The Vidarbha kingdom in the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata is among the many kingdoms ruled by Yadu kings. It is the southernmost kingdom within the epic's geographical horizon, south of the Vindhya range, in the region still known as Vidarbha in what is now Central India. Damayanti, the wife of Nala was the princess of Vidarbha. Rukmini, the eldest wife of Vasudeva Krishna was from Vidarbha. Sage Agastya's wife Lopamudra was a princess from the country of Vidarbha as mentioned in the Mahabharata. Indumati, the Grandmother of Lord Rama and mother of King Dasharatha was a princess of Vidarbha kingdom. Kundinapuri was its capital, identified as Kundapur in the eastern Maharashtra. Rukmini's brother Rukmi founded another kingdom with capital Bhojakata, close to Vidarbha proper. During the Kurukshetra War, when all other kingdoms participated in the battle, Vidarbha under Rukmi stayed neutral, because his army was rejected by both Pandavas and Kauravas who were the two parties engaged in the war, it is not clear.
There is a mention at MBh 6:51, that a Vidarbha army sided with Kauravas under the generalissimo Bhishma. King Bhima is mentioned as the ancient ruler of Vidarbha at many places in Mahabharata.. The Mahabharata gives clues on a route that existed in ancient times connecting Vidarbha to the northern kingdoms like Kosala; the following conversation between Nala and Damayanti describes many ancient roads or pathways connecting kingdoms of north and central India of ancient times. These many roads lead to the southern country, passing by the Rikshavat mountains; this is. This road leadeth to the country of the Vidarbhas—and that, to the country of the Kosalas. Beyond these roads to the south is the southern country. Rituparna,the king, arrived at the city of the Vidarbhas; the people brought unto king Bhima the tidings. And at the invitation of Bhima, the king entered the city of Kundina The king of Kosala reflected a while and at length said, ‘I have come here to pay my respects to thee.’ And the king Bhima was struck with astonishment, reflected upon the cause of Rituparna's coming, having passed over a hundred yojanas.
And he reflected, ‘That passing by other sovereigns, leaving behind him innumerable countries, he should come to pay his respect to me is scarcely the reason of his arrival. Bhojas of Goa who ruled Goa and parts of Konkan and some part of Karnataka from at least 3rd century AD to the 6th century AD are believed to have descended from the Bhojas of Vidarbha who migrated southwards and founded a kingdom in South Konkan. Goa came under the political sway of the Bhojas who ruled this territory in feudal allegiance to the emperor of Pataliputra or under Shatavahanas; the Bhoja seat of power was located at Chandraura in Goa. A Vidarbha princess Susrava is mentioned at MBh 1:95, she was wedded to a prince named Jayatsena, of the Lunar Dynasty. Avachina was her son. Ikshwaku King Sagara is mentioned to have a Vidarbha princess Sage Agastya is mentioned to have a Vidrabha princess as his wife. A river named, its fine landing place was constructed by the king of Vidarbha.. Bhojas of Goa Kisari Mohan Ganguli, The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa Translated into English Prose, 1883-1896.
Rukhmini Udana: The Flight to sri Krishna Reunion by Dr Hemant Bonde Patil Atlantic publishers & Distributors, India, ISSN 9788126926886
Dvārakā known as Dvāravatī is a sacred historic city in Hinduism, Jainismand Buddhism. The name Dvaraka is said to have been given to the place by Bhagwan Krishna, a major deity in Hinduism. Dvaraka is one of the Sapta Puri of Hinduism. In the Mahabharata, it was a city located in what is now Dwarka called Kushasthali, the fort of which had to be repaired by the Yadavas. In this epic, the city is described as a capital of the Anarta Kingdom. According to the Harivamsa the city was located in the region of the Sindhu Kingdom. In the Hindu epics and the Puranas, Dvaraka is called Dvaravati and is one of seven Tirtha sites for spiritual liberation; the other six are Mathura, Kashi, Kanchipuram and Puri. In Harivamsa, Dvaraka is described as built on "submerged land", "released by the ocean"; the city was the former "sporting ground of the King Raivataka" called "Dvāravāti", which "was squared like a chess board". Nearby was the mountain range Raivataka, "the living place of the gods"; the city was measured by Brahmins.
