A spice is a seed, root, bark, or other plant substance used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food. Spices are distinguished from herbs, which are the leaves, flowers, or stems of plants used for flavoring or as a garnish. Many spices have antimicrobial properties; this may explain why spices are more used in warmer climates, which have more infectious diseases, why the use of spices is prominent in meat, susceptible to spoiling. Spices are sometimes used in religious rituals, cosmetics or perfume production; the spice trade developed throughout the Indian subcontinent and Middle East by at earliest 2000 BCE with cinnamon and black pepper, in East Asia with herbs and pepper. The Egyptians used herbs for mummification and their demand for exotic spices and herbs helped stimulate world trade; the word spice comes from the Old French word espice, which became epice, which came from the Latin root spec, the noun referring to "appearance, kind": species has the same root. By 1000 BCE, medical systems based upon herbs could be found in China and India.
Early uses were connected with magic, religion and preservation. Cloves were used in Mesopotamia by 1700 BCE; the ancient Indian epic Ramayana mentions cloves. The Romans had cloves in the 1st century CE; the earliest written records of spices come from ancient Egyptian and Indian cultures. The Ebers Papyrus from Early Egyptians that dates from 1550 B. C. E. Describes some eight hundred different medicinal remedies and numerous medicinal procedures. Historians believe that nutmeg, which originates from the Banda Islands in Southeast Asia, was introduced to Europe in the 6th century BCE. Indonesian merchants traveled around China, the Middle East, the east coast of Africa. Arab merchants facilitated the routes through India; this resulted in the Egyptian port city of Alexandria being the main trading center for spices. The most important discovery prior to the European spice trade were the monsoon winds. Sailing from Eastern spice cultivators to Western European consumers replaced the land-locked spice routes once facilitated by the Middle East Arab caravans.
In the story of Genesis, Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers to spice merchants. In the biblical poem Song of Solomon, the male speaker compares his beloved to many forms of spices. Spices were among the most demanded and expensive products available in Europe in the Middle Ages, the most common being black pepper, cumin, nutmeg and cloves. Given medieval medicine's main theory of humorism and herbs were indispensable to balance "humors" in food, a daily basis for good health at a time of recurrent pandemics. In addition to being desired by those using medieval medicine, the European elite craved spices in the Middle Ages. An example of the European aristocracy's demand for spice comes from the King of Aragon, who invested substantial resources into bringing back spices to Spain in the 12th century, he was looking for spices to put in wine, was not alone among European monarchs at the time to have such a desire for spice. Spices were all imported from plantations in Africa, which made them expensive.
From the 8th until the 15th century, the Republic of Venice had the monopoly on spice trade with the Middle East, along with it the neighboring Italian maritime republics and city-states. The trade made the region rich, it has been estimated that around 1,000 tons of pepper and 1,000 tons of the other common spices were imported into Western Europe each year during the Late Middle Ages. The value of these goods was the equivalent of a yearly supply of grain for 1.5 million people. The most exclusive was saffron, used as much for its vivid yellow-red color as for its flavor. Spices that have now fallen into obscurity in European cuisine include grains of paradise, a relative of cardamom which replaced pepper in late medieval north French cooking, long pepper, spikenard and cubeb. Spain and Portugal were interested in seeking new routes to trade in spices and other valuable products from Asia; the control of trade routes and the spice-producing regions were the main reasons that Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama sailed to India in 1499.
When Gama discovered the pepper market in India, he was able to secure peppers for a much cheaper price than the ones demanded by Venice. At around the same time, Christopher Columbus returned from the New World, he described to investors new spices available there. Another source of competition in the spice trade during the 15th and 16th century was the Ragusans from the maritime republic of Dubrovnik in southern Croatia; the military prowess of Afonso de Albuquerque allowed the Portuguese to take control of the sea routes to India. In 1506, he took the island of Socotra in the mouth of the Red Sea and, in 1507, Ormuz in the Persian Gulf. Since becoming the viceroy of the Indies, he took Goa in India in 1510, Malacca on the Malay peninsula in 1511; the Portuguese could now trade directly with Siam and the Maluku Islands. With the discovery of the New World came new spices, including allspice, chili peppers and chocolate; this development kept the spice trade, with America as a late comer with its new seasonings, profitable well into the 19th century.
