Androphilia and gynephilia
Androphilia and gynephilia are terms used in behavioral science to describe sexual orientation, as an alternative to a gender binary homosexual and heterosexual conceptualization. Androphilia describes sexual attraction to men or masculinity. Ambiphilia describes the combination of both androphilia and gynephilia in a given individual, or bisexuality; the terms are objectively used for identifying a person's object of attraction without attributing a sex assignment or gender identity to the person. This can avoid bias inherent in normative conceptualizations of human sexuality, avoid confusion and offense when describing people in non-western cultures, as well as when describing intersex and transgender people those who are nonbinary or otherwise falling outside the gender binary. In a discussion of homosexuality, sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld divided men into four groups: paedophiles, who are most attracted to prepubescent youth, who are most attracted to youths from puberty up to the early twenties.
According to Karen Franklin, Hirschfeld considered ephebophilia "common and nonpathological, with ephebophiles and androphiles each making up about 45% of the homosexual population."In his book Androphilia, A Manifesto: Rejecting the Gay Identity, Reclaiming Masculinity, Jack Donovan uses the term to emphasize masculinity in both the object and the subject of male homosexual desire and to reject the sexual nonconformity that he sees in some segments of the homosexual identity. The term androsexuality is used as a synonym for androphilia. Alternate uses in biology and medicineIn biology, androphilic is sometimes used as a synonym for anthropophilic, describing parasites who have a host preference for humans versus non-human animals. Androphilic is sometimes used to describe certain proteins and androgen receptors; the word appeared in ancient Greek. In Idyll 8, line 60, Theocritus uses γυναικοφίλιας as a euphemistic adjective to describe Zeus' lust for women. Sigmund Freud used the term gynecophilic to describe his case study Dora.
He used the term in correspondence. The variant spelling gynophilia is sometimes used; the term gynesexuality has been used as a synonym. Psychologist Nancy Chodorow proposed that the preoedipal moment of psychological and libidinal focus on the mother, which both boys and girls experience, should be called gynesexuality or matrisexuality for its exclusive focus on the mother. Following Hirschfeld and gynephilia are sometimes used in taxonomies which specify sexual interests based on age ranges, which John Money called chronophilia. In such schemes, sexual attraction to adults is called adultophilia. In this context and gynephilia are gendered variants meaning "attraction to adult males" and "attraction to adult females," respectively. Psychologist Dennis Howitt writes: Definition is an issue of theory, not classification, since classification implies a theory, no matter how rudimentary. Freund et al. used Latinesque words to classify sexual attraction along the dimensions of sex and age:Gynephilia.
Sexual interest in physically adult women Androphilia. Sexual interest in physically adult males The 9-item Gynephilia Scale was created to measure erotic interest in physically mature females, the 13-item Androphilia Scale was created to measure erotic interest in physically mature males; the scales were developed by Kurt Freund and Betty Steiner in 1982. They were modified by Ray Blanchard in 1985, as the Modified Androphilia-Gynephilia Index. Magnus Hirschfeld distinguished between gynephilic, androphilic and narcissistic or automonosexual gender-variant persons. Since some psychologists have proposed using homosexual transsexual and heterosexual transsexual or non-homosexual transsexual. Psychobiologist James D. Weinrich has described this split among psychologists: "The mf transsexuals who are attracted to men are in the lower left-hand corner of the XY table, in order to line them up with the ordinary homosexual men in the lower right. There are the mf transsexuals who are attracted to women."The use of homosexual transsexual and related terms have been applied to transgender people since the middle of the 20th century, though concerns about the terms have been voiced since then.
Harry Benjamin said in 1966:....it seems evident that the question "Is the transsexual homosexual?" must be answered "yes" and " no." "Yes," if his anatomy is considered. What would be the situation after corrective surgery has been performed and the sex anatomy now resembles that of a woman? Is the "new woman" still a homosexual man? "Yes," if pedantry and technicalities prevail. "No" if reason and common sense are applied and if the respective patient is treated as an individual and not as a rubber stamp. Many sources, including some supporters of the typology, criticize this choice of wording as confusing and degrading. Biologist Bruce Bagemihl writes "..the point of reference for "heterosexual" or "homosexual" orientation in this nomenclature is the individual's genetic sex prior to reassignment. These labels thereby ignore the individual's personal sense of gender identity taking precedence over biological sex, rather than the other way around." Bagemihl goes on to take issue with the way this terminology ma
Coming out of the closet shortened to coming out, is a metaphor for LGBT people's self-disclosure of their sexual orientation or of their gender identity. The term coming out can be used in various non-LGBT applications. Framed and debated as a privacy issue, coming out of the closet is described and experienced variously as a psychological process or journey. Author Steven Seidman writes that "it is the power of the closet to shape the core of an individual's life that has made homosexuality into a significant personal and political drama in twentieth-century America". American gender theorist Judith Butler argues that the process of "coming out" does not free gay people from oppression. Although they may feel free to act as themselves, the opacity involved in entering a non-heterosexual territory insinuates judgment upon their identity, she argues in Imitation and Gender Insubordination. Coming out of the closet is the source of other gay slang expressions related to voluntary disclosure or lack thereof.
LGBT people who have revealed or no longer conceal their sexual orientation or gender identity are out, i.e. LGBT. Oppositely, LGBT people who have yet to come out or have opted not to do so are labelled as closeted or being in the closet. Outing is the deliberate or accidental disclosure of an LGBT person's sexual orientation or gender identity, without their consent. By extension, outing oneself is self-disclosure. Glass closet means the open secret of when public figures' being LGBT is considered a accepted fact though they have not come out. In 1869, one hundred years before the Stonewall riots, the German homosexual rights advocate Karl Heinrich Ulrichs introduced the idea of self-disclosure as a means of emancipation. Claiming that invisibility was a major obstacle toward changing public opinion, he urged homosexual people to reveal their same-sex attractions. In his 1906 work, Das Sexualleben unserer Zeit in seinen Beziehungen zur modernen Kultur, Iwan Bloch, a German-Jewish physician, entreated elderly homosexuals to self-disclose to their family members and acquaintances.
In 1914, Magnus Hirschfeld revisited the topic in his major work The Homosexuality of Men and Women, discussing the social and legal potentials of several thousand homosexual men and women of rank revealing their sexual orientation to the police in order to influence legislators and public opinion. The first prominent American to reveal his homosexuality was the poet Robert Duncan. In 1944, using his own name in the anarchist magazine Politics, he wrote that homosexuals were an oppressed minority; the decidedly clandestine Mattachine Society, founded by Harry Hay and other veterans of the Wallace for President campaign in Los Angeles in 1950, moved into the public eye after Hal Call took over the group in San Francisco in 1953, with many gays emerging from the closet. In 1951, Donald Webster Cory published his landmark The Homosexual in America, exclaiming, "Society has handed me a mask to wear... Everywhere I go, at all times and before all sections of society, I pretend." Cory was a pseudonym, but his frank and subjective descriptions served as a stimulus to the emerging homosexual self-awareness and the nascent homophile movement.
In the 1960s, Frank Kameny came to the forefront of the struggle. Having been fired from his job as an astronomer for the Army Map service in 1957 for homosexual behavior, Kameny refused to go quietly, he fought his dismissal appealing it all the way to the U. S. Supreme Court; as a vocal leader of the growing movement, Kameny argued for unapologetic public actions. The cornerstone of his conviction was that, "we must instill in the homosexual community a sense of worth to the individual homosexual", which could only be achieved through campaigns led by homosexuals themselves. With the spread of consciousness raising in the late 1960s, coming out became a key strategy of the gay liberation movement to raise political consciousness to counter heterosexism and homophobia. At the same time and continuing into the 1980s, gay and lesbian social support discussion groups, some of which were called "coming-out groups", focused on sharing coming-out "stories" with the goal of reducing isolation and increasing LGBT visibility and pride.
The present-day expression "coming out" is understood to have originated in the early 20th century from an analogy that likens homosexuals' introduction into gay subculture to a débutante's coming-out party. This is a celebration for a young upper-class woman, making her début – her formal presentation to society – because she has reached adult age or has become eligible for marriage; as historian George Chauncey points out: Gay people in the pre-war years... did not speak of coming out of what we call the gay closet but rather of coming out into what they called homosexual society or the gay world, a world neither so small, nor so isolated, nor... so hidden as closet implies In fact, as Elizabeth Kennedy observes, "using the term'closet' to refer to" previous times such as "the 1920s and 1930s might be anachronistic". An article on coming out in the online encyclopedia glbtq.com states that sexologist Evelyn Hooker's observations introduced the use of "coming out" to the academic community in the 1950s.
The article continues by echoing Chauncey's observation that a subsequent shift in connotation occurred on. The pre-1950s focus was on entrance into "a
The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. They are considered to constitute the most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States. Gay Americans in the 1950s and 1960s faced an anti-gay legal system. Early homophile groups in the U. S. sought to prove that gay people could be assimilated into society, they favored non-confrontational education for homosexuals and heterosexuals alike. The last years of the 1960s, were contentious, as many social/political movements were active, including the civil rights movement, the counterculture of the 1960s, the anti–Vietnam War movement; these influences, along with the liberal environment of Greenwich Village, served as catalysts for the Stonewall riots. Few establishments welcomed gay people in the 1950s and 1960s.
Those that did were bars, although bar owners and managers were gay. At the time, the Stonewall Inn was owned by the Mafia, it catered to an assortment of patrons and was known to be popular among the poorest and most marginalized people in the gay community: drag queens, transgender people, effeminate young men, butch lesbians, male prostitutes, homeless youth. Police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, but officers lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn. Tensions between New York City police and gay residents of Greenwich Village erupted into more protests the next evening, again several nights later. Within weeks, Village residents organized into activist groups to concentrate efforts on establishing places for gays and lesbians to be open about their sexual orientation without fear of being arrested. After the Stonewall riots and lesbians in New York City faced gender, race and generational obstacles to becoming a cohesive community. Within six months, two gay activist organizations were formed in New York, concentrating on confrontational tactics, three newspapers were established to promote rights for gays and lesbians.
Within a few years, gay rights organizations were founded across the U. S. and the world. On June 28, 1970, the first gay pride marches took place in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago commemorating the anniversary of the riots. Similar marches were organized in other cities. Today, Gay Pride events are held annually throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots; the Stonewall National Monument was established at the site in 2016. As of 2017, plans were advancing by the State of New York to host the largest international LGBT pride celebration in 2019, known as Stonewall 50 / WorldPride, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. In New York City, the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events produced by Heritage of Pride will be enhanced through a partnership made with the I LOVE NY program's LGBT division and will include a welcome center during the weeks surrounding the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events, open to all. Additional commemorative arts and educational programing to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn will be taking place throughout the city and the world.
In addition to events requiring paid admission, a march open to the public is scheduled for June 30, 2019. Following the social upheaval of World War II, many people in the United States felt a fervent desire to "restore the prewar social order and hold off the forces of change", according to historian Barry Adam. Spurred by the national emphasis on anti-communism, Senator Joseph McCarthy conducted hearings searching for communists in the U. S. government, the U. S. Army, other government-funded agencies and institutions, leading to a national paranoia. Anarchists and other people deemed un-American and subversive were considered security risks. Homosexuals were included in this list by the U. S. State Department on the theory that they were susceptible to blackmail. In 1950, a Senate investigation chaired by Clyde R. Hoey noted in a report, "It is believed that those who engage in overt acts of perversion lack the emotional stability of normal persons", said all of the government's intelligence agencies "are in complete agreement that sex perverts in Government constitute security risks".
Between 1947 and 1950, 1,700 federal job applications were denied, 4,380 people were discharged from the military, 420 were fired from their government jobs for being suspected homosexuals. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation and police departments kept lists of known homosexuals, their favored establishments, friends. S. Post Office kept track of addresses. State and local governments followed suit: bars catering to homosexuals were shut down, their customers were arrested and exposed in newspapers. Cities performed "sweeps" to rid neighborhoods, parks and beaches of gay people, they outlawed the wearing of opposite gender clothes, universities expelled instructors suspected of being homosexual. In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association listed homosexuality in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual as a mental disorder. A large-scale study of homosexuality in 1962 was used to justify inclusion of the disorder as a supposed pathological hidden fear of the opposite sex caused by traumatic parent–child relationships.
This view was wide
Homosexual behavior in animals
Homosexual behavior in animals is sexual behavior among non-human species, interpreted as homosexual or bisexual. This may include same-sex sexual activity, affection, pair bonding, parenting among same-sex animal pairs. Research indicates that various forms of this are found in every major geographic region and every major animal group; the sexual behavior of non-human animals takes many different forms within the same species, though homosexual behavior is best known from social species. Scientists perceive homosexual behavior in animals to different degrees; the motivations for and implications of these behaviors have yet to be understood, since most species have yet to be studied. According to Bruce Bagemihl, the animal kingdom engages in homosexual behavior "with much greater sexual diversity – including homosexual and nonreproductive sex – than the scientific community and society at large have been willing to accept." Bagemihl adds, that this is "necessarily an account of human interpretations of these phenomena".
Simon LeVay introduced caveat that "lthough homosexual behavior is common in the animal world, it seems to be uncommon that individual animals have a long-lasting predisposition to engage in such behavior to the exclusion of heterosexual activities. Thus, a homosexual orientation, if one can speak of such thing in animals, seems to be a rarity." One species in which exclusive homosexual orientation occurs, however, is that of domesticated sheep. "About 10% of rams, refuse to mate with ewes but do mate with other rams."According to Bagemihl, same-sex behavior has been documented in over 450 species of animals worldwide. The term homosexual was coined by Karl-Maria Kertbeny in 1868 to describe same-sex sexual attraction and sexual behavior in humans, its use in animal studies has been controversial for two main reasons: animal sexuality and motivating factors have been and remain poorly understood, the term has strong cultural implications in western society that are irrelevant for species other than humans.
Thus homosexual behavior has been given a number of terms over the years. According to Bruce Bagemihl, when describing animals, the term homosexual is preferred over gay and other terms in use, as these are seen as more bound to human homosexuality. Bailey et al. says: "Homosexual: in animals, this has been used to refer to same-sex behavior, not sexual in character, same-sex courtship or copulatory behavior occurring over a short period of time or long-term pair bonds between same-sex partners that might involve any combination of courting, copulating and affectional behaviors. In humans, the term is used to describe individual sexual behaviors as well as long-term relationships, but in some usages connotes a gay or lesbian social identity. Scientific writing would benefit from reserving this anthropomorphic term for humans and not using it to describe behavior in other animals, because of its rooted context in human society". Animal preference and motivation is always inferred from behavior.
In wild animals, researchers will as a rule not be able to map the entire life of an individual, must infer from frequency of single observations of behavior. The correct usage of the term homosexual is that an animal exhibits homosexual behavior or same-sex sexual behavior. In most instances, it is presumed that the homosexual behavior is but part of the animal's overall sexual behavioral repertoire, making the animal "bisexual" rather than "homosexual" as the terms are understood in humans, but cases of homosexual preference and exclusive homosexual pairs are known. The observation of homosexual behavior in animals can be seen as both an argument for and against the acceptance of homosexuality in humans, has been used against the claim that it is a peccatum contra naturam. For instance, homosexuality in animals was cited by the American Psychiatric Association and other groups in their amici curiae brief to the United States Supreme Court in Lawrence v. Texas, which struck down the sodomy laws of 14 states.
A majority of the research available concerning homosexual behavior in animals lacks specification between animals that exhibit same-sex tendencies and those that participate in heterosexual and homosexual mating activities interchangeably. This lack of distinction has led to differing opinions and conflicting interpretations of collected data amongst scientists and researchers. For instance, Bruce Bagemihl, author of the book Biological Exuberence: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity, emphasizes that there are no anatomical or endocrinological differences between homosexual and heterosexual animal pairs. However, if the definition of "homosexual behavior" is made to include animals that participate in both same-sex and opposite-sex mating activities, hormonal differences have been documented among key sex hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol, when compared to those who participate in heterosexual mating. Many of the animals used in laboratory-based studies of homosexuality do not appear to spontaneously exhibit these tendencies in the wild.
Such behavior is elicited and exaggerated by the researcher during experimentation through