It was built by Vishwakarman in one day "mentally". It had surrounding walls with four main gates, its houses were arranged in lines and the city had "high buildings" "made in gold", which "almost touched the sky" and "could be seen everywhere like clouds". It had a temple area with a palace for Krishna himself, it was a rich city and "the only city on earth, studded with gems". The following description of Dvaraka during Krishna’s presence there appears in the Bhagavata Purana in connection with the sage Narada’s visit; the City was filled with the sounds of birds and bees flying about the parks and pleasure gardens, while its lakes, crowded with blooming indivara, kahlara and utpala lotuses, resounded with the calls of swans and cranes. Dvaraka boasted 900,000 royal palaces, all constructed with crystal and silver and splendorously decorated with huge emeralds. Inside these palaces, the furnishings were bedecked with gold and jewels. Traffic moved along a well laid-out system of boulevards, roads and marketplaces, many assembly houses and temples of demigods graced the charming city.
The roads, commercial streets, residential patios were all sprinkled with water and shaded from the sun’s heat by banners waving from flagpoles. In the city of Dvaraka was a beautiful private quarter worshiped by the planetary rulers; this district, where the demigod Vishvakarma had shown all his divine skill, was the residential area of Lord Hari, thus it was gorgeously decorated by the sixteen thousand palaces of Lord Krishna’s queens. Narada Muni entered one of these immense palaces. Supporting the palace were coral pillars decoratively inlaid with vaidurya gems. Sapphires bedecked the walls, the floors glowed with perpetual brilliance. In that palace Tvashta had arranged canopies with hanging strands of pearls. In attendance were many well-dressed maidservants bearing lockets on their necks, armor-clad guards with turbans, fine uniforms, jeweled earrings; the glow of numerous jewel-studded lamps dispelled all darkness in the palace. My dear king, on the ornate ridges of the roof danced loudly crying peacocks, who saw the fragrant aguru incense escaping through the holes of the latticed windows and mistook it for a cloud.
Pandu's sons lived in Dwaraka during their exile to woods. Their servants headed by Indrasena lived there for one year. Bala Rama mentioned about a sacrificial fire of Dwaraka, before he set for his pilgrimage over Sarasvati River. One should proceed with subdued senses and regulated diet to Dwaravati, where by bathing in "the holy place called Pindaraka", one obtaineth the fruit of the gift of gold in abundance. King Nriga, in consequence of a single fault of his, had to dwell for a long time at Dwaravati, Krishna became the cause of his rescue from that miserable plight.. Sage Durvasa resided at Dwaravati for a long time. Arjuna visited Dwaravati during his military campaign after the Kurukshetra War; when the Pandavas retire from the world they visit the place where Dvaraka once used to be and see the city submerged under water. During 1983-1990, the Marine Archaeology Unit of India's National Institute of Oceanography carried out underwater excavations at Dwarka and Bet Dwarka. According to S. R. Rao "The available archaeological evidence from onshore and offshore excavations confirms the existence of a city-state with a couple of satellite towns in 1500 B.
C." He considered it reasonable to conclude that this submerged city is the Dvaraka as described in the Mahabharata. In the Mausala Parva of the Mahabaratha, Arjuna witnesses the submergence of Dvaraka and describes it as follows: Marine archeology in the Gulf of Khambhat Dvaravati sila Kamboja-Dvaravati Route Lost lands S. R. Rao. "Further excavations of the submerged city of Dwarka". Recent Advances in Marine Archaeology: Proceedings of the second Indian Conference on Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries, January 1990. Marine Archaeology. National Institute Of Oceanography. Pp. 51–59. Shikaripur Ranganatha Rao; the lost city of Dvārakā. Aditya Prakashan
Pataliputra, adjacent to modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India built by Magadha ruler Udayin in 490 BCE as a small fort near the Ganges river. It became the capital of major powers in ancient India, such as the Shishunaga Empire, Nanda Empire, the Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Pala Empire. During the Maurya period, it became one of the largest cities in the world; as per the Greek diplomat and historian Megasthenes, during the Mauryan Empire it was among the first cities in the world to have a efficient form of local self government. Extensive archaeological excavations have been made in the vicinity of modern Patna. Excavations early in the 20th century around Patna revealed clear evidence of large fortification walls, including reinforcing wooden trusses; the etymology of Pataliputra is unclear. "Putra" means son, "pāţali" is a species of rice or the plant Bignonia suaveolens. One traditional etymology holds. Another tradition says that Pāṭaliputra means the son of Pāṭali, the daughter of Raja Sudarshan.
