Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy and speed in shooting, using various types of ranged weapons referring to man-portable guns and bows/crossbows. Different disciplines of shooting sports can be categorized by equipment, shooting distances, time limits and degrees of athleticism involved. Shooting sports may involve both team and individual competition, team performance is assessed by summing the scores of the individual team members. Due to the noise of shooting and the high impact energy of the projectiles, shooting sports are conducted at either designated permanent shooting ranges or temporary shooting fields in the area away from settlements; the National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom was founded in 1860 to raise the funds for an annual national rifle meeting "for the encouragement of Volunteer Rifle Corps and the promotion of Rifle-shooting throughout Great Britain". For similar reasons, concerned over poor marksmanship during the American Civil War, veteran Union officers Col. William C.
Church and Gen. George Wingate formed the National Rifle Association of America in 1871 for the purpose of promoting and encouraging rifle shooting on a "scientific" basis. In 1872, with financial help from New York state, a site on Long Island, the Creed Farm, was purchased for the purpose of building a rifle range. Named Creedmoor, the range opened in 1872, became the site of the first National Matches until New York politics forced the NRA to move the matches to Sea Girt, New Jersey; the popularity of the National Matches soon forced the event to be moved to its present, much larger location: Camp Perry. In 1903, the U. S. Congress created the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice, an advisory board to the Secretary of the Army, with a nearly identical charter to the NRA; the NBPRP participates in the National Matches at Camp Perry. In 1903, the NRA began to establish rifle clubs at all major colleges and military academies. By 1906, youth programs were in full swing with more than 200 boys competing in the National Matches.
Today, more than one million youth participate in shooting sports events and affiliated programs through groups such as 4-H, the Boy Scouts of America, the American Legion, U. S. Jaycees, NCAA, The USA High School Clay Target League, the Scholastic Clay Target Program, National Guard Bureau, ROTC, JROTC. French pistol champion and founder of the modern Olympics, Pierre de Coubertin, participated in many of these early competitions; this fact contributed to the inclusion of five shooting events in the 1896 Olympics. Over the years, the events have been changed a number of times in order to keep up with technology and social standards; the targets that resembled humans or animals in their shape and size have are now a circular shape in order to avoid associating the sport with any form of violence. At the same time, some events have been dropped and new ones have been added; the 2004 Olympics featured three shooting disciplines where athletes competed for 51 medals in 10 men's and 7 women's events—slightly fewer than the previous Olympic schedule.
In the Olympic Games, the shooting sport has always enjoyed the distinction of awarding the first medals of the Games. Internationally, the International Shooting Sport Federation has oversight of all Olympic shooting events worldwide, while National Governing Bodies administer the sport within each country. Having established shooting as an organized sport in the US, the NRA was the obvious choice to administer the United States participation in the Olympic games; the NRA dutifully managed and financially supported international and conventional shooting sports for over 100 years until the formation of USA Shooting. Gun shooting sports are shot with either firearms or air guns, which can be either handguns, rifles and/or shotguns. Handguns are handheld small arms designed to be shot off-hand without needing a shoulder stock; the two main subtypes of handguns are revolvers. They are much more convenient to carry in general, but have a shorter effective range and less accuracy compared to long guns such as rifles.
In shooting sports and semi-automatic pistols are the most used. A rifle is a long gun with a rifled barrel, requires the use of both hands to hold and brace against the shoulder via a stock in order to shoot steadily, they have a longer range and greater accuracy than handguns, are popular for hunting. In shooting sports, bolt action or semi-automatic rifles are the most used. A shotgun is similar to a rifle but smoothbore and larger in caliber, fires either a shell containing many smaller scattering sub-projectiles called shots, or a single large projectile called a slug. In shooting sports, shotguns are more over/under-type break action or semi-automatic shotguns, the majority of shotgun events are included in clay pigeon shooting. Bullseye shooting is a category of pistol and rifle shooting disciplines where the objective is to achieve as many points as possible by hitting a round shooting target as close to the middle as possible with slow precision fire; these disciplines place a large emphasis on precision and accuracy through sight picture and trigger control.
