Otis Jackson Jr. known professionally as Madlib, is an American DJ, music producer, multi-instrumentalist, rapper. He is one of the most prolific and critically acclaimed hip hop producers of the 2000s and has collaborated with different hip hop artists, under a variety of pseudonyms, including with MF DOOM, as well as J Dilla. Madlib has described himself as a "DJ first, producer second, MC last," and he has done several projects as a DJ, mixer, or remixer. Madlib was born in Oxnard, California to musician parents Otis Jackson, Sr. and Dora Sinesca Jackson. He sampled his first song at a song that he got from his father's collection, his younger brother is rapper Michael ` Oh No' Jackson. His uncle is the jazz trumpeter Jon Faddis, he was raised in Oxnard. In the early 1990s, Madlib formed a loose-knit collective composed of rappers that worked with Madlib in his Oxnard-based "Crate Diggas Palace" studio; this collective was composed of his friends, became known as CDP. Madlib's first commercially released music was production for the rap group Tha Alkaholiks in 1993.
He went on to record music of his own with the group Lootpack. Their 12-inch EP "Ill Psyche Move," was released by Madlib's father in 1995 on a label called Crate Diggas Palace; this record caught the attention of Peanut Butter Wolf, founder of the Stones Throw Records label, who signed the group in 1998. The Lootpack's 1999 debut album Soundpieces: Da Antidote ushered in a string of releases on Stones Throw centering on Madlib's production work which would continue for a decade, his first solo work, under the guise of Quasimoto, The Unseen, came in 2000. The album was met with critical acclaim, named by Spin Magazine as one of the top 20 albums of the year. In 2001, Madlib moved away from hip-hop music and began a series of releases from Yesterdays New Quintet, a Jazz-based, hip-hop and electronic-influenced quintet made up of alter egos or fictional musicians played by Madlib. Over the next several years, through several record releases on Stones Throw and other labels, the growing number of pseudonyms and fictional players came to be known as Yesterdays Universe.
Madlib was invited to remix tracks from the Blue Note Records archive in 2003, which he released as Shades of Blue. In addition to the remixes, the album contained newly recorded interpretations of Blue Note originals, many of which were credited to members of Yesterdays New Quintet. Beginning with the 2007 album The Funky Side of Life by Yesterdays New Quintet spinoff group Sound Directions, the Yesterdays Universe began incorporating additional session musicians who were not pseudonyms of Madlib. Returning to hip-hop music in 2003, Madlib announced two collaborative projects. Working with hip hop producer J Dilla, the duo known as Jaylib released Champion Sound; the other was Madlib's collaboration with rapper MF Doom, known together as Madvillain. Their 2004 Madvillainy album was anticipated and well-received, topping many critics' year-end lists; the 2005 Quasimoto album, The Further Adventures of Lord Quas was accepted well and continued the Quasimoto tradition of using vocal samples from Melvin Van Peebles, credited on the album liner notes as a collaborator.
Throughout the rest of the decade Madlib continued to release jazz material with his hip hop work: Perseverance with Percee P, Liberation with Talib Kweli, Sujinho with Ivan Conti of Azymuth, his own instrumental hip-hop series "Beat Konducta", "In Search of Stoney Jackson" with Strong Arm Steady, "OJ Simpson" with Guilty Simpson, production work for several artists such as Erykah Badu and De La Soul. In 2010, Madlib announced his own imprint called Madlib Invazion, formed to release a music series called Madlib Medicine Show; the series would take over two years to complete, culminating with 13 album releases and several vinyl-only EPs, spanning hip-hop, jazz and multi-genre DJ mix tapes. The label has continued to release records outside of the original series. In 2011, Madlib composed the film score for the A Tribe Called Quest documentary film Beats, Rhymes & Life: The Travels of A Tribe Called Quest. Freddie Gibbs and Madlib announced plans for a collaboration album late in 2011 with the release of an EP titled Thuggin.