As it was known as Pāṭali-grāma some scholars believe that Pāṭaliputra is a transformation of Pāṭalipura, "Pāṭali town". There is no mention of Pataliputra in written sources prior to the early Jain and Buddhist texts, where it appears as the village of Pataligrama and is omitted from a list of major cities in the region. Early Buddhist sources report a city being built in the vicinity of the village towards the end of the Buddha's life. In 303 BCE, Greek historian and ambassador Megasthenes mentioned Pataliputra as a city in his work Indika. Diodorus, quoting Iambulus mention that the king of Pataliputra had a "great love for the Greeks"; the city of Pataliputra was formed by fortification of a village by Haryanka ruler Ajatashatru, son of Bimbisara. Its central location in north eastern India led rulers of successive dynasties to base their administrative capital here, from the Nandas, Mauryans and the Guptas down to the Palas. Situated at the confluence of the Ganges and Son rivers, Pataliputra formed a "water fort, or jaldurga".
Its position helped it dominate the riverine trade of the Indo-Gangetic plains during Magadha's early imperial period. It was a great centre of trade and commerce and attracted merchants and intellectuals, such as the famed Chanakya, from all over India. Two important early Buddhist councils are recorded in early Buddhist texts as being held here, the First Buddhist council following the death of the Buddha and the Second Buddhist council in the reign of Ashoka. Jain and Brahmanical sources identify Udayabhadra, son of Ajatashatru, as the king who first established Pataliputra as the capital of Magadha. During the reign of Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE, it was one of the world's largest cities, with a population of about 150,000–400,000; the city is estimated to have had a surface of 25.5 square kilometers, a circumference of 33.8 kilometers, was in the shape of a parallelogram and had 64 gates. Pataliputra reached the pinnacle of prosperity when it was the capital of the great Mauryan Emperors, Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka.
The city prospered under the Mauryas and a Greek ambassador, resided there and left a detailed account of its splendour, referring to it as "Palibothra": "Megasthenes says that on one side where it is longest this city extends ten miles in length, that its breadth is one and threequarters miles. Arrian, "The Indica" Strabo in his Geographia adds; these are thought to be the wooden palisades identified during the excavation of Patna. "At the confluence of the Ganges and of another river is situated Palibothra, in length 80, in breadth 15 stadia. It is in the shape of a parallelogram, surrounded by a wooden wall pierced with openings through which arrows may be discharged. In front is a ditch, which serves the purpose of defence and of a sewer for the city." Strabo, "Geographia" Aelian, although not expressly quoting Megasthenes nor mentionning Pataliputra, described Indian palaces as superior in splendor to Persia's Susa or Ectabana: "In the royal residences in India where the greatest of the kings of that country live, there are so many objects for admiration that neither Memnon's city of Susa with all its extravagance, nor the magnificence of Ectabana is to be compared with them.
