Glaciers of Bhutan
The glaciers of Bhutan, which covered about 10 percent of the total surface area in the 1980s, are an important renewable source of water for Bhutan's rivers. Fed by fresh snow each winter and slow melting in the summer, the glaciers bring millions of litres of fresh water to Bhutan and downriver areas each year. Glacial melt adds to monsoon-swollen rivers which may be a contributing factor to flooding. Where glacial movement temporary blocks riverflows, downstream areas may be threatened by glacial lake outburst flood. Although GLOFs are not a new phenomenon in Bhutan, their frequency has risen in the past three decades. Significant GLOFs occurred in 1960, 1968 and 1994, devastating lives and property downstream. According to the Bhutan Department of Energy however, the majority of rivers in Bhutan are more susceptible to fluctuation with changing rainfall patterns than to flooding directly attributable to glacier or snow melt. Bhutanese territory contains some 677 glaciers and 2,674 glacial lakes and subsidiary lakes, out of which 25 pose a risk of GLOFs.
The vast number of glaciers in Bhutan are classed as "valley" and "mountain glaciers," although significant numbers of "ice apron," and "niche glacier" types exist. Some glacial lakes, such as Thorthormi Lake in Lunana Gewog, are not a single bodies of water but collections supraglacial ponds. Most glacial lakes identified as dangerous feed into the Manas River and Puna Tsang River water systems of north-central Bhutan. During a GLOF, residents of nearby downstream villages may have as little as twenty minutes to evacuate. For public safety, these glaciers and glacial lakes are maintained by the Ministry of Economic Affairs' Department of Geology and Mines, an executive agency of the government of Bhutan; the Department, as part of its environmental "mitigation projects," aims to lower the levels of glacial lakes and thereby avert GLOF-related disaster. In 2001, for example, scientists identified Lake Thorthormi as one that threatened imminent and catastrophic collapse; the situation was relieved by carving a water channel from the lip of the lake to relieve water pressure.
The Department uses silent explosives and other means it considers environmentally friendly in order to minimize the ecological impact of its mitigation projects. These projects, remain difficult to conduct because of the weather and relative lack of oxygen at the glacial lakes' altitudes; as of September 2010, GLOF early warning systems were slated for installation by mid-2011 in Punakha and Wangdue Phodrang Districts at a cost of USD4.2 million. Because the state of glaciers in Bhutan involves questions of climate change, the topic is somewhat controversial. A 2008 United Nations report suggested that due to rising temperatures, glaciers in Bhutan were retreating at a rate of 30–40 meters per year, poised to make many lakes burst their banks and send millions of litres of floodwater downstream; this among many other climate-related issues identified in the report prompted the regional association of government ministers to establish the Southeast Asia Regional Health Emergency Fund in Thimphu in September 2007.
The member nations of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation adopted bilateral agreements including measures on climate change and glaciers at its summit in April 2010. The 2008 UN report indicated Himalayan glaciers would melt within 25 years, however Prime Minister Jigme Thinley expressed a more dim outlook in a press conference in late March 2010, stating, "Our glaciers are withdrawing fast and we have reasons to worry that they may in fact disappear not in 2035, but earlier." Further studies in 2009 indicated the rate of glacial melt in Bhutan was three times the world average, that over the previous three decades regional temperatures had risen by 2.7 °C. Satellite imaging confirmed changes in glaciers and snow peaks, indicating increased runoff and decreased coverage. However, opinions varied on the effect of global warming in the Himalaya. According to US geological survey report, 66 glaciers in Bhutan have decreased by 8.1 percent in the last 30 years. On the other hand, a study whose results were published in 2011 indicated glacial melt depended on several factors including debris cover, that more than half of the glaciers in the Himalaya were stable or were in fact growing.
Debris cover, such as rocks and mud, set apart the stable glaciers of the Himalaya from the pristine glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau in fast retreat. The study, conducted by the Universities of California and Potsdam and published in the journal Nature Geoscience, was based on 286 glaciers along the Himalaya and Hindu Kush from Bhutan to the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. Another preliminary survey conducted by a team of Japanese and Bhutanese scientists, including a glacio-microbiologist, glacio-ecologist and geologist, indicated that the presence of a peculiar microorganism on the surfaces of glaciers could accelerate glacial melting and lead to a glacial outburst. Lunana glacier group and Lunana Gewogs, Gasa District Thorthormi Glacier and Lake. Thorthormi Lake, which appeared sometime after 1967, is the largest lake in Lunana, with a width of 30 metres. Raphstreng Glacier and Lake. Raphstreng Lake appeared in 1958, it is just over 107 metres deep. Luggye Glaciers 1, 2, Lake. Luggye Lake first appeared in 1967, has a depth of 142 metres, a width of 30 metres.
