plateau consists of dry tropical forests. On the western edge of the plateau lie the Sahyadri, the Nilgiri, the Anaimalai and the Elamalai Hills known as Western Ghats; the average height of the Western Ghats, which run along the Arabian Sea, goes on increasing towards the south. Anaimudi Peak in Kerala, with a height of 2,695 m above sea level, is the highest peak of peninsular India.
In the Nilgiris lie Ootacamund, the well-known hill station of southern India. The western coastal plain is uneven and swift rivers flow through it that forms beautiful lagoons and backwaters, examples of which can be found in the state of Kerala; the east coast is wide with deltas formed by the rivers Godavari and Kaveri. Flanking the Indian peninsula on the western side are the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea and on the eastern side lies the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal; the eastern Deccan plateau, called Telangana and Rayalaseema, is made of vast sheets of massive granite rock, which traps rainwater. Under the thin surface layer of soil is the impervious gray granite bedrock, it rains here only during some months. Comprising the northeastern part of the Deccan Plateau, the Telangana Plateau has an area of about 148,000 km2, a north-south length of about 770 km, an east-west width of about 515 km; the plateau is drained by the Godavari River taking a southeasterly course.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India. Situated in the south-east of the country, it is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 162,970 km2; as per the 2011 census, it is the tenth most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state Telangana and the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain as the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority. Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km – the second longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat – with jurisdiction over 15,000 km2 of territorial waters.
The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, to the east lies the Bay of Bengal. The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state; the state is made up of the two major regions of Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state, Coastal Andhra to the east and northeast, bordering the Bay of Bengal. The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema; the largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal, with a GDP of US$43.5 billion. The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India with ₹8.70 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹142,000. Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year, making it the third most-visited state in India.
The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year. Other pilgrimage centres in the state include the Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti, the Ameen Peer Dargah in Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, Prasanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi; the state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, the island of Konaseema in the Godavari River delta. A tribe named. According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhra left north India and settled in south India; the Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature. They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their inscriptions. Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire.
Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region; the Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BC to the 3rd century. The Satavahanas made Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries; the Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna River valley in the latter half of the 2nd century. Pallavas, who were executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD and were swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the 7th century CE. After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th and 6th centuries, held sway over the entire Andhra country, including Kalinga and parts of Telangana.
They played an important role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with Eluru and Puranisangam. The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital at Vengi from 300 to 440 CE; the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 C. E. merged with the Chola empire. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C. E. when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE. Kakatiyas constructed several forts, they were succeeded by the Musunuri Nayaks. The Reddy dynasty was established by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi
Western India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of its western part. The Ministry of Home Affairs in its Western Zonal Council Administrative division includes the states of Goa and Maharashtra along with the Union territory of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli while the Ministry of Culture and some historians include the state of Rajasthan; the Geological Survey of India includes Maharashtra but excludes Rajasthan whereas Ministry of Minority Affairs includes Karnataka but excludes Rajasthan. Madhya Pradesh is often included and Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and southern Punjab are sometimes included. Western India may refer to the western half of India, i.e. all the states west of Delhi and Chennai, thus including Punjab and surrounding states. The region is industrialized, with a large urban population. Western India is bounded by the Thar Desert in the north, the Vindhya Range in the east and north and the Arabian Sea in the west. A major portion of Western India shares the Thar Desert with North India and Pakistan and the Deccan Plateau with South and Central India.
In ancient history, Western India was divided into three great states according to Hwen Thsang, namely Sindh and Balabhi. Before the partition of India, the now-Pakistani territories of Sindh and Balochistan were included in this region. Parts of Gujarat were the site of Indus Valley Civilization. Places have been uncovered in Gujarat at Lothal and around Ghaggar river in Rajasthan; the Western Indian region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta Empire, the Maurya Empire, Rajputs, Western Satraps, Indo Greeks, Kadambas etc. in the ancients times. During the medieval age, the area was under the rule of the Vaghela dynasty, the Gujarat Sultanate, the Delhi Sultanate. Thereafter, the area was under Mughal rule; the Maratha Empire which arose in western Maharashtra came to dominate a major portion of the Indian sub-continent. However its defeat by the British in the Anglo-Maratha wars left most of India under colonial rule; the region experienced great upheavals during the struggle for Indian Independence. Gandhi's Dandi March took place in Gujarat.