In the parks, tame peacocks and pheasants are kept." Aelian, "Characteristics of animals" Under Ashoka, most of wooden structure of Pataliputra palace may have been replaced by stone. Ashoka was known to be a great builder, who may have imported craftsmen from abroad to build royal monuments. Pataliputra palace shows decorative influences of the Achaemenid palaces and Persepolis and may have used the help of foreign craftmen. Which may be the result of the formative influence of craftsmen employed from Persia following the disintegration of the Achaemenid Empire after the conquests of Alexander the Great; the city became a flourishing Buddhist centre boasting a number of important monasteries. It remained the capital of the Pala Dynasty; the city was in ruins when visited by Xuanzang, suffered further damage at
The Yadavas were an ancient Indian people who believed themselves to be descended from Yadu, a mythical king. The community was formed of four clans, being the Abhira, Andhaka and Satvatas, who all worshipped Krishna, they are listed in ancient Indian literature as the segments of the lineage of Yadu. At various times there have been a number of communities and royal dynasties of the Indian subcontinent that have claimed descent from the ancient Yadava clans and mythical Yadava personalities, thus describing themselves as the Yadavas. Since the 20th century, the modern Yadav community have claimed Kshatriya status as part of this claimed descent. Amongst the Yadava clans mentioned in ancient Indian literature, the Haihayas are believed to have descended from Sahasrajit, elder son of Yadu and all other Yadava clans, which include the Chedis, the Vidarbhas, the Satvatas, the Andhakas, the Kukuras, the Bhojas, the Vrishnis and the Shainyas are believed to have descended from Kroshtu or Kroshta, younger son of Yadu.
It can be inferred from the vamshanucharita sections of a number of major Puranas that, the Yadavas spread out over the Aravalli region, the Narmada valley, the northern Deccan and the eastern Ganges valley. The Mahabharata and the Puranas mention that the Yadus or Yadavas, a confederacy comprising numerous clans were the rulers of the Mathura region; the Mahabharata refers to the exodus of the Yadavas from Mathura to Dvaraka owing to pressure from the Paurava rulers of Magadha, also from the Kurus. The Haihayas were an ancient confederacy of five ganas, who were believed to have descended from a common ancestor, Yadu; these five clans are Vitihotra, Bhoja and Tundikera. The five Haihaya clans called themselves the Talajanghas According to the Puranas, Haihaya was the grandson of Sahasrajit, son of Yadu. Kautilya in his Arthaśāstra mentioned about the Haihayas. In the Puranas, Arjuna Kartavirya was mentioned as the most significant Haihaya king, he was called a Chakravartin. His name is found in the Rig Veda.
He made it his capital. The Haihayas were known by the name of the most dominant clan amongst them — the Vitihotras. According to the Puranas, Vitihotra was the great-grandson of Arjuna Kartavirya and eldest son of Talajangha. Ripunjaya, the last Vitihotra ruler of Ujjayini was overthrown by his amatya Pulika, who placed his son, Pradyota on the throne; the Mahagovindasuttanta of the Dighanikaya mentions about an Avanti king Vessabhu and his capital Mahissati. He was a Vitihotra ruler. In the Balakanda of the Ramayana, the Shashabindus are mentioned along with the Haihayas and the Talajanghas; the Shashabindus or Shashabindavas are believed as the descendants of Shashabindu, a Chakravartin and son of Chitraratha, great-great-grandson of Kroshtu. The Chedis or Chaidyas were an ancient Yadava clan, whose territory was conquered by a Kuru king Vasu, who thus obtained his epithet, Chaidyoparichara or Uparichara. According to the Puranas, the Chedis were descendants of Chidi, son of Kaishika, grandson of Vidarbha, a descendant of Kroshta.
The Rigveda mentions a king named Kashu Chaidya. According to the Puranas, the Vidarbhas or Vaidarbhas were descendants of Vidarbha, son of Jyamagha, a descendant of Kroshtu. Most well known Vidarbha king was Bhishmaka, father of Rukmin and Rukmini. In the Matsya Purana and the Vayu Purana, the Vaidarbhas are described as the inhabitants of Deccan. According to the Aitareya Brahmana, the Satvatas were a southern people held in subjection by the Bhojas; the Satapatha Brahmana mentions. Panini, in his Ashtadhyayi mentions the Satvatas as being of the Kshatriya gotra, having a sangha form of government but in the Manusmriti, the Satvatas are placed in the category of the Vratya Vaishyas. According to a tradition, found in the Harivamsa, Satvata was a descendant of the Yadava king Madhu and Satvata's son Bhima was contemporary with Rama. Bhima recovered the city of Mathura from the Ikshvakus after the death of his brothers. Andhaka, son of Bhima Satvata was contemporary with son of Rama, he succeeded his father to the throne of Mathura.
The Andhakas, the Vrishnis, the Kukuras, the Bhojas and the Shainyas are believed to have descended from Satvata, a descendant of Kroshtu. These clans were known as the Satvata clans. According to the Ashtadhyayi of Panini, the Andhakas were of the Kshatriya gotra, having a sangha form of government In the Drona Parva of the Mahabharata, Andhakas were categorized as the Vratyas. According to the Puranas, the Andhakas were the descendants of Bhajamana, son of Andhaka and grandson of Satvata. According to the Mahabharata, the allied army of the Andhakas, the Bhojas, the Kukuras and the Vrishnis in the Kurukshetra War was led by Kritavarma, son of Hridika, an Andhaka. But, in the same text, he was referred as a Bhoja of Mrittikavati. According to the Aitareya Brahmana, the Bhojas were a southern people, whose princes held the Satvatas in subjection; the Vishnu Purana mentions the Bhojas as a branch of the Satvatas. According to this text, Bhojas of Mrittikavati were descendants of son of Satvata.
But, according to a number of other Puranic texts, the Bhojas were descendants of Babhru, grandson of Satvata. In the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata and in a passage of the Matsya Purana the Bhojas are mentio
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, held Roman citizenship; the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. This attestation is quite late, and, according to Gerald Toomer, the translator of his Almagest into English, there is no reason to suppose he lived anywhere other than Alexandria, he died there around AD 168. Ptolemy wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and Western European science; the first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise and known as the Great Treatise. The second is the Geography, a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world; the third is the astrological treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day.
This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning "Four Books" or by the Latin Quadripartitum. Ptolemaeus is a Greek name, it occurs once in Greek mythology, is of Homeric form. It was common among the Macedonian upper class at the time of Alexander the Great, there were several of this name among Alexander's army, one of whom made himself pharaoh in 323 BC: Ptolemy I Soter, the first king of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. All male kings of Hellenistic Egypt, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC ending the Macedonian family's rule, were Ptolemies; the name Claudius is a Roman nomen. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemy's family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius, responsible for granting citizenship. If, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD 41 and 68; the astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown. The ninth-century Persian astronomer Abu Maʿshar presents Ptolemy as a member of Egypt's royal lineage, stating that the descendants of Alexander's general Ptolemy I, who ruled Egypt, were wise "and included Ptolemy the Wise, who composed the book of the Almagest".
Abu Maʿshar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line "composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy". We can evidence historical confusion on this point from Abu Maʿshar's subsequent remark "It is sometimes said that the learned man who wrote the book of astrology wrote the book of the Almagest; the correct answer is not known." There is little evidence on the subject of Ptolemy's ancestry, apart from what can be drawn from the details of his name. Ptolemy can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data, he was a Roman citizen, but was ethnically either a Greek or a Hellenized Egyptian. He was known in Arabic sources as "the Upper Egyptian", suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt. Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic: بَطْلُمْيوس Baṭlumyus. Ptolemy's Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena.
Ptolemy, claimed to have derived his geometrical models from selected astronomical observations by his predecessors spanning more than 800 years, though astronomers have for centuries suspected that his models' parameters were adopted independently of observations. Ptolemy presented his astronomical models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets; the Almagest contains a star catalogue, a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus. Its list of forty-eight constellations is ancestral to the modern system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not cover the whole sky. Across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa in the Medieval period, it was the authoritative text on astronomy, with its author becoming an mythical figure, called Ptolemy, King of Alexandria; the Almagest was preserved, in Arabic manuscripts. Because of its reputation, it was sought and was translated twice into Latin in the 12th century, once in Sicily and again in Spain.
Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution. His Planetary Hypotheses went beyond the mathematical model of the Almagest to present a physical realization of the universe as a set of nested spheres, in which he used the epicycles of his planetary model to compute the dimensions of the universe, he estimated the Sun was at an average dis