One issue with spices today is dilution, where spices are blended to make inferior quality powdered spices, by including roots and other admixture in production of spice powder. A spice may be available in several forms: pre-ground dried. Spices are dried. Spices may be ground into a powder for c
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population in Asia, it is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize. Since sizable portions of sugarcane and maize crops are used for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one-fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown anywhere on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems.
Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide. The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings; this simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, deters vermin. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil; the name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia, both wild and domesticated, although the term may be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza. First used in English in the middle of the 13th century, the word "rice" derives from the Old French ris, which comes from the Italian riso, in turn from the Latin oriza, which derives from the Greek ὄρυζα.
The Greek word is the source of all European words. The origin of the Greek word is unclear, it is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word, or rather Old Tamil arici. However, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead. Mayrhofer suggests that the immediate source of the Greek word is to be sought in Old Iranian words of the types *vrīz- or *vrinj-, but these are traced back to Indo-Aryan. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar assumed that the Sanskrit vrīhí- is derived from the Tamil arici, while Ferdinand Kittel derived it from the Dravidian root variki; the rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long; the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. The varieties of rice are classified as long-, medium-, short-grained.
The grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking. Medium-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, for risotto in Italy, many rice dishes, such as arròs negre, in Spain; some varieties of long-grain rice that are high in amylopectin, known as Thai Sticky rice, are steamed. A stickier medium-grain rice is used for sushi. Medium-grain rice is used extensively in Japan, including to accompany savoury dishes, where it is served plain in a separate dish. Short-grain rice is used for rice pudding. Instant rice differs from parboiled rice in that it is cooked and dried, though there is a significant degradation in taste and texture. Rice flour and starch are used in batters and breadings to increase crispiness. Rice is rinsed before cooking to remove excess starch. Rice produced in the US is fortified with vitamins and minerals, rinsing will result in a loss of nutrients. Rice may be rinsed until the rinse water is clear to improve the texture and taste. Rice may be soaked to decrease cooking time, conserve fuel, minimize exposure to high temperature, reduce stickiness.
For some varieties, soaking improves the texture of the cooked rice by increasing expansion of the grains. Rice may be soaked for 30 minutes up to several hours. Brown rice may be soaked in warm water for 20 hours to stimulate germination; this process, called germinated brown rice, activates enzymes and enhances amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid to improve the nutritional value of brown rice. This method is a result of research carried out for the United Nations International Year of Rice. Rice is cooked by boiling or steaming, absorbs water during cooking. With the absorption method, rice may be cooked in a volume of water equal to the volume of dry rice- plus any evaporation losses. With the rapid-boil method, rice may be cooked in a large quantity of water, drained before serving. Rapid-boil preparation is not desirable with enriched rice, as much of the enrichment additives are l
Buckwheat, or common buckwheat, is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop. A related and more bitter species, Fagopyrum tataricum, is a domesticated food plant common in Asia and Central and Eastern Europe. Despite the name, buckwheat is not related to wheat. Instead, buckwheat is related to sorrel and rhubarb; because its seeds are rich in complex carbohydrates, it is referred to as a pseudocereal. The cultivation of buckwheat grain declined in the 20th century with the adoption of nitrogen fertilizer that increased the productivity of other staples; the name "buckwheat" or "beech wheat" comes from its triangular seeds, which resemble the much larger seeds of the beech nut from the beech tree, the fact that it is used like wheat. The word may be a translation of Middle Dutch boecweite: boec, "beech" and weite, wheat, or may be a native formation on the same model as the Dutch word; the wild ancestor of common buckwheat is F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale. F. homotropicum is interfertile with F. esculentum and the wild forms have a common distribution, in Yunnan, a southwestern province of China.