Fixed and long time limits give the competitors time to concentrate for a perfect shot. An example of bullseye shooting is the ISSF pistol and rifle disciplines, but there are many other national and interna
Frank Luck is a former German and, before 1990, East German biathlete. Luck started early with cross-country skiing. By 1988 at the age of 21 he had qualified for the Winter Olympics in Calgary, where he finished sixth in the sprint event, his big breakthrough came with the 10 km sprint world title in 1989. Having competed for the East German team, by 1991, Germany had unified and Luck was now competing for the combined Germany team; because of illness he missed the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, but at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer he won the gold medal with the German relay team which he repeated four years at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. During his seventeen-year career, Luck won eleven world championship gold medal with the last one in the relay in 2004 at Oberhof where he retired as a biathlete after this event. With five silver and three bronze medals he is one of the most successful world championship competitors of all time. Luck won three times at the Holmenkollen ski festival biathlon competition with two wins in the pursuit and one win in the sprint.
He is the Brother-in-law to his one-time teammate Sven Fischer. In April 2009, Luck, on the German TV show Sport Inside, acknowledged having unwittingly been given the anabolic steroid Oral Turinabol by his trainer in the 1980s. All results are sourced from the International Biathlon Union. 5 medals *Pursuit was added as an event in 2002. 20 medals *During Olympic seasons competitions are only held for those events not included in the Olympic program. **Team was removed as an event in 1998, pursuit was added in 1997 with mass start being added in 1999. 12 victories *Results are from UIPMB and IBU races which include the Biathlon World Cup, Biathlon World Championships and the Winter Olympic Games. Official website Frank Luck at the International Biathlon Union
Ricco Groß is a former German biathlete whose exploits made him one of the most successful biathletes of all time at the Winter Olympics and the World Championships. He has been married to his wife Kathrin since 1994 and they have three sons: Marco and Gabriel, he is a Hauptfeldwebel in the German Bundeswehr. Groß started out as a cross-country skier but switched to biathlon at the age of 13, he made his World Cup debut at the age of 20. His first club was the SG Dynamo Klingenthal until 1991. In the Biathlon World Cup of 1997/1998, he came second in the overall competition. In the biathlon competition at the 1992, 1994, 1998 Winter Olympics, he won gold medals as part of the men's 4 × 7.5 km relay team. At the 2002 Winter Olympics in the 4 × 7.5 km relay for men the German team won silver and at the 12.5 km pursuit for men, he won bronze for himself. He took a total of eight Olympic medals including four relay golds. In the Biathlon World Championships sprint he won bronze in 1995, silver in 2003 and 2004.
In 1999, 2003, 2004, he won gold in the pursuit. In the individual, he won gold in 1997, silver in 1999, bronze in 2003 and 2005, he took a total of nine World Championship titles. Groß took a total of 53 individual podium finishes in World Cup competition, including nine race wins. After retiring from competition Groß settled in Ruhpolding, he has worked as a commentator on biathlon for German television and was appointed as coach of the German women's biathlon team in 2010. He was subsequently announced as senior trainer for the German IBU Cup team in April 2014. In August 2015 he became a senior coach for the Russian men's biathlon squad, agreeing a contract up to the 2017-18 season. In this role he guided the team to the 2016-17 relay World Cup title. In May 2018, Groß was announced as head coach for the Austrian men's biathlon team. All results are sourced from the International Biathlon Union. 8 medals *Pursuit was added as an event in 2002, with mass start being added in 2006. 20 medals *During Olympic seasons competitions are only held for those events not included in the Olympic program.