It produced a significant GLOF in 1994. Bechung Glacier and Lake. Roduphu Glacial
Penlop is a Dzongkha term translated as governor. Bhutanese penlops, prior to unification, controlled certain districts of the country, but now hold no administrative office. Rather, penlops are now subservient to the House of Wangchuck. Traditionally, Bhutan comprised nine provinces: Trongsa, Punakha, Wangdue Phodrang, Bumthang, Thimphu and Kurmaed; the Provinces of Kurtoed and Kurmaed were combined into one local administration, leaving the traditional number of governors at eight. While some lords were penlops, others held the title Dzongpen, a title translated as "governor." Other historical titles, such as "Governor of Haa," were awarded. Under the dual system of government and dzongpens were theoretically masters of their own realms but servants of the Druk Desi. In practice, they were under minimal central government control, the Penlop of Trongsa and Penlop of Paro dominated the rest of the local lords, and while all governor posts were appointed by Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal the Druk Desi, some offices such as the Penlop of Trongsa were de facto hereditary and appointed within certain families.
Penlops and dzongpens held other government offices such as Druk Desi, Je Khenpo, governor of other provinces, or a second or third term in the same office. The heir apparent and King of Bhutan still hold the title Penlop of Trongsa for a period, as this was the original position held by the House of Wangchuck before it obtained the throne. Under Bhutan's early theocratic dual system of government, decreasingly effective central government control resulted in the de facto disintegration of the office of Shabdrung after the death of Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal in 1651. Under this system, the Shabdrung reigned over religious Je Khenpo. Two successor Shabdrungs – the son and stepbrother of Ngawang Namgyal – were controlled by the Druk Desi and Je Khenpo until power was further splintered through the innovation of multiple Shabdrung incarnations, reflecting speech and body. Secular regional lords competed for power amid a backdrop of civil war over the Shabdrung and invasions from Tibet, the Mongol Empire.
The penlops of Trongsa and Paro, the dzongpons of Punakha and Wangdue Phodrang were notable figures in the competition for regional dominance. Within this political landscape, the Wangchuck family originated in the Bumthang region of central Bhutan; the family belongs to the Nyö clan, is descended from Pema Lingpa, a Bhutanese Nyingmapa saint. The Nyö clan emerged as a local aristocracy, supplanting many older aristocratic families of Tibetan origin that sided with Tibet during invasions of Bhutan. In doing so, the clan came to occupy the hereditary position of Penlop of Trongsa, as well as significant national and local government positions; the Penlop of Trongsa controlled eastern Bhutan. Eastern dzongpens were under the control of the Penlop of Trongsa, endowed with the power to appoint them in 1853; the Penlop of Paro, unlike Trongsa, was an office appointed by the Druk Desi's central government. Because western regions controlled by the Penlop of Paro contained lucrative trade routes, it became the object of competition among aristocratic families.
Although Bhutan enjoyed favorable relations with both Tibet and British India through the 19th century, extension of British power at Bhutan's borders as well as Tibetan incursions in British Sikkim defined politically opposed pro-Tibet and pro-Britain forces. This period of intense rivalry between and within western and central Bhutan, coupled with external forces from Tibet and the British Empire, provided the conditions for the ascendancy of the Penlop of Trongsa. After the Duar War with Britain as well as substantial territorial losses, armed conflict turned inward. In 1870, amid the continuing civil wars, Penlop Jigme Namgyal of Trongsa ascended to the office of Druk Desi. In 1879, he appointed his 17-year-old son Ugyen Wangchuck as Penlop of Paro. Jigme Namgyal reigned through his death 1881, punctuated by periods of retirement during which he retained effective control of the country; the pro-Britain Penlop Ugyen Wangchuck prevailed against the pro-Tibet and anti-Britain Penlop of Paro after a series of civil wars and rebellions between 1882 and 1885.