The region became part of independent India in 1947, the present state boundaries were drawn based on linguistic considerations in 1956. The region consists of the predominantly arid to semi-arid region of Saurashtra and Kutch in the North; the region South of that of Cambay and Southern Gujarat makes the northern semi arid region and the southern humid region submerge. The Western Ghats lie along the coast of South Gujarat and Goa; the Deccan plains of the Vidarbha, Marathwada in central and eastern Maharashtra define the rest of the region. The vegetation varies from tropical rainforests along the Konkan coast to thorny bushes and shrubs in northern Gujarat; the rivers in this region are the Mahi, Tapi, Zuari, Krishna, Ghaggar and many other smaller tributaries of other rivers. The climate varies between tropical wet, tropical wet and dry, semi arid; the coastal regions experience little seasonal variations although the temperatures range between 20 °C to 38 °C. Mumbai and northern Konkan regions experience cooler winters with minimum temperatures hovering around 12 °C.
Interior Maharashtra experiences hot summers with maximum temperatures averaging 40 °C and mild winters with minimum temperatures averaging about 10 °C. Pune, a city in the western region experiences temperatures around 40-42 °C in summers and 6-7 °C on winters. Gujarat has a warm climate with hot summers and cool winters; the majority follow Hinduism and there are significant minority who follow Islam and smaller number who follow Christianity. There are a few indigenous Jews called the Bene Israel who speak Marathi; the Parsees who settled in Gujarat made Surat their home. Significant percentages of Jains and Buddhists can be found too. Most Christians live in the state of Goa. Overall, 83.66% of the population is Hindu, 10.12% Muslim, 4% Buddhist with Christians in Goa and Maharashtra making up the majority of the remainder. Marathi, with about 73 million speakers is the most spoken language, followed by Gujarati with about 46 million speakers and Konkani 2.5 million speakers, all of which are Indo-Aryan languages.
As in other parts of India, a high level of multilingualism is seen with English and Hindi being spoken as additional languages in urban areas. The average literacy rate of West India is around 76%, higher than the national average of 70.5%. The population density is around 290 per square km; the average fertility rate is about 2.2, while the average household size is about 4.7. The states of Maharashtra and Goa are culturally varied and distinct. Maharashtrian culture derives from the ancient Hindu Vedic culture influenced by the Maratha Empire. Maharashtrians take great pride in the Maratha Empire, many places in Maharashtra are named after the founder of the Empire, Shivaji. Marathi literature and cinema are popular in the state as well as across India. Bollywood has had a huge impact on the lifestyle and culture of this part of India as the industry is located in Mumbai. Gujarati culture is a blend of foreign influence, it has been influenced by the Parsis. Gujarat saw Turkic and Mughal conquests, as well as a constant stream of back and forth migrations to and from Sindh and Rajasthan, which helped shape th
Tripura is a state in northeastern India. The third-smallest state in the country, it covers 10,491 km2 and is bordered by Bangladesh to the north and west, the Indian states of Assam and Mizoram to the east. In 2011 the state had 3,671,032 residents, constituting 0.3% of the country's population. The area of modern Tripura—ruled for several centuries by the Tripuri dynasty—was part of an independent princely state under the protectorate of the British Empire; the independent Tripuri Kingdom joined the newly independent India in 1949. Ethnic strife between the indigenous Tripuri people and the migrant Bengali population—due to large influx of Bengali Hindu refugees and settlers from East Bengal—led to tension and scattered violence since Tripura's integration into India, but the establishment of an autonomous tribal administrative agency and other strategies have led to peace. Tripura lies in a geographically disadvantageous location in India, as only one major highway, the National Highway 8, connects it with the rest of the country.
Five mountain ranges—Boromura, Longtharai and Jampui Hills—run north to south, with intervening valleys. The state has a tropical savanna climate, receives seasonal heavy rains from the south west monsoon. Forests cover more than half of the area, in which cane tracts are common. Tripura has the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state. Due to its geographical isolation, economic progress in the state is hindered. Poverty and unemployment continue to plague Tripura. Most residents are involved in agriculture and allied activities, although the service sector is the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic product. According to 2011 census, Tripura is one of the most literate states in India with a literacy rate of 87.75%. Mainstream Indian cultural elements coexist with traditional practices of the ethnic groups, such as various dances to celebrate religious occasions and festivities; the sculptures at the archaeological sites Unakoti and Devtamura provide historical evidence of artistic fusion between organised and tribal religions.