The wild ancestor of tartary buckwheat is F. tataricum ssp. potanini. Common buckwheat was domesticated and first cultivated in inland Southeast Asia around 6000 BCE, from there spread to Central Asia and Tibet, to the Middle East and Europe. Domestication most took place in the western Yunnan region of China; the oldest remains found in China so far date to circa 2600 BCE, while buckwheat pollen found in Japan dates from as early as 4000 BCE. It is the world's highest-elevation domesticate, being cultivated in Yunnan on the edge of the Tibetan Plateau or on the plateau itself. Buckwheat was one of the earliest crops introduced by Europeans to North America. Dispersal around the globe was complete by 2006, when a variety developed in Canada was planted in China. In India, buckwheat flour is known as kuttu ka atta and is culturally associated with the Navratri festival. On the day of this festival, food items made only from buckwheat are consumed. Buckwheat, a short-season crop, does well on low-fertility or acidic soils, but the soil must be well drained.
Too much fertilizer nitrogen, reduces yields. In hot climates it can be grown only by sowing late in the season, so that it blooms in cooler weather; the presence of pollinators increases the yield. The nectar from buckwheat flower makes a dark-colored honey. Buckwheat is sometimes used as a green manure, as a plant for erosion control, or as wildlife cover and feed; the plant has a branching root system with a primary taproot that reaches into moist soil. Buckwheat has triangular seeds and produces a flower, white, although can be pink or yellow. Buckwheat branches as opposed to tillering or producing suckers, causing a more complete adaption to its environment than other cereal crops; the seed hull density is less than that of water. Buckwheat is raised for grain where a short season is available, either because it is used as a second crop in the season, or because the climate is limiting. Buckwheat can be a reliable cover crop in summer to fit a small slot of warm season, it establishes which suppresses summer weeds.
Buckwheat has a growing period of only 10–12 weeks and it can be grown in high latitude or northern areas. It grows 30 to 50 inches tall. 71 -- 78 % in groats 70 -- 91 % in different types of flour Starch is 75 % amylopectin. Depending on hydrothermal treatment, buckwheat groats contain 7–37% of resistant starch. Crude protein is 18%, with biological values above 90%; this can be explained by a high concentration of all essential amino acids lysine, threonine and the sulphur-containing amino acids. Rich in iron and selenium 10–200 ppm of rutin, 0.1–2% of tannins and presence of catechin-7-O-glucoside in groats. Buckwheat contains 0.4 to 0.6 mg/g of fagopyrins Salicylaldehyde was identified as a characteristic component of buckwheat aroma. 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-furanone, -2,4-decadienal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, -2-nonenal and hexanal contribute to its aroma. They all have odour activity value more than 50, but the aroma of these substances in an isolated state does not resemble buckwheat.
In a 100-gram serving providing 343 calories dry and 92 calories cooked, buckwheat is a rich source of protein, dietary fiber, four B vitamins and several dietary minerals, with content high in niacin, magnesium and phosphorus. Buckwheat is 72 % carbohydrates, including 3 % fat and 13 % protein; as buckwheat contains no gluten, it may be eaten by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity or dermatitis herpetiformis. Buckwheat may have gluten contamination. Cases of severe allergic reactions to buckwheat and buckwheat-containing products have been reported. Buckwheat contains fluorescent phototoxic fagopyrins. Seeds and teas are safe when consumed in normal amounts, but fagopyrism can appear in people with diets based on high consumption of buckwheat sprouts, flowers or fagopyrin-rich buckwheat extracts. Symptoms of fagopyrism in humans may include skin inflammation in sunlight-exposed areas, cold sensitivity, tingling or numbness in the hands.
