BibTeX is reference management software for formatting lists of references. The BibTeX tool is used together with the LaTeX document preparation system. Within the typesetting system, its name is styled as B I B T E X; the name is the name of the TeX typesetting software. The purpose of BibTeX is to make it easy to cite sources in a consistent manner, by separating bibliographic information from the presentation of this information to the separation of content and presentation/style supported by LaTeX itself. In the words of the program's author Oren Patashnik: Here’s how BibTeX works, it takes as input BibTeX chooses from the.bib file only those entries specified by the.aux file, creates as output a.bbl file containing these entries together with the formatting commands specified by the.bst file. LaTeX will use the.bbl file edited by the user, to produce the reference list. BibTeX was created by Oren Patashnik and Leslie Lamport in 1985, it is written in WEB/Pascal. Version 0.98f was released in March 1985.
With version 0.99c, a stationary state was reached for 22 years. In March 2010, version 0.99d was released to improve URL printing. Further releases were announced. During the period following BibTeX's implementation in 1985, several reimplementations have been published: BibTeXu A reimplementation of bibtex that supports the UTF-8 character set. Taco Hoekwater of the LuaTeX team criticized it in 2010 for poor documentation and for generating errors that are difficult to debug. Bibtex8 A reimplementation of bibtex that supports 8-bit character sets. CL-BibTeX A compatible reimplementation of bibtex in Common Lisp, capable of using bibtex.bst files directly or converting them into human-readable Lisp.lbst files. CL-BibTeX supports Unicode in Unicode Lisp implementations, using any character set that Lisp knows about. MLBibTeX A reimplementation of BibTeX focusing on multilingual features, by Jean-Michel Hufflen. BibLaTeX A complete reimplementation. "It redesigns the way in which LaTeX interacts with BibTeX at a fundamental level.
With biblatex, BibTeX is only used to generate labels. Instead of being implemented in BibTeX's style files, the formatting of the bibliography is controlled by TeX macros." It offers full Unicode and theming support. Bibulous A drop-in BibTeX replacement based on style templates, including full Unicode support, written in Python. BibTeX uses a style-independent text-based file format for lists of bibliography items, such as articles and theses. BibTeX bibliography file names end in.bib. A BibTeX database file is formed by a list of entries, with each entry corresponding to a bibliographical item. Entry types correspond to various types of bibliographic sources such as article, book, or conference. An example entry which describes a mathematical handbook would be structured as an entry name followed by a list of fields, such as author and title: If a document references this handbook, the bibliographic information may be formatted in different ways depending on which citation style is employed.
The way LaTeX deals with this is by specifying \cite commands and the desired bibliography style in the LaTeX document. If the command \cite appears inside a LaTeX document, the bibtex program will include this book in the list of references for the document and generate appropriate LaTeX formatting code; when viewing the formatted LaTeX document, the result might look like this: Abramowitz and Irene A. Stegun, Handbook of mathematical functions with formulas and mathematical tables. New York: Dover. Depending on the style file, BibTeX may rearrange authors' last names, change the case of titles, omit fields present in the.bib file, format text in italics, add punctuation, etc. Since the same style file is used for an entire list of references, these are all formatted with minimal effort required from authors or editors; the types of entries and fields used in all BibTeX styles BibTeX are listed below. A BibTeX database can contain the following types of entries: article An article from a journal or magazine.
Required fields: author, journal, volumeOptional fields: number, month, note, key book A book with an explicit publisher. Required fields: author/editor, publisher, yearOptional fields: volume/number, address, month, key, url booklet A work, printed and bound, but without a named publisher or sponsoring institution. Required fields: titleOptional fields: author, address, year, key conference The same as inproceedings, included for Scribe compatibility. Inbook A part of a book untitled. May be a chapter and/or a range of pages. Required fields: author/editor, chapter/pages, yearOptional fields: volume/number, type, edition, note, key incollection A part of a book having its own title. Required fields: author, booktitle, yearOptional fields: editor, volume/number, type, pages, edition, note, key inproceedings An article in a conference proceedings. Required fields: author, booktitle, yearOptional fields: editor, volume/number, pages, month, publisher, note, ke
Oliver Bendt is a German singer and actor. Knoch grew up the son of an actress in Munich, where he played children's roles in several films, including Königswalzer and Weil du arm bist, musst du früher sterben, he received his first violin and guitar lessons and became a member of the Regensburg Cathedral Boys Choir, where he received vocal training, completed his vocal studies at the Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg. In 1967, he competed at the Ralf Arnie Musikverlag as a junior and came into a career as a singer under the name "George" in 1967 and 1968 with four single records. At the same time he sang with the German production of the musical Hair, he renamed himself Oliver Bendt and had more success with cover versions of English hits, including What I did, I did for Maria, I'll come back to Amarillo, My Song for Mary and Oh, Marie. Towards the end of the 1970s, he lived for some time on the Caribbean island of Saint Lucia. Here he had the idea for the Goombay Dance Band, which brought him his greatest successes in 1979/1980.
The greatest success in Germany was the song Sun of Jamaica. Internationally it was Seven Tears; this single sold 11 million copies, was in the chart for 12 weeks in the UK including three weeks at number one. Bendt lives with his family in Norderstedt near Hamburg. Oliver Bendt on IMDb
The Throne of Saturn is a collection of science fiction short stories by author S. Fowler Wright, it was released in 1949 and was the author's first American book and his only collection published by Arkham House. It was released in an edition of 3,062 copies; the book is an expansion of The New Gods Lead published by Jarrolds in 1932 by the addition of two stories. The Throne of Saturn contains these twelve stories, as well as a foreword: "Justice" "This Night" "Brain" "Appeal" "Proof" "P. N. 40" "Automata" "The Rat" "Rule" "Choice" "The Temperature of Gehenna Sue" "Original Sin" Boucher and McComas described the 1949 edition as "twelve superb short stories of a future in which the new gods have led man into strange scientific and sociological bypaths -- a book it would be difficult to overpraise." P. Schuyler Miller praised the collection as "imaginative fiction different from anything else you are to find in print." London: Heinemann, 1951. Jaffery, Sheldon; the Arkham House Companion. Mercer Island, WA: Starmont House, Inc. pp. 37–38.
ISBN 1-55742-005-X. Chalker, Jack L.. The Science-Fantasy Publishers: A Bibliographic History, 1923-1998. Westminster, MD and Baltimore: Mirage Press, Ltd. p. 34. Joshi, S. T.. Sixty Years of Arkham House: A History and Bibliography. Sauk City, WI: Arkham House. P. 55. ISBN 0-87054-176-5. Nielsen, Leon. Arkham House Books: A Collector's Guide. Jefferson, NC and London: McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 72. ISBN 0-7864-1785-4