**Team was removed as an event in 1998, pursuit was added in 1997 with mass start being added in 1999 and the mixed relay in 2005. 9 victories *Results are from UIPMB and IBU races which include the Biathlon World Cup, Biathlon World Championships and the Winter Olympic Games. List of multiple Olympic gold medalists in one event Official website Ricco Groß at the International Biathlon Union
Sven Fischer is a former German biathlete. He trained with the WSV Oberhof 05 club, was coached by Frank Ullrich and Fritz Fischer and Klaus Siebert. After the 2006/07 biathlon season, he retired. Fischer, who stands at 1.85 m and weighs 85 kg, was born in Thuringia. His apparent talents for athletics was discovered early and in third grade he was training three times a week in the BSG Werkzeugkombinat sports club. In the fifth grade, he became district champion of his age class. In September 1983, the boarding school Kinder- und Jugendsportschule accepted him on a biathlon youth scholarship. After his exam in 1989, he joined the army studying to become a sports teacher; the German reunification and the fall of the Berlin wall and subsequent unification of the East and West German armies, forced him to leave the military in 1990. He instead started training for international sport events, but in 1989, when Fischer was eighteen, he had problems with both his kneecaps after a growth spurt as a youth: "I grew too fast and didn't stretch well."
As a result he sat out the whole of the 1989 season and thought he might have to retire from the sport at his young age. However, in the 1990 season when he came back he found that he had become more powerful than before his injury, in December 1990, he celebrated his first European cup victory in sprint in Hochfilzen. One week he participated in his first world cup relay, he was soon rewarded B–status and because of success in the German Championship in 1992 he qualified for the world cup in Pokljuka in December 1992. In 1993, he won a World Championship gold medal in the 10 km Team in Borovets, a world cup race, in sprint, in Kontiolahti, Finland. In 1994, he won the Olympic bronze medal in the 20 km individual. Fischer was an integral part of the German biathlon team until his retirement. Fischer has eight biathlon victories at the Holmenkollen ski festival, three in individual, two in sprint, two in pursuit, one in mass start. Fischer won the World Cup overall on two occasions, he's come second twice, third three times.
In the 2004/05 season Fischer lost the World Cup by only eleven points, which he most would have earned had he competed in the final race of the year, but he missed it because of a cold. In the Olympics, Fischer won four gold medals, one of them in the sprint in 2006 Winter Olympics, the other three in the relay, he won two silver, two bronze. In the World Championships, Fischer amassed seven gold medals, six silver, seven bronze. Four of his gold medals were won in relays, one in the team event, one in the individual, one in the mass start. In the sprint he has one of his silver medals, he has three bronze from the pursuit. In the mass start he has one gold, two silver, one bronze, his remaining silver and two bronze came in the relay. All results are sourced from the International Biathlon Union. 8 medals *Pursuit was added as an event in 2002, with mass start being added in 2006. 20 medals *During Olympic seasons competitions are only held for those events not included in the Olympic program. **Team was removed as an event in 1998, pursuit was added in 1997 with mass start being added in 1999 and the mixed relay in 2005.
33 victories *Results are from UIPMB and IBU races which include the Biathlon World Cup, Biathlon World Championships and the Winter Olympic Games. Fan page Sven Fischer at the International Biathlon Union
The biathlon is a winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. It is treated as a race. Depending on the competition, missed shots result in extra distance or time being added to the contestant's total. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the biathlon "is rooted in the skiing traditions of Scandinavia, where early inhabitants revered the Norse god Ullr as both the ski god and the hunting god". In modern times, the activity that developed into this sport was an exercise for Norwegian people, an alternative training for the military. Norwegian skiing regiments organized military skiing contests in the 18th century, divided in four classes: shooting at mark while skiing at top speed, downhill race among trees, downhill race on big hills without falling, a long race on flat ground while carrying rifle and military pack. In modern terminology these military contests included downhill, slalom and cross-country skiing. One of the world's first known ski clubs, the Trysil Rifle and Ski Club, was formed in Norway in 1861 to promote national defense at the local level.