The fruit is an achene, similar to sunflower seed, with a single seed inside a hard outer hull. The starchy endosperm is white and makes
Leaf vegetables called leafy greens, salad greens, pot herbs, vegetable greens, or greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. Although they come from a wide variety of plants, most share a great deal with other leaf vegetables in nutrition and cooking methods. Nearly one thousand species of plants with edible leaves are known. Leaf vegetables most come from short-lived herbaceous plants, such as lettuce and spinach. Woody plants of various species provide edible leaves; the leaves of many fodder crops are edible for humans, but only eaten under famine conditions. Examples include; these plants are much more prolific than traditional leaf vegetables, but exploitation of their rich nutrition is difficult, due to their high fiber content. This can be overcome by further processing such as drying and grinding into powder or pulping and pressing for juice. Leaf vegetables contain many typical plant nutrients, but since they are photosynthetic tissues, their vitamin K levels are notable.
Phylloquinone, the most common form of the vitamin, is directly involved in photosynthesis. This causes leaf vegetables to be the primary food class that interacts with the anticoagulant warfarin. Leaf vegetables are low in calories and fat, high in protein per calorie, dietary fiber, vitamin C, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, folate and vitamin K; the vitamin K content of leaf vegetables is high, since these are photosynthetic tissues and phylloquinone is involved in photosynthesis. Accordingly, users of vitamin K antagonist medications, such as warfarin, must take special care to limit consumption of leaf vegetables. If leaves are cooked for food, they may be referred to as boiled greens. Leaf vegetables may be stir-fried, steamed, or consumed raw. Leaf vegetables stewed with pork is a traditional dish in soul food and Southern U. S. cuisine. They are commonly eaten in a variety of South Asian dishes such as saag. Leafy greens can be used to wrap other ingredients into an edible package in a manner similar to a tortilla.
Many green leafy vegetables, such as lettuce or spinach, can be eaten raw, for example in sandwiches or salads. A green smoothie enables large quantities of raw leafy greens to be consumed by blending the leaves with fruit and water. In certain countries of Africa, various species of nutritious amaranth are widely eaten boiled. Celosia argentea var. argentea or "Lagos spinach" is one of the main boiled greens in West African cuisine. In Greek cuisine, khorta are a common side dish, eaten hot or cold and seasoned with olive oil and lemon. At least 80 different kinds of greens are used, depending on the area and season, including black mustard, wild sorrel, fennel, kale, black nightshade, lamb's quarters, wild leeks, hoary mustard, smooth sow thistle and the fresh leaves of the caper plant. Preboggion, a mixture of different wild boiled greens, is used in Ligurian cuisine to stuff ravioli and pansoti. One of the main ingredients of preboggion are borage leaves. Preboggion is sometimes added to minestrone soup and frittata.
In the cuisine of the Southern United States and traditional African-American cuisine, collard, garden cress, dandelion and pokeweed greens are cooked, served with pieces of ham or bacon. The boiling water, called potlikker, is used as broth. Water in which pokeweed has been prepared contains toxins removed by the boiling, should be discarded. List of leaf vegetables Leaf protein concentrate Mesclun
Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world. Because of the Chinese diaspora and historical power of the country, Chinese cuisine has influenced many other cuisines in Asia, with modifications made to cater to local palates. Chinese food staples such as rice, soy sauce, noodles and tofu, utensils such as chopsticks and the wok, can now be found worldwide; the preference for seasoning and cooking techniques of Chinese provinces depend on differences in historical background and ethnic groups. Geographic features including mountains, rivers and deserts have a strong effect on the local available ingredients, considering that the climate of China varies from tropical in the south to subarctic in the northeast. Imperial and noble preference plays a role in the change of Chinese cuisines; because of imperial expansion and trading and cooking techniques from other cultures are integrated into Chinese cuisines over time.