A second EP titled Shame followed on June 22, 2012. A third EP titled Deeper was released on September 24, 2013; the duo's collaboration album Piñata was released to critical acclaim on March 18, 2014. Madlib produced "Cadillacs" with Snoop Dogg for his mixtape That's My Work Volume 3, released on February 27, 2014. In a 2010 interview with LA Weekly, Madlib stated that Kanye West put five of his beats on hold for the album he was working on at the time. While none of the beats were used, Madlib did take part in the recording sessions for the album, which evolved from Good Ass Job to My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, he was rumored to be a part of West's collaboration album with Jay-Z entitled Watch the Throne but was not. West was interviewed as part of the 2014 Stones Throw documentary film Our Vinyl Weighs A Ton, in which he opens up about working with Madlib and wanting more of his beats for future projects. On January 18, 2016, West released the Madlib-produced "No More Parties in L. A." featuring Kendrick Lamar on SoundCloud as part of his GOOD Fridays series.
According to reports, the track originated from the recording sessions for My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy in 2010. West recited a few lines from the track in the Our Vinyl Weighs A Ton interview. "No More Parties in L. A." appears on his seventh album, which underwent several name changes. West also
João Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira, known as João Gilberto, is a Brazilian singer and guitarist. He created the musical genre of bossa nova in the late 1950s. João Gilberto was born in Juazeiro, Brazil. From early on, music became an essential part of his life; when he was 14, his grandfather bought him his first guitar. During high school, João teamed up with some of his classmates to form a small band; as the bandleader, Gilberto was influenced by Brazilian popular songs, American jazz, some opera, among other genres. After trying his luck as a radio singer in Salvador, the young Gilberto was recruited in 1950 as lead voice of the vocal quintet Garotos da Lua and moved to Rio de Janeiro. A year and a half the group dismissed him for his lack of discipline, as he would show up late to rehearsals, or not at all. Gilberto's first recordings were released in Brazil as two-song 78-rpm singles between 1951 and 1959. In the 1960s, Brazilian singles evolved to the "double compact" format, João would release some EPs in this new format, which carried four songs on a 45-rpm record.
For seven years, Gilberto's career was at a low ebb. He had any work, depended on his friends for living quarters, lapsed into chronic depression. In 1955, Luiz Telles, leader of the vocal group Quitandinha Serenaders, pulled Gilberto from that rut, taking him to the provincial town of Porto Alegre, in southern Brazil, where he blossomed musically, he spent eight months with his sister in Diamantina, Minas Gerais, where he sequestered himself, playing day and night in a little bathroom and forging a personal style for voice and guitar that would become known as bossa nova. Gilberto wrote the first bossa nova song, titled "Bim-Bom," as he watched passing laundresses on the banks of the São Francisco River balance loads of clothing on their heads. Soon after, Gilberto's father, upset by his son's bizarre singing style and refusal to take "normal" work, had him committed to a mental hospital. In a psychological interview there, Gilberto stared out the window and remarked, “Look at the wind depilating the trees.”
The psychologist replied, “but trees have no hair, João,” to which Gilberto responded, “and there are people who have no poetry.” He was released after a week. The next year, he returned to Rio and struck up old acquaintances, most with Antônio Carlos Jobim, by working as a composer and arranger with Odeon Records. Jobim was impressed with Gilberto's new style of guitar playing and set about finding a suitable song to pitch the style to Odeon management. Bossa nova is a refined version of samba, de-emphasizing the rhythmic percussion and enriching the melodic and harmonic content. Instead of traditional Afro-Brazilian percussion instruments, Gilberto eschews all accompaniment except guitar, which he uses in a percussive as well as a harmonic role, incorporating the different samba parts — such as the tamborim and surdo — from a full batucada band; the singing style he developed is economical whispering, without vibrato. He creates tempo tension by singing behind the beat; this style, which Gilberto introduced in 1957, created a sensation in the musical circles of Rio's Zona Sul, many young guitarists sought to imitate it.
It was first recorded in 1958 in "Chega de Saudade," a song by Vinicius de Moraes. Gilberto had accompanied singer Elizeth Cardoso on guitar in a recording of this same song — and though he explained to her his vision for the new style, Cardoso would have none of it and sung it the traditional way. Shortly afterwards, he made his own debut single of the song, in the new style, followed by the 1959 LP, Chega de Saudade; the Chega de Saudade turned into a hit, launching the bossa nova craze. Besides a number of Jobim compositions, the album featured older sambas and popular songs from the 1940s and 1950s, all performed in Gilberto's distinctive style; this album was followed by two more, in 1960 and 1961, by which time the singer featured new songs by a younger generation of performer/composers such as Carlos Lyra and Roberto Menescal. By 1962, bossa nova had been embraced by North American jazz musicians, such as Herbie Mann, Charlie Byrd, Stan Getz, who invited Gilberto and Jobim to collaborate on what became one of the best-selling jazz albums of all time, Getz/Gilberto.
Through this album, Gilberto's wife Astrud — who had never sung professionally prior to this recording session—became an international star, the Jobim/de Moraes composition "The Girl from Ipanema" — produced a performance that became a worldwide pop music standard. Gilberto lived in the United States from 1962 until 1969. There, he recorded João Gilberto en México. João Gilberto, aka the "White Album", with a hypnotic minimalist execution, limited to the singer, his guitar, Sonny Carr on drums. In 1976 came the release of The Best of Two Worlds, a reunion with Stan Getz, featuring singer Miúcha, who had become Gilberto's second wife in April 1965. Amoroso backed Gilberto with the lush string orchestration of Claus Ogerman, who had provided a similar sound to Jobim's instrumental recordings in the late 1960s and early 1970s; as with all of Gilberto's previous albums, this one consisted of Jobim compositions, mixed with older sambas and an occasional North American standard from the 1940s. Gilberto returned to Brazil in 1980.
And the following year, released Brasil, with guests Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso, who in the late 1960s had founded the Tropicalia movement, a fusion of Brazilian popular music with foreign p
The human voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal tract, such as talking, laughing, screaming, etc. The human voice frequency is a part of human sound production in which the vocal folds are the primary sound source. Speaking, the mechanism for generating the human voice can be subdivided into three parts; the lung, the "pump" must produce adequate air pressure to vibrate vocal folds. The vocal folds vibrate to use airflow from the lungs to create audible pulses that form the laryngeal sound source; the muscles of the larynx adjust the length and tension of the vocal folds to ‘fine-tune’ pitch and tone. The articulators articulate and filter the sound emanating from the larynx and to some degree can interact with the laryngeal airflow to strengthen it or weaken it as a sound source; the vocal folds, in combination with the articulators, are capable of producing intricate arrays of sound. The tone of voice may be modulated to suggest emotions such as anger, fear, happiness or sadness.
The human voice is used to express emotion, can reveal the age and sex of the speaker. Singers use the human voice as an instrument for creating music. Adult men and women have different sizes of vocal fold. Adult male voices are lower-pitched and have larger folds; the male vocal folds, are between 17 25 mm in length. The female vocal folds are between 17.5 mm in length. The folds are within the larynx, they are attached at the back to the arytenoids cartilages, at the front to the thyroid cartilage. They have no outer edge as they blend into the side of the breathing tube while their inner edges or "margins" are free to vibrate, they have a three layer construction of an epithelium, vocal ligament muscle, which can shorten and bulge the folds. They are pearly white in color. Above both sides of the vocal cord is the vestibular fold or false vocal cord, which has a small sac between its two folds; the difference in vocal folds size between men and women means that they have differently pitched voices.
Additionally, genetics causes variances amongst the same sex, with men's and women's singing voices being categorized into types. For example, among men, there are bass, baritone and countertenor, among women, mezzo-soprano and soprano. There are additional categories for operatic voices; this is not the only source of difference between male and female voice. Men speaking, have a larger vocal tract, which gives the resultant voice a lower-sounding timbre; this is independent of the vocal folds themselves. Human spoken language makes use of the ability of all people in a given society to dynamically modulate certain parameters of the laryngeal voice source in a consistent manner; the most important communicative, or phonetic, parameters are the voice pitch and the degree of separation of the vocal folds, referred to as vocal fold adduction or abduction. The ability to vary the ab/adduction of the vocal folds has a strong genetic component, since vocal fold adduction has a life-preserving function in keeping food from passing into the lungs, in addition to the covering action of the epiglottis.
The muscles that control this action are among the fastest in the body. Children can learn to use this action during speech at an early age, as they learn to speak the difference between utterances such as "apa" as "aba". Enough, they can learn to do this well before the age of two by listening only to the voices of adults around them who have voices much different from their own, though the laryngeal movements causing these phonetic differentiations are deep in the throat and not visible to them. If an abductory movement or adductory movement is strong enough, the vibrations of the vocal folds will stop. If the gesture is abductory and is part of a speech sound, the sound will be called voiceless. However, voiceless speech sounds are sometimes better identified as containing an abductory gesture if the gesture was not strong enough to stop the vocal folds from vibrating; this anomalous feature of voiceless speech sounds is better understood if it is realized that it is the change in the spectral qualities of the voice as abduction proceeds, the primary acoustic attribute that the listener attends to when identifying a voiceless speech sound, not the presence or absence of voice.
An adductory gesture is identified by the change in voice spectral energy it produces. Thus, a speech sound having an adductory gesture may be referred to as a "glottal stop" if the vocal fold vibrations do not stop. Other aspects of the voice, such as variations in the regularity of vibration, are used for communication, are important for the trained voice user to master, but are more used
A synthesizer or synthesiser is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals that may be converted to sound. Synthesizers may imitate traditional musical instruments such as piano, vocals, or natural sounds such as ocean waves, they are played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are called sound modules, are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Synthesizers were first used in pop music in the 1960s. In the late 1970s, synths were used in progressive rock and disco.
In the 1980s, the invention of the inexpensive Yamaha DX7 synth made digital synthesizers available. 1980s pop and dance music made heavy use of synthesizers. In the 2010s, synthesizers are used in many genres, such as pop, hip hop, metal and dance. Contemporary classical music composers from the 20th and 21st century write compositions for synthesizer; the beginnings of the synthesizer are difficult to trace, as it is difficult to draw a distinction between synthesizers and some early electric or electronic musical instruments. One of the earliest electric musical instruments, the Musical Telegraph, was invented in 1876 by American electrical engineer Elisha Gray, he accidentally discovered the sound generation from a self-vibrating electromechanical circuit, invented a basic single-note oscillator. This instrument used steel reeds with oscillations created by electromagnets transmitted over a telegraph line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, consisting of a vibrating diaphragm in a magnetic field, to make the oscillator audible.
This instrument was a remote electromechanical musical instrument that used telegraphy and electric buzzers that generated fixed timbre sound. Though it lacked an arbitrary sound-synthesis function, some have erroneously called it the first synthesizer. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill was granted his first patent for an electronic musical instrument, which by 1901 he had developed into the Telharmonium capable of additive synthesis. Cahill's business was unsuccessful for various reasons, but similar and more compact instruments were subsequently developed, such as electronic and tonewheel organs including the Hammond organ, invented in 1935. In 1906, American engineer Lee de Forest invented the first amplifying vacuum tube, the Audion whose amplification of weak audio signals contributed to advances in sound recording and film, the invention of early electronic musical instruments including the theremin, the ondes martenot, the trautonium. Most of these early instruments used heterodyne circuits to produce audio frequencies, were limited in their synthesis capabilities.
The ondes martenot and trautonium were continuously developed for several decades developing qualities similar to synthesizers. In the 1920s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art, similar graphical sound and tonewheel systems were developed around the world. In 1938, USSR engineer Yevgeny Murzin designed a compositional tool called ANS, one of the earliest real-time additive synthesizers using optoelectronics. Although his idea of reconstructing a sound from its visible image was simple, the instrument was not realized until 20 years in 1958, as Murzin was, "an engineer who worked in areas unrelated to music". In the 1930s and 1940s, the basic elements required for the modern analog subtractive synthesizers — electronic oscillators, audio filters, envelope controllers, various effects units — had appeared and were utilized in several electronic instruments; the earliest polyphonic synthesizers were developed in the United States. The Warbo Formant Orgel developed by Harald Bode in Germany in 1937, was a four-voice key-assignment keyboard with two formant filters and a dynamic envelope controller.
The Hammond Novachord released in 1939, was an electronic keyboard that used twelve sets of top-octave oscillators with octave dividers to generate sound, with vibrato, a resonator filter bank and a dynamic envelope controller. During the three years that Hammond manufactured this model, 1,069 units were shipped, but production was discontinued at the start of World War II. Both instruments were the forerunners of the electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers. In the 1940s and 1950s, before the popularization of electronic organs and the introductions of combo organs, manufacturers developed various portable monophonic electronic instruments with small keyboards; these small instruments consisted of an electronic oscillator, vibrato effect, passive filters. Most were designed for conventional ensembles, rather than as experimental instruments for electronic music studios, but contributed to the evolution of modern synthesizers; these instruments include the Solovox, Multