click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bianor

Bianor is a genus of boreal jumping spiders that can grow to 3 and 4 mm. The robust shiny body and northerly distribution are distinctive. Males can be recognized by his swollen forelegs and females have orange legs, it was first described by George and Elizabeth Peckham in 1886, who names it after the mythical son of Hercules. As of April 2019 it contains twenty-eight species: Bianor albobimaculatus — Africa, Mediterranean to Russia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia, India Bianor angulosus — India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia Bianor balius Thorell, 1890 — India, Sri Lanka, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Kiribati Bianor biguttatus Wesolowska & van Harten, 2002 — Yemen Bianor biocellosus Simon, 1902 — Brazil Bianor compactus — New Zealand Bianor concolor — Australia Bianor diversipes Simon, 1901 — Malaysia Bianor eximius Wesolowska & Haddad, 2009 — Zimbabwe, South Africa Bianor fasciatus Mello-Leitão, 1922 — Brazil Bianor hongkong Song, Zhu & Wu, 1997 — China Bianor kovaczi Logunov, 2001 — Ivory Coast, Botswana Bianor maculatus — Australia, New Zealand Bianor monster Zabka, 1985 — Vietnam Bianor murphyi Logunov, 2001 — Kenya Bianor narmadaensis — India Bianor nexilis Jastrzebski, 2007 — Bhutan Bianor pashanensis — India Bianor paulyi Logunov, 2009 — Madagascar, Comoros Bianor piratus Sen, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2015 — India Bianor pseudomaculatus Logunov, 2001 — India, Cambodia, Vietnam Bianor punjabicus Logunov, 2001 — Afghanistan, India Bianor quadrimaculatus — Namibia Bianor senegalensis Logunov, 2001 — Senegal Bianor simplex — Cape Verde Is.

Bianor tortus Jastrzebski, 2007 — India, Nepal Bianor vitiensis Berry, Beatty & Prószyński, 1996 — Fiji Bianor wunderlichi Logunov, 2001 — Canary Is. Azores Logunov, D. V.: A redefinition of the genera Bianor Peckham & Peckham, 1885 and Harmochirus Simon, 1885, with the establishment of a new genus Sibianor gen. N.. Arthropoda Selecta 9: 221-286. Photograph of B. albobimaculatus

Ettelbruck

Ettelbruck is a commune with town status in central Luxembourg, with a population of 8,926 inhabitants, as of 2019. The towns of Warken and Grentzingen are within the commune; until 1850, both Erpeldange and Schieren were part of the Ettelbruck commune as well, but both towns were detached from Ettelbruck by law on 1 July 1850. Germany occupied Ettelbruck on 10 May 1940. US forces first liberated the town on 11 September 1944 but Germany retook the town on 16 December 1944 during the Battle of the Bulge. US General George S. Patton on Christmas Day, 25 December 1944, led US troops in the final liberation of Ettelbruck from Nazi occupation. One of Ettelbruck's main squares is named Patton Square, is located at the exact spot where the German offensive into Luxembourg's Alzette Valley was stopped, ending its attempt to reoccupy the country as a whole. Since 1954, the town has held a Remembrance Day celebration each July honoring General Patton and the US, French and Luxembourgish troops who fought with him there.

Ettelbruck is one of the 12 communes of the canton of Diekirch, part of the district of Diekirch. Governmentally, the Ettelbruck communal council serves as the commune's local council; the council consists of thirteen members, elected every six years. Ettelbruck lies at the exact spot where three rivers meet: the Wark and the Alzette; this location has made Ettelbruck a major transportation hub for the country second only to the city of Luxembourg. Ettelbruck serves as a junction, where the line to Diekirch branches off the main line Luxembourg – Liège. State-owned railway company; the station is on Line 10, which connects Luxembourg City to central and northern Luxembourg towards Gouvy and Wiltz, with a branch line connecting to Diekirch. The A7 motorway, known as the Motorway of the North, runs through Ettelbruck; the General George S. Patton Memorial Museum in Ettelbruck honors the general who liberated the town; the museum exhibits photographs, uniforms and documents from the period of German occupation of Luxembourg.

The museum represents a main tourist attraction in the town. The Ettelbruck parish church—D' Kierch Ettelbréck—is a decagonal structure. Restored in 1849, the church contains tombstones dating as far back to the 15th century. Ettelbruck since 1917 has been the home of the football team FC Etzella Ettelbruck; the team plays in Ettelbruck's football stadium Stade Am Deich which has capacity of about 2,000. Ettelbruck is a medical center for northern Luxembourg, as it is home to the Central Hospice, now the location of the Ettelbruck Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital with 500 beds. Lucien Wercollier's marble sculpture La Vague is located in Ettelbruck on the grounds of the CHNP; the New Saint Louis Hospital was renovated and reopened as a state of the art medical facility in 2003 on the site of the earlier Charles Marx Clinic and Saint Louis Clinic. The original clinic was founded by Dr. Charles Marx in 1936; the Saint Louis Clinic became a point of resistance preceding the Nazi occupation, when its founder Charles Marx treated downed French airmen in April, 1940.

Following the occupation of Luxembourg, Marx fled to France. Following the Nazi occupation, Marx was jailed for treating the airmen. In 1946, following liberation and Marx's accidental death in that year, the clinic was renamed as the Charles Marx Clinic to honor him. In 1963, the clinic was renamed the New Saint Louis Clinic when it was revamped and modernized, becoming the New Saint Louis Hospital in 2003. Ettelbruck is an educational center for the north of the country, it is home to the State Agricultural School. Ettelbruck is the location of the vocational school of Lycée Technique Ettelbruck. Ons Heemecht, the national anthem of Luxembourg, was first sung publicly in Ettelbruck on 5 June 1864. Both the Alzette and Sauer rivers are named in the song, since Ettelbruck is located at the point where they both meet, the location was appropriate for its public introduction. Charles Marx physician and World War II resistance leader Pierre Joris a Luxembourg-American poet, translator and essayist.

Bady Minck a filmmaker, film producer and artistSportErny Putz a Luxembourgian fencer, competed at the 1948 Summer Olympics Eddi Gutenkauf a Luxembourgian fencer, competed at the 1960 Summer Olympics Erny Schweitzer a Luxembourgian former swimmer, competed at the 1960 Summer Olympics Ni Xialian a female Chinese-born table tennis player who resides in Ettelbruck. Luc Holtz a former Luxembourgish football player, manager of the Luxembourg national football team Yves Clausse a Luxembourgian swimmer, competed at the 1988 and 1992 Summer Olympics Daniel da Mota a Luxembourgish footballer, over 350 pro games and 91 for the national side Laurent Carnol a Luxembourgish breaststroke swimmer, competed in the 2008 2012 and 2016 Summer OlympicsPoliticiansErnest Mühlen a Luxembourgish politician and financial journalist Lucien Weiler a Luxembourgian politician and jurist Charles Goerens a Luxemb

Typhoon Billie (1959)

Typhoon Billie was the first typhoon monitored by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The storm brought floods to several East Asian countries in July 1959. Billie developed from a tropical disturbance west of Kiribati on July 12. Situated within favorable conditions, the system reached tropical storm intensity before strengthening further to typhoon status a day after formation. Intensification continued until Billie reached its peak intensity on July 14 east of Taiwan with maximum sustained winds of 165 km/h and a minimum barometric pressure of 970 mbar. Slight weakening occurred before the typhoon made landfall on Zhejiang in China on July 16. After tracking inland, Billie curved northward and moved over the Yellow Sea before making a final landfall on North Korea on July 17; the rainbands of Billie brought severe flooding to the Philippines and Japan while the typhoon's center was well removed from those locations. In the Philippines, one person was killed, the flood damage totaled US$500,000.

Floods were destructive in Japan, where they destroyed 603 homes in the western portion of the country. Swaths of crops were inundated by the floodwaters, 44 people were killed. Extensive flooding occurred in Taiwan and China, seven deaths occurred in the former. In Busan, South Korea, Billie's effects forced the evacuation of thousands of people through tight corridors from a stadium, causing the indirect deaths of 61 people. Beginning on July 9, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center began dispatching aircraft reconnaissance to investigate an area of thunderstorms between Yap State and Koror that had potential to develop into a tropical cyclone. Tracking westward, there were few signs of organization or intensification until July 12, when recon found a closed atmospheric circulation within the disturbance, signifying that a tropical depression had developed. Upon development, observations indicated that the system was developing in favorable conditions, with initial reconnaissance flights finding a loose eye measuring 160 km in diameter shortly after classification as a tropical depression.

Twelve hours the JTWC upgraded the cyclone to tropical storm status, assigning the name Billie. At 1200 UTC on July 13, the JTWC upgraded Billie further to typhoon status, making Billie the first tropical cyclone to be monitored by the JTWC since its inception earlier in 1959. Now tracking towards the northwest, the typhoon reached its peak intensity at 1200 UTC the next day with maximum sustained winds of 165 km/h according to the JTWC and a minimum barometric pressure assessed by the Japan Meteorological Agency at 970 mbar. By this time Billie's eye had shrunk to a size 50 km in diameter. At 0900 UTC on July 15, Billie passed just 30 km north of Taiwan. Upon tracking inland on July 16, interaction with China's mountainous terrain disrupted the organization of Billie, weakening it down to tropical storm intensity. However, the tropical cyclone's stint over land was short-lived as the system curved northward into the Yellow Sea by July 17. Despite moving back over water, Billie continued to weaken, made landfall on the western coast of North Korea with winds of 75 km/h.

Over the Korean peninsula, Billie began to intake cold air from a polar front, enabling the system to transition into an extratropical cyclone by 1800 UTC that day. These remnants tracked eastward across the Sea of Japan before they were last noted just off of Hokkaido on July 18; as Billie tracked to the east of the Philippines, the outer rainbands of the tropical cyclone produced heavy rainfall to the archipelago, the Ryukyu Islands, the main islands of Japan. In the Philippines, the rains triggered floods that led to the death of one person and US$500,000 in damage. About 100 people were displaced on the islands due to the rainfall; the Japanese freighter Bansei Maru was grounded on a reef off of Ishigaki Island due to the rough surf and winds caused by the passing typhoon, necessitating a rescue operation by three United States Navy ships. On the island, 16 homes were destroyed and 49 were damaged. Inundation of crops was prevalent. Flooding from Billie was destructive in areas of Japan west of the Chūbu region, destroying 603 homes and inundating 77,288 others.

325 km2 of farmland was impacted by the rains. Across Japan, 44 people were killed and 77 were injured. In northern Taiwan, Billie caused widespread flash flooding, displacing thousands of people and resulting in extensive damage. One-third of Taipei was inundated by floodwaters, hospital patients were forced to evacuate to Okinawa after a Military Assistance Advisory Group compound was impacted by the heavy rains. Over 10,000 people were rendered homeless in Taipei alone after the city's shanty-type dwellings along with well-built residences were destroyed. In total, the effects of Billie in Taiwan killed seven people. Extensive flooding occurred in nearby eastern China, inundating rice fields. In order to avoid the storm, thousands of fishermen sought shelter in local harbors. Cleanup and relief operations ensued following the storm's passage. Storms accompanying Billie and its remnants brought heavy rains and strong winds to South Korea, knocking out police telephone lines in Busan; the sudden onslaught of these storms caused a stampede of 70,000 people out of a stadium, resulting in the indirect deaths of 68 people, includi

Modified universalism

Modified universalism or modified universality is a legal concept relating to the general principle that in relation to corporate insolvency national courts should strive to administer the estate of insolvent companies in the spirit of international comity. The broad concept is that it is desirable for cross-border insolvencies to be managed by a single officeholder as a single estate rather than a series of piecemeal and unconnected proceedings in different countries, that this should be recognised globally. In practice, whilst many countries will recognise foreign bankruptcy proceedings, in many instances the courts have set some limits on the recognition of insolvency proceedings, such that the courts apply this principle of modified universality whereby the courts retain a discretion to assess whether the overseas proceedings are consistent with their own principles of justice and public policy. But, subject to that safeguard, the courts will defer to the proceedings which are regarded as the "main proceedings" for the purposes of getting in and distributing assets of the insolvent company.

The principal is referred as to modified universalism in that it strives to find a balance between purely territorial bankruptcy systems, universal international bankruptcy system. Credit for the invention of the modern term is given to Professor Jay Westbrook; the concept of modified universalism broadly underpins the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency, the EC Insolvency Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings. Chapter 15 of the US Bankruptcy Code is predicated on the concept of modified universalism, he United States in ancillary bankruptcy cases has embraced an approach to international insolvency, a modified form of universalism accepting the central premise of universalism, that is, that assets should be collected and distributed on a worldwide basis, but reserving to local courts discretion to evaluate the fairness of home country procedures and to protect the interests of local creditors. The concepts of universalism and modified universalism have, predictably and evolved over time.

In English law the concept of universalism is used in contrast to the alternative theory of judicial cooperation in cross-border insolvencies referred to as the doctrine of unity. As has been judicially noted: "The meaning of the expression'universalism' has undergone a change since the time it was first used in the 19th century, it came to be contrasted with the'doctrine of unity.' In 1834 Story referred to the theory that assignments under bankrupt or insolvent laws were, ought to be, of universal operation to transfer movable property, in whatever country it might be situate, concluded that there was great wisdom in adopting the rule that an assignment in bankruptcy should operate as a complete and valid transfer of all his movable property abroad, as well as at home, for a country to prefer an attaching domestic creditor to a foreign assignee or to foreign creditors could'hardly be deemed consistent with the general comity of nations... he true rule is, to follow out the lead of the general principle that makes the law of the owner's domicil conclusive upon the disposition of his personal property,' citing Solomons v Ross as supporting that doctrine: Story, Commentaries on the Conflict of Laws, 1st ed, pp 340-341, para 406."

A number of countries throughout the world have sought to apply some form of modified universalism through passing statutes or other forms of codified laws. As noted above, US bankruptcy law implements the principles of modified universalism in the adoption of the UNCITRAL Model Law in Chapter 15. In the United Kingdom the same UNCITRAL Model Law has been implemented by way of the Cross-Border Insolvency Regulations 2006. In addition to the United States and the United Kingdom 17 other countries have adopted cross-border insolvency laws modelled on the UNCITRAL Model Law, including Canada and Australia. In the other member states of the European Union, a variation of the doctrine applies under the auspices of EC Insolvency Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings. In other jurisdictions various forms of ad hoc cross-border cooperation exist on the basis of a foreign main proceeding. Under the common law the main proponent of the concept in recent times has been Lord Hoffman. In HIH 1 WLR 852 he said: The primary rule of private international law which seems to me applicable to this case is the principle of universalism, the golden thread running through English cross-border insolvency law since the 18th century.

That principle requires that English courts should, so far as is consistent with justice and UK public policy, co-operate with the courts in the country of the principal liquidation to ensure that all the company's assets are distributed to its creditors under a single system of distribution. That is the purpose of the power to direct remittal; the concept of some form of universalism is not a modern innovation. In English law in cases as ancient as Solomons v Ross 1 H Bl 131n and Re African Farms 1906 TS 373 there has been tacit recognition of the principle. In Galbraith v Grimshaw AC 508 Lord Dunedin stated that there should be only one universal process of the distribution of a bankrupt's property and that, where such a process was pending elsewhere, the English courts should not allow steps to be taken in its jurisdiction which would interfere with that process. However, bankrup

SeirĊ, Niigata

Seirō is a town located in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 July 2019, the town had an estimated population of 14,025 in 4715 households, a population density of 373 persons per km²; the total area of the town was 37.58 square kilometres. Seirō is located in central Niigata Prefecture, sandwiched between the cities of Niigata and Shibata, with a small coastline on the Sea of Japan. Niigata Prefecture Kita-ku, Niigata Shibata Seirō has a Humid climate characterized by warm, wet summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall; the average annual temperature in Seirō is 13.1 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1940 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 26.3 °C, lowest in January, at around 1.5 °C. Per Japanese census data, the population of Seirō has grown over the past 40 years; the area of present-day Seirō was part of ancient Echigo Province. After the Meiji restoration, the area was organized as part of Niigata; the village of Seirō was established on April 1, 1889 with the creation of the modern municipalities system.

It was raised to town status in August 1977. The local economy was dependent on commercial fishing, but is now dominated by industry, notably the production of precision components and food processing; the Higashi-Niigata Thermal Power Station, a large fossil-fuel thermal power station operated by Tohoku Electric, is located in Seirō. The Port of Niigata is a major employer. Seirō has three public elementary schools and one public middle school operated by the town government; the town does not have a high school. Seirō is not served by an passenger train routes. Nihonkai-Tōhoku Expressway National Route 7 National Route 113 Media related to Seirō, Niigata at Wikimedia Commons Official Website

Chinookan peoples

Chinookan peoples include several groups of indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest in the United States who speak the Chinookan languages. Chinookan-speaking peoples reside along the Lower and Middle Columbia River from the river's gorge downstream to the river's mouth, along adjacent portions of the coasts, from Tillamook Head of present-day Oregon in the south, north to Willapa Bay in southwest Washington. In 1805 the Lewis and Clark Expedition encountered the Chinook Tribe on the lower Columbia. There are several theories about; some say it is a Chehalis word Tsinúk for the inhabitants of and a particular village site on Baker Bay, or "Fish Eaters". It may be a word meaning "strong fighters"; some Chinookan speaking people are part of several federally recognized Tribes: the Yakama Nation, the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde, Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians. The Chinook Indian Nation, consisting of the five western most Tribes of Chinookan peoples, Lower Chinook, Willapa and Kathlamet is working to obtain federal recognition.

The Chinook Nation gained Federal Recognition in 2001 from the Department of Interior under President Bill Clinton. After President George W. Bush was elected, his political appointees reviewed the case and, in a unusual action, revoked the recognition; the Chinook Nation sought Congressional support for recognition by the legislature in 2008 with a Bill Introduced by Brian Baird. The Bill died in Congress; the unrecognized Tchinouk Indians of Oregon trace their Chinook ancestry to two Chinook women who married French Canadians traders from the Hudson's Bay Company prior to 1830. The specific Chinook band these women were from or if they were Lower or Upper Chinook could not be determined; these individuals, settled in the French Prairie region of northwestern Oregon, becoming part of the community of French-Canadians and Métis. There is no evidence; the Chinook Indian Nation denied that the Tchinouk had any common history with them or any organizational affiliation. On January 16, 1986, the Bureau of Indian Affairs determined that the Tchinouk Indians of Oregon do not meet the requirements necessary to be a federally recognized tribe.

The unrecognized Clatsop-Nehalem Confederate Tribes was formed in 2000. The Clatsop-Nehalem have 130 members and claim to have Chinookan and Salish-speaking Tillamook ancestry; this is contested by the Chinook Indian Nation. The Indian Claims Commission, Docket 234, found, in 1957, that the Clatsop Chinooks were part of the Chinook Indian Nation; the Indian Claims Commission found in Docket 240, 1962, that the Nehalem people were part of the Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians. The Chinookan peoples were settled and occupied traditional tribal geographic areas, where they hunted and fished; the women gathered and processed many nuts, seeds and other foods. They had a society marked by social stratification, consisting of a number of distinct social castes of greater or lesser status. Upper castes included shamans and successful traders, they composed a minority of the community population compared to common members. Members of the superior castes are said to have practiced social discrimination, limiting contact with commoners and forbidding play between the children of the different social groups.

Some Chinookan peoples practiced slavery, a practice borrowed from the northernmost tribes of the Pacific Northwest. They took slaves as captives in warfare, used them to practice thievery on behalf of their masters; the latter refrained from such practices as unworthy of high status. The elite of some Chinookan tribes had the practice of head binding, flattening their children's forehead and top of the skull as a mark of social status, they bound the infant's head under pressure between boards when the infant was about 3 months old and continued until the child was about one year of age. This custom was a means of marking social hierarchy; those with flattened skulls refused to enslave other persons who were marked, thereby reinforcing the association of a round head with servility. The Chinook were known colloquially by early white explorers in the region as "Flathead Indians." Living near the coast of the Pacific Ocean, the Chinook were skilled elk fishermen. The most popular fish was salmon.

Owing to their settled living patterns, the Chinook and other coastal tribes had little conflict over land, as they did not migrate through each other's territories and they had rich resources in the natural environment. In the manner of numerous settled tribes, the Chinook resided in long houses. More than fifty people, related through extended kinship resided in one long house, their long houses were made of planks made from red cedar trees. The houses were 50-150 feet long; the Chinook peoples have long had a community on the lower Columbia River. They re-organized in the 20th century, setting up an elected form of government and reviving tribal culture, they first sought recognition as a federally recognized sovereign tribe in the late 20th century, as this would provide certain benefits for education and welfare. The Department of Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs rejected their application in 1997. Since the late 20th century, the Chinook