The most praised "Four Major Cuisines" are Chuan, Lu, Yue and Huaiyang, representing West, North and East China cuisine correspondingly. The modern "Eight Cuisines" of China are Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang cuisines. Color and taste are the three traditional aspects used to describe Chinese food, as well as the meaning and nutrition of the food. Cooking should be appraised with respect to the ingredients used, cooking time and seasoning. Chinese society valued gastronomy, developed an extensive study of the subject based on its traditional medical beliefs. Chinese culture centered around the North China Plain; the first domesticated crops seem to have been the foxtail and broomcorn varieties of millet, while rice was cultivated in the south. By 2000 BC, wheat had arrived from western Asia; these grains were served as warm noodle soups instead of baked into bread as in Europe. Nobles hunted various wild game and consumed mutton and dog as these animals were domesticated. Grain was stored against famine and flood and meat was preserved with salt, vinegar and fermenting.
The flavor of the meat was enhanced by cooking it in animal fats though this practice was restricted to the wealthy. By the time of Confucius in the late Zhou, gastronomy had become a high art. Confucius discussed the principles of dining: "The rice would never be too white, the meat would never be too finely cut... When it was not cooked right, man would not eat; when it was cooked bad, man would not eat. When the meat was not cut properly, man would not eat; when the food was not prepared with the right sauce, man would not eat. Although there are plenty of meats, they should not be cooked more than staple food. There is no limit for alcohol, before a man gets drunk." During Shi Huangdi's Qin dynasty, the empire expanded into the south. By the time of the Han dynasty, the different regions and cuisines of China's people were linked by major canals and leading to a greater complexity in the different regional cuisines. Not only is food seen as giving "qi", but food is about maintaining yin and yang.
The philosophy behind it was rooted in the I Ching and Chinese traditional medicine: food was judged for color, aroma and texture and a good meal was expected to balance the Four Natures and the Five Tastes. Salt was used as a preservative from early times, but in cooking was added in the form of soy sauce, not at the table; the predominance of chopsticks and spoons as eating utensils necessitated that most food be prepared in bite-sized pieces or be so tender that it could be picked apart. By the Later Han period, writers complained of lazy aristocrats who did nothing but sit around all day eating smoked meats and roasts. During the Han dynasty, the Chinese developed methods of food preservation for military rations during campaigns such as drying meat into jerky and cooking and drying grain. Chinese legends claim that the roasted, flat bread shaobing was brought back from the Xiyu by the Han dynasty General Ban Chao, that it was known as hubing; the shaobing is believed to be descended from the hubing.
Shaobing is believed to be related to the Persian nan and Central Asian nan, as well as the Middle Eastern pita. Foreign westerners sold sesame cakes in China during the Tang dynasty. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties non-Han people like the Xianbei of Northern Wei introduced their cuisine to northern China, these influences continued up to the Tang dynasty, popularizing meat like mutton and dairy products like goat milk and Kumis among Han people, it was during the Song dynasty that Han Chinese developed an aversion to dairy products and abandoned the dairy foods introduced earlier. The Han Chinese rebel Wang Su who received asylum in the Xianbei Northern Wei after fleeing from Southern Qi, at first could not stand eating dairy products like goat's milk and meat like mutton and had to consume tea and fish instead, but after a few years he was able to eat yogurt and lamb, the Xianbei Emperor asked him which of the foods of China he preferred, fish vs mutton and tea vs yogurt; the great migration of Chinese people south during the invasions preceding and during the Song dynasty increased the relative importance of southern Chinese staples such as rice and congee.
Su Dongpo has improved the red brai
The domestic yak is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia. It is descended from the wild yak; the English word "yak" is a loan originating from Tibetan: Wylie: g.yag. In Tibetan and Balti it refers only to the male of the species, the female being called Tibetan: འབྲི་, Wylie:'bri, or g.nag Tibetan: གནག in Tibetan and Tibetan: ཧཡག་མོ་, Wylie: hYag-mo in Balti. In English, as in most other languages that have borrowed the word, "yak" is used for both sexes, with "bull" or "cow" referring to each sex separately. Yaks are therefore related to cattle. Mitochondrial DNA analyses to determine the evolutionary history of yaks have been inconclusive; the yak may have diverged from cattle at any point between one and five million years ago, there is some suggestion that it may be more related to bison than to the other members of its designated genus. Apparent close fossil relatives of the yak, such as Bos baikalensis, have been found in eastern Russia, suggesting a possible route by which yak-like ancestors of the modern American bison could have entered the Americas.
The species was designated as Bos grunniens by Linnaeus in 1766, but this name is now only considered to refer to the domesticated form of the animal, with Bos mutus being the preferred name for the wild species. Although some authors still consider the wild yak to be a subspecies, Bos grunniens mutus, the ICZN made an official ruling in 2003 permitting the use of the name Bos mutus for wild yaks, this is now the more common usage. Except where the wild yak is considered as a subspecies of Bos grunniens, there are no recognised subspecies of yak. Yaks are built animals with a bulky frame, sturdy legs, rounded cloven hooves, dense, long fur that hangs down lower than the belly. While wild yaks are dark, blackish to brown in colouration, domestic yaks can be quite variable in colour having patches of rusty brown and cream, they have small ears and a wide forehead, with smooth horns that are dark in colour. In males, the horns sweep out from the sides of the head, curve forward, they range from 48 to 99 cm in length.
The horns of females are smaller, only 27 to 64 cm in length, have a more upright shape. Both sexes have a short neck with a pronounced hump over the shoulders, although this is larger and more visible in males. Males weigh 350 to 585 kg, females weigh 225 to 255 kg. Wild yaks can be heavier, bulls reaching weights of up to 1,000 kilograms. Depending on the breed, domestic yak males are 111–138 centimetres high at the withers, while females are 105–117 centimetres high at the withers. Both sexes have long shaggy hair with a dense woolly undercoat over the chest and thighs to insulate them from the cold. In bulls, this may form a long "skirt" that can reach the ground; the tail is horselike rather than tufted like the tails of cattle or bison. Domesticated yaks have a wide range of coat colours, with some individuals being white, brown, roan or piebald; the udder in females and the scrotum in males are hairy, as protection against the cold. Females have four teats. Yaks grunt and, unlike cattle, are not known to produce the characteristic bovine lowing sound, which inspired the scientific name of the domestic yak variant, Bos grunniens.
Nikolay Przhevalsky named the wild variant Bos mutus. Yak physiology is well adapted to high altitudes, having larger lungs and heart than cattle found at lower altitudes, as well as greater capacity for transporting oxygen through their blood due to the persistence of foetal haemoglobin throughout life. Conversely, yaks have trouble thriving at lower altitudes, are prone to suffering from heat exhaustion above about 15 °C. Further adaptations to the cold include a thick layer of subcutaneous fat, an complete lack of functional sweat glands. Compared with domestic cattle, the rumen of yaks is unusually large, relative to the omasum; this allows them to consume greater quantities of low-quality food at a time, to ferment it longer so as to extract more nutrients. Yak consume the equivalent of 1% of their body weight daily while cattle require 3% to maintain condition. Contrary to popular belief and their manure have little to no detectable odour when maintained appropriately in pastures or paddocks with adequate access to forage and water.