20th century variants include Forsvarsrennet – a 17 km cross-country race with shooting, the military cross-country race at 30 km including marksmanship. The modern biathlon is a civilian variant of the old military combined exercise. In Norway, the biathlon was until 1984 a branch of Det frivillige Skyttervesen, an organization set up by the government to promote civilian marksmanship in support of national defense. In Norwegian, the biathlon is called skiskyting. In Norway there are still separate contests in skifeltskyting, a cross-country race at 12 km with large-caliber rifle shooting at various targets with unknown range. Called military patrol, the combination of skiing and shooting was contested at the Winter Olympic Games in 1924, demonstrated in 1928, 1936, 1948, but did not regain Olympic recognition because the small number of competing countries disagreed on the rules. During the mid-1950s, the biathlon was introduced into the Soviet and Swedish winter sport circuits and was enjoyed by the public.
This newfound popularity aided the effort of having the biathlon gain entry into the Winter Olympics. The first Biathlon World Championship was held in 1958 in Austria, in 1960 the sport was included in the Olympic Games. At Albertville in 1992, women were first allowed in the Olympic biathlon; the competitions from 1958 to 1965 used high-power centerfire cartridges, such as the.30-06 Springfield and the 7.62×51mm NATO, before the.22 Long Rifle rimfire cartridge was standardized in 1978. The ammunition was carried in a belt worn around the competitor's waist; the sole event was the men's 20 km individual, encompassing four separate ranges and firing distances of 100 m, 150 m, 200 m, 250 m. The target distance was reduced to 150 m with the addition of the relay in 1966; the shooting range was further reduced to 50 m in 1978 with the mechanical self-indicating targets making their debut at the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid. For the 2018/2019 season electronic targets were approved as an alternative to paper or mechanical steel targets for IBU events.
In 1948, the International Modern Pentathlon Union was founded, to standardise the rules for the modern pentathlon and, from 1953 biathlon. In July 1993, the biathlon branch of the UIPMB created the International Biathlon Union, which separated from the UIPMB in 1998. Presidents of the UIPMB/IBU: 1947–1949: Tom Wiborn 1949–1960: Gustaf Dyrssen 1960–1988: Sven Thofelt, 1988–1992: Igor Novikov 1992-2018: Anders Besseberg Since 2018: Olle Dahlin The following articles list major international biathlon events and medalists. Contrary to the Olympics and World Championships, the World Cup is an entire winter season of weekly races, where the medalists are those with the highest sums of World Cup points at the end of the season. Biathlon at the Winter Olympics Biathlon World Championships Biathlon World Cup Biathlon European Championships IBU Cup Biathlon Junior World Championships Biathlon at the Winter Universiade The complete rules of the biathlon are given in the official IBU rule books. A biathlon competition consists of a race in which contestants ski through a cross-country trail system whose total distance is divided into either two or four shooting rounds, half in prone position, the other half standing.
Depending on the shooting performance, extra distance or time is added to the contestant's total skiing distance/time. The contestant with the shortest total time wins. For each shooting round, the biathlete must hit five targets or receive a penalty for each missed target, which varies according to the competition rules, as follows: Skiing around a 150 m penalty loop—typically taking 20–30 seconds for elite biathletes to complete, depending on weather and snow conditions. Adding one minute to the skier's total time. Use of an extra cartridge to hit the target. In order to keep track of the contestants' progress and relative standing throughout a race, split times are taken at several points along the skiing track and upon finishing each shooting round; the large display screens set up at biathlon arenas, as well as the information graphics shown as part of the TV picture, will list the split time of the fastest contestant at each intermediate point and the times and time differences to the closest runners-up.
In the Olympics, all cross-country skiing techniques are permitted in the
Valentina Tserbe-Nessina is a Ukrainian biathlete. At the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, she won a bronze medal in the 7.5 km sprint, finished 5th with the Ukrainian relay team. She finished 5th with the Ukraine relay team at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is practiced as a sport and recreational activity. Variants of cross-country skiing are adapted to a range of terrain which spans unimproved, sometimes mountainous terrain to groomed courses that are designed for the sport. Modern cross-country skiing is similar to the original form of skiing, from which all skiing disciplines evolved, including alpine skiing, ski jumping and Telemark skiing. Skiers propel themselves either by striding forward or side-to-side in a skating motion, aided by arms pushing on ski poles against the snow, it is practised in regions with snow-covered landscapes, including Northern Europe, Canada and regions in the United States. Competitive cross-country skiing is one of the Nordic skiing sports. Cross-country skiing and rifle marksmanship are the two components of biathlon, ski-orienteering is a form of cross-country skiing, which includes map navigation along snow trails and tracks.
The word ski comes from the Old Norse word skíð. Skiing started as a technique for traveling cross-country over snow on skis, starting five millennia ago with beginnings in Scandinavia, it may have been practised as early as 600 BCE in Daxing ` anling, in. Early historical evidence includes Procopius's description of Sami people as skrithiphinoi translated as "ski running samis". Birkely argues that the Sami people have practiced skiing for more than 6000 years, evidenced by the old Sami word čuoigat for skiing. Egil Skallagrimsson's 950 CE saga describes King Haakon the Good's practice of sending his tax collectors out on skis; the Gulating law stated that "No moose shall be disturbed by skiers on private land." Cross-country skiing evolved from a utilitarian means of transportation to being a worldwide recreational activity and sport, which branched out into other forms of skiing starting in the mid-1800s. Early skiers used one long pole or spear in addition to the skis; the first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741.
Traditional skis, used for snow travel in Norway and elsewhere into the 1800s comprised one short ski with a natural fur traction surface, the andor, one long for gliding, the langski—one being up to 100 cm longer than the other—allowing skiers to propel themselves with a scooter motion. This combination has a long history among the Sami people. Skis up to 280 cm have been produced in Finland, the longest recorded ski in Norway is 373 cm. Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century; these troops were able to cover distances comparable to that of light cavalry. The garrison in Trondheim used skis at least from 1675, the Danish-Norwegian army included specialized skiing battalions from 1747—details of military ski exercises from 1767 are on record. Skis were used in military exercises in 1747. In 1799 French traveller Jacques de la Tocnaye recorded his visit to Norway in his travel diary: Norwegian immigrants used skis in the US midwest from around 1836.
Norwegian immigrant "Snowshoe Thompson" transported mail by skiing across the Sierra Nevada between California and Nevada from 1856. In 1888 Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen and his team crossed the Greenland icecap on skis. Norwegian workers on the Buenos Aires - Valparaiso railway line introduced skiing in South America around 1890. In 1910 Roald Amundsen used skis on his South Pole Expedition. In 1902 the Norwegian consul in Kobe imported ski equipment and introduced skiing to the Japanese, motivated by the death of Japanese soldiers during a snow storm. Norwegian skiing regiments organized military skiing contests in the 18th century, divided in four classes: shooting at a target while skiing at "top speed", downhill racing among trees, downhill racing on large slopes without falling, "long racing" on "flat ground". An early record of a public ski competition occurred in Tromsø, 1843. In Norwegian, langrenn refers to "competitive skiing where the goal is to complete a specific distance in groomed tracks in the shortest possible time".
In Norway, ski touring competitions are long-distance cross-country competitions open to the public, competition is within age intervals. A new technique, skate skiing, was experimented with early in the 20th Century, but was not adopted until the 1980s. Johan Grøttumsbråten used the skating technique at the 1931 World Championship in Oberhof, one of the earliest recorded use of skating in competitive cross-country skiing; this technique was used in ski orienteering in the 1960s on roads and other firm surfaces. It became widespread during the 1980s after the success of Bill Koch in 1982 Cross-country Skiing Championships drew more attention to the skating style. Norwegian skier Ove Aunli started using the technique in 1984, when he found it to be much faster than classic style. Finnish skier, Pauli Siitonen, developed a one-sided variant of the style in the 1970s, leaving one ski in the track while skating to the side with the other one during endurance events. While the noun ski originates from the Norwegian language, unlike the English skiing there is no corresponding verb in Norwegian.
Fridtjov Nansen, for instance, describes the crossing of Greenland as På ski over Grønland "On skis across Greenland", while the English edition of the report was titled, The first crossing of Greenland. Nansen referred to the activity o