The Great Chinmoy in Agartala was the former royal abode of the Tripuri king. The Sanskrit name of the state is linked to the Hindu goddess of beauty. Tripur was the 39th descendant of Druhyu, who belonged to the lineage of Yayati, a king of the Lunar Dynasty. There have been suggestions to the effect that the origin of the name Tripura is doubtful, raising the possibility that the Sanskritic form is just due to a folk etymology of a Tibeto-Burman name. Variants of the name include Tripra and Tippera. A Kokborok etymology from twi and pra has been suggested. Although there is no evidence of lower or middle Paleolithic settlements in Tripura, Upper Paleolithic tools made of fossil wood have been found in the Haora and Khowai valleys; the Indian epic, the Mahabharata. An ancient name of Tripura is Kirat Desh referring to the Kirata Kingdoms or the more generic term Kirata. However, it is unclear; the region was under the rule of the Twipra Kingdom for centuries, although when this dates from is not documented.
The Rajmala, a chronicle of Tripuri kings, first written in the 15th century, provides a list of 179 kings, from antiquity up to Krishna Kishore Manikya, but the reliability of the Rajmala has been doubted. The boundaries of the kingdom changed over the centuries. At various times, the borders reached south to the jungles of the Sundarbans on the Bay of Bengal. There were several Muslim invasions of the region from the 13th century onward, which culminated in Mughal dominance of the plains of the kingdom in 1733, although their rule never extended to the hill regions; the Mughals had influence over the appointment of the Tripuri kings. Tripura became a princely state during British rule in India; the kings had an estate in British India, known as Tippera district or Chakla Roshnabad, in addition to the independent area known as Hill Tippera, the present-day state. Udaipur, in the south of Tripura, was the capital of the kingdom, until the king Krishna Manikya moved the capital to Old Agartala in the 18th century.
It was moved to the new city of Agartala in the 19th century. Bir Chandra Manikya modelled his administration on the pattern of British India, enacted reforms including the formation of Agartala Municipal Corporation. In 1926,it became a part of Pakokku Hill Tracts Districts of British Burma until 1948,January 4. Following the independence of India in 1947, Tippera district – the estate in the plains of British India – became a part of East Pakistan, Hill Tippera remained under a regency council until 1949; the Maharani Regent of Tripura signed the Tripura Merger Agreement on 9 September 1949
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages. There are over one billion native speakers of Indo-Aryan languages, most of them native to the Indian subcontinent and presently found all across South Asia, where they form the majority; some of the theories proposed in the 20th century for the dispersal of Indo-Aryan languages are described by linguist Colin Masica in the chapter, "The Historical Context and Development of Indo-Aryan" in his book, The Indo-Aryan Languages. A recent Indo-Aryan migration theory—proposed by anthropologist David W. Anthony and by archaeologists Elena Efimovna Kuzmina and J. P. Mallory—claims that the introduction of the Indo-Aryan languages in the Indian subcontinent was a result of a migration of people from the Sintashta culture through the Bactria-Margiana Culture and into the northern Indian subcontinent; these migrations started 1,800 BCE, after the invention of the war chariot, brought Indo-Aryan languages into the Levant and Inner Asia.
It was part of the diffusion of Indo-European languages from the Proto-Indo-European homeland at the Pontic steppe, which started in the 5th to 4th millennia BCE, the Indo-European migrations out of the Eurasian steppes, which started 2,000 BCE. The theory posits that these Indo-Aryan speaking people may have been a genetically diverse group of people who were united by shared cultural norms and language, referred to as aryā, "noble." Diffusion of this culture and language took place by patron-client systems, which allowed for the absorption and acculturalisation of other groups into this culture, explains the strong influence on other cultures with which it interacted. The Proto-Indo-Iranians, from which the Indo-Aryans developed, are identified with the Sintashta culture, the Andronovo culture, which flourished ca. 1800–1400 BCE in the steppes around the Aral sea, present-day Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The proto-Indo-Iranians were influenced by the Bactria-Margiana Culture, south of the Andronovo culture, from which they borrowed their distinctive religious beliefs and practices.
The Indo-Aryans split off around 1800-1600 BCE from the Iranians, whereafter the Indo-Aryans migrated into the Levant and north-western India. This scenario is disputed by the scholars who argue that Indo-Aryan culture is result of the Indus Valley culture, forming the basis for the Indo-Aryan culture that developed later; the alternate Indigenous Aryans theory places the Indo-Aryans languages as being indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and they spread outside the subcontinent. Horseplay at Harappa - People Fas Harvard - Harvard University A tale of two horses - Frontline