Yak's wool is odour resistant. Yaks mate in the summer between July and September, depending on the local environment. For the remainder of the year, many bulls wander in small bachelor groups away from the large herds, but, as the rut approaches, they become aggressive and fight among each other to establish dominance. In addition to non-violent threat displays and scraping the ground with their horns, bull yaks compete more directly charging at each other with heads lowered or sparring with their horns. Like bison, but unlike cattle, males wallow in dry soil during the rut while scent-marking with urine or dung. Females enter oestrus up to four times a year, females are receptive only for a few hours in each cycle. Gestation lasts between 257 and 270 days, so that the young are born between May and June, results in the birth of a single calf; the cow finds a secluded spot to give birth, but the calf is able to walk within about ten minutes of birth
The turnip or white turnip is a root vegetable grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, fleshy taproot. The word turnip is a compound of tur- as in turned/rounded on a lathe and neep, derived from Latin napus, the word for the plant. Small, tender varieties are grown for human consumption, while larger varieties are grown as feed for livestock. In the north of England, Ireland and eastern Canada, turnip refers to rutabaga, a larger, yellow root vegetable in the same genus known as swede; the most common type of turnip is white-skinned apart from the upper 1–6 centimetres, which protrude above the ground and are purple or red or greenish where the sun has hit. This above-ground part is fused with the root; the interior flesh is white. The root is globular, from 5–20 centimetres in diameter, lacks side roots. Underneath, the taproot is 10 centimetres or more in length; the leaves grow directly from the above-ground shoulder of the root, with little or no visible crown or neck. Turnip leaves are sometimes eaten as "turnip greens", they resemble mustard greens in flavor.
Turnip greens are a common side dish in southeastern U. S. cooking during late fall and winter. Smaller leaves are preferred, but the bitter taste of larger leaves can be reduced by pouring off the water from the initial boiling and replacing it with fresh water. Varieties of turnip grown for their leaves resemble mustard greens and have small or no storage roots; these include rapini, bok choy, Chinese cabbage. Similar to raw cabbage or radish, turnip leaves and roots have a pungent flavor that becomes milder after cooking. Turnip roots weigh up to 1 kilogram, although they are harvested when smaller. Size is a function of variety and a function of the length of time the turnip has grown. Most small turnips are specialty varieties; these do not keep well. Most baby turnips can be eaten whole, including their leaves. Baby turnips are sold in yellow-, orange-, red-fleshed varieties, as well as white-fleshed, their flavor is mild, so they can be eaten raw in salads like radishes and other vegetables.
Boiled green leaves of the turnip top provide 20 calories in a 100 gram amount, are 93% water, 4% carbohydrates, 1% protein, with negligible fat. The boiled greens are a rich source of vitamin K, with vitamin A, vitamin C, folate in significant content. Boiled turnip greens contain substantial lutein. In a 100 gram reference amount, boiled turnip supplies 22 calories, with only vitamin C in a moderate amount. Other micronutrients in boiled turnip are in negligible content. Boiled turnip is 94% water, 5% carbohydrates, 1% protein, with negligible fat; some evidence shows the turnip was domesticated before the 15th century BC. The turnip was a well-established crop in Hellenistic and Roman times, which leads to the assumption that it was brought into cultivation earlier. Sappho, a Greek poet from the seventh century BC, calls one of her paramours Gongýla, "turnip". Zohary and Hopf note, however, "there are no archaeological records available" to help determine its earlier history and domestication.
Wild forms of the hot turnip and its relatives the mustards and radishes are found over west Asia and Europe, suggesting their domestication took place somewhere in that area. However and Hopf conclude, "Suggestions as to the origins of these plants are based on linguistic considerations." The 1881 Household Cyclopedia gives these instructions for field cultivation of turnips in the United States: The benefits derived from turnip husbandry are of great magnitude. The first ploughing is given after harvest, or as soon as the wheat seed is finished, either in length or across the field, as circumstances may seem to require. In this state the ground remains till the oat seed is finished, when a second ploughing is given to it in a contrary direction to the first, it is repeatedly harrowed rolled between the harrowings and every particle of root-weeds picked off with the hand. In this stage, if the ground has not been foul, the seed process; the next part of the process is the sowing of the seed.
A machine drawn by a horse in a pair of shafts, sows two drills at a time and answers well, where the ground is flat, the drills properly made up. The weight of the machine ensures a regularity of sowing hardly to be gained by those of a different size and construction. From two to three pounds of seed are sown upon the acre, though the smallest of these quantities will give