After his father's death in 1881, Ugyen Wangchuck entered a feud over the post of Penlop of Trongsa. In 1882, at the age of 20, he marched on Bumthang and Trongsa, winning the post of Penlop of Trongsa in addition to Paro. In 1885, Ugyen Wangchuck intervened in a conflict between the Dzongpens of Punakha and Thimphu, sacking both sides and seizing Simtokha Dzong. From this time forward, the office of Desi became purely ceremonial. Trongsa Penlop Ugyen Wangchuck in power and advised by Kazi Ugyen Dorji, accompanied the British expedition to Tibet as an invaluable intermediary, earning his first British knighthood. Penlop Ugyen Wangchuck further garnered knighthood in the KCIE in 1904. Meanwhile, the last recognized Shabdrung and Druk Desi had died in 1903 and 1904, respectively; as a result, a power vacuum formed within the dysfunctional dual system of government. Civil administration had fallen to the hands of Penlop Ugyen Wangchuck, in November 1907 he was unanimously elected hereditary monarch by
Foreign relations of Bhutan
Bhutan has diplomatic relations with 52 states and the European Union. In 1971, sponsored by India, Bhutan began to develop its foreign relations by joining the United Nations, though it has no diplomatic relations with any of the permanent members on the UN Security Council. In 1981, Bhutan joined the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, followed by the World Health Organization and UNESCO in 1982, it is an active member of SAARC. Bhutan is a member of 45 international organizations. Under Article 20 of the Constitution of Bhutan enacted in 2008, Bhutan's foreign relations fall under the purview of the Druk Gyalpo on the advice of the Executive, namely the Prime Minister and other Ministers of the Lhengye Zhungtshog including the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Bhutan maintains diplomatic relations with sixteen European nations: Andorra. Other EU countries that do not have formal relations with Bhutan are represented by the EU, which does maintain a diplomatic relation separate from the countries that have one.
In addition to Bangladesh, Japan, Nepal and South Korea, Bhutan maintains diplomatic relations with eighteen other Asian nations: Afghanistan. Bhutan maintains diplomatic relations with four African nations: Egypt, Mauritius and Swaziland. Other countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, have no formal diplomatic relations with Bhutan, but maintain informal contact through their respective embassies in New Delhi and Bhutanese Permanent mission to the United Nations in New York City; the United Kingdom has an Honorary Consul resident in Thimphu. Bhutan does not recognize any of the or non-recognized states plus UN member states Israel and China Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 September 2012. Bangladesh is one of only two nations to maintain a residential embassy in Thimphu. Bhutan was the first country in the world to recognize Bangladeshi independence in 1971; the two states have agreed to develop hydropower in the Himalayas, as well as initiate free trade and transhipment through Bangladeshi ports.
They cooperate in water resources management. Both Bhutan and Bangladesh are members of SAARC and BIMSTEC. Canada established diplomatic ties with Bhutan in 2003. Canada has a representative office in Thimphu. Bhutan has no diplomatic relations with its northern neighbor, the People's Republic of China, is one of the few countries to not recognise or have relations with either China or Taiwan; the border between Bhutan and China has been closed since the invasion of Tibet in 1959, causing an influx of refugees. The border remains undelineated. Tensions have since lessened after the signing of a 1998 agreement on border peace and tranquility, the first bilateral agreement between China and Bhutan. Despite the lack of formal diplomatic relations, Bhutan has maintained an Honorary Consul in Macau since 2000 and Hong Kong since 2004. In late 2005, Bhutan claimed that Chinese soldiers were building roads and bridges within Bhutanese territory. Bhutanese Foreign Minister Khandu Wangchuk took up the matter with Chinese authorities after the issue was raised in the Bhutanese parliament.
In response, Foreign Ministry spokesman Qin Gang of the People's Republic of China has said that the border remains in dispute and that the two sides are continuing to work for a peaceful and cordial resolution of the dispute. The Bhutanese newspaper Kuensel has said that China might use the roads to further Chinese claims along the border. Ties with India have been close. Both countries signed a first Friendship treaty in 1865 between Bhutan and British India. However, when Bhutan became a monarchy, British India was the first country to recognize it and renewed the treaty in 1910. Bhutan was the first country to recognize Indian independence and renewed the age old treaty with the new government in 1949, including a clause that India would assist Bhutan in foreign relations. On February 8, 2007, the Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty was revised under the Bhutanese King, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck. In the Treaty of 1949 Article 2 read as "The Government of India undertakes to exercise no interference in the internal administration of Bhutan.
On its part the Government of Bhutan agrees to be guided by the advice of the Government of India in regard to its external relations." In the revised treaty this now reads as, "In keeping with the abiding ties of close friendship and cooperation between Bhutan and India, the Government of the Kingdom of Bhutan and the Government of the Republic of India shall cooperate with each other on issues relating to their national interests. Neither government shall allow the use of its territory for activities harmful to the national security and interest of the other." The revised treaty includes in it the preamble "Reaffirming their respect for each other's independence and territorial integrity", an element, absent in the earlier version. The Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty of 2007 strengthens Bhutan's status as an independent and sov
Bengal is a geopolitical and historical region in South Asia in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Geographically, it is made up by the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta system, the largest such formation in the world. Politically, Bengal is divided between Bangladesh and the Indian territories of West Bengal and Assam's Barak Valley. In 2011, the population of Bengal was estimated to be 250 million, making it one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Among them, an estimated 160 million people live in Bangladesh and 91.3 million people live in West Bengal. The predominant ethnolinguistic group is the Bengali people, who speak the Indo-Aryan Bengali language. Bengali Muslims are the majority in Bangladesh and Bengali Hindus are the majority in West Bengal and Tripura, while Barak Valley contains equal proportions of Bengali Hindus and Bengali Muslims. Outside Bengal proper, the Indian territories of Jharkhand and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are home to significant communities of Bengalis.
Dense woodlands, including hilly rainforests, cover Bengal's eastern areas. In the littoral southwest are the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest and home of the Bengal tiger. In the coastal southeast lies Cox's Bazar, the longest beach in the world at 125 km; the region has a monsoon climate. At times an independent regional empire, Bengal was a leading power in Southeast Asia and the Islamic East, with extensive trade networks. In antiquity, its kingdoms were known as seafaring nations. Bengal was known to the Greeks as Gangaridai, notable for mighty military power, it was described by Greek historians that Alexander the Great withdrew from India anticipating a counterattack from an alliance of Gangaridai. Writers noted merchant shipping links between Bengal and Roman Egypt; the Bengali Pala Empire was the last major Buddhist imperial power in the subcontinent, founded in 750 and becoming the dominant power in the northern Indian subcontinent by the 9th century, before being replaced by the Hindu Sena dynasty in the 12th century.
Islam was introduced through trade with the Abbasid Caliphate. The Islamic Bengal Sultanate, founded in 1352, was absorbed into the Mughal Empire in 1576; the Mughal Bengal Subah province became a major global exporter, a center of worldwide industries such as cotton textiles, shipbuilding, 12% of the world's GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe. Bengal was conquered by the British East India Company in 1757 by Battle of Plassey and became the Bengal Presidency of the British Raj, which experienced deindustrialization under British rule; the Company increased agriculture tax rates from 10 percent to up to 50 causing the Great Bengal famine of 1770 and the deaths of 10 million Bengalis. Bengal played a major role in the Indian independence movement, in which revolutionary groups were dominant. Armed attempts to overthrow the British Raj began with the rebellion of Titumir, reached a climax when Subhas Chandra Bose led the Indian National Army allied with Japan to fight against the British.
A large number of Bengalis died in the independence struggle and many were exiled in Cellular Jail, located in Andaman. The United Kingdom Cabinet Mission of 1946, split the region into India and Pakistan, popularly known as partition of Bengal, opposed by the Prime Minister of Bengal Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and nationalist leader Sarat Chandra Bose, they campaigned for a independent nation-state of Bengal. The initiative failed owing to British diplomacy and communal conflict between Hindus. Pakistan ruled East Bengal becoming the independent nation of Bangladesh by Bangladesh War of Independence in 1971. Bengali culture has been influential in the fields of literature, shipbuilding, architecture, currency, commerce and cuisine; the name of Bengal is derived from the ancient kingdom of Banga, the earliest records of which date back to the Mahabharata epic in the first millennium BCE. Theories on the origin of the term Banga point to the Proto-Dravidian Bong tribe that settled in the area circa 1000 BCE and the Austric word Bong.
The term Vangaladesa is used to describe the region in 11th-century South Indian records. The modern term Bangla is prominent from the 14th century, which saw the establishment of the Sultanate of Bengal, whose first ruler Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah was known as the Shah of Bangala; the Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the Age of Discovery. The modern English name Bengal is an exonym derived from the Bengal Sultanate period. Most of the Bengal region lies in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta, but there are highlands in its north and southeast; the Ganges Delta arises from the confluence of the rivers Ganges and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The total area of Bengal is 232,752 km2—West Bengal is 88,752 km2 and Bangladesh 147,570 km2; the flat and fertile Bangladesh Plain dominates the geography of Bangladesh. The Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet regions are home to most of the mountains in Bangladesh. Most parts of Bangladesh are within 10 metres above the sea level, it is believed that about 10% of the land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 metre.
Because of this l
Dzong architecture is a distinctive type of fortress architecture found in Bhutan and Tibetan areas of China. The architecture is massive in style with towering exterior walls surrounding a complex of courtyards, administrative offices, monks' accommodation. Distinctive features include: High inward sloping walls of brick and stone painted white with few or no windows in the lower sections of the wall Use of a surrounding red ochre stripe near the top of the walls, sometimes punctuated by large gold circles. Use of unique style flared roofs atop interior temples. Massive entry doors made of wood and iron Interior courtyards and temples brightly colored in Buddhist-themed art motifs such as the ashtamangala or swastika, for example. Dzongs serve as the religious, military and social centers of their district, they are the site of an annual tsechu or religious festival. The rooms inside the dzong are allocated half to administrative function, half to religious function the temple and housing for monks.
This division between administrative and religious functions reflects the idealized duality of power between the religious and administrative branches of government. Tibet used to be divided into 53 prefecture districts called dzongs. There were two dzongpöns for a lama and a layman, they were entrusted with both civil and military powers and are equal in all respects, though subordinate to the generals and the Chinese amban in military matters, until the expulsion of the ambans following the Xinhai Revolution in 1912. Today, 71 counties in the Tibet Autonomous Region are called dzongs in the Tibetic languages. Bhutanese dzong architecture reached its zenith in the 17th century under the leadership of Ngawang Namgyal, the 1st Zhabdrung Rinpoche; the Zhabdrung relied on omens to site each of the dzongs. Modern military strategists would observe that the dzongs are well-sited with regard to their function as defensive fortresses. Wangdue Phodrang dzong, for instance, is set upon a spur overlooking the confluence of the Sankosh and Tang Rivers, thus blocking any attacks by southern invaders who attempted to use a river route to bypass the trackless slopes of the middle Himalayas in attacking central Bhutan.
Drukgyel Dzong at the head of the Paro valley guards the traditional Tibetan invasion path over the passes of the high Himalayas. Dzongs were built on a hilltop or mountain spur. If the dzong is built on the side of a valley wall, a smaller dzong or watchtower is built directly uphill from the main dzong with the purpose of keeping the slope clear of attackers who might otherwise shoot downward into the courtyard of the main dzong below. Punakha Dzong is distinctive in that it is sited on a flat spit of land at the confluence of the Mo and Pho Rivers; the rivers surround the dzong on three sides. This siting proved inauspicious, when in 1994 a glacial lake 90 kilometers upstream burst through its ice dam to cause a massive flood on the Pho Chhu, damaging the dzong and taking 23 lives. By tradition, dzongs are constructed without the use of architectural plans. Instead construction proceeds under the direction of a high lama who establishes each dimension by means of spiritual inspiration. In previous times the dzongs were built using corvée labor, applied as a tax against each household in the district.
Under this obligation each family was to provide or hire a decreed number of workers to work for several months at a time in the construction of the dzong. Dzongs comprise heavy masonry curtain walls surrounding one or more courtyards; the main functional spaces are arranged in two separate areas: the administrative offices. This accommodation is arranged along the inside of the outer walls and as a separate stone tower located centrally within the courtyard, housing the main temple, that can be used as an inner defensible citadel; the main internal structures are again built with stone, whitewashed inside and out, with a broad red ochre band at the top on the outside. The larger spaces such as the temple have massive internal timber columns and beams to create galleries around an open central full height area. Smaller structures are of elaborately painted timber construction; the roofs are massively constructed in hardwood and bamboo decorated at the eaves, are constructed traditionally without the use of nails.
They are open at the eaves to provide a ventilated storage area. They were traditionally finished with timber shingles weighted down with stones; the roof of Tongsa Dzong, illustrated, is one of the few shingle roofs to survive and was being restored in 2006/7. The courtyards stone-flagged, are at a higher level than the outside and approached by massive staircases and narrow defensible entrances with large wooden doors. All doors have thresholds to discourage the entrance of spirits. Temples are set at a level above the courtyard with further staircases up to them. Larger modern buildings in Bhutan use the form and many of the external characteristics of dzong architecture in their construction, although incorporating modern techniques such as a concrete frame; the campus architecture of the University of Texas at El Paso is a rare example of dzong style seen outside the Himalayas. Initial phases were designed by El Paso architect Henry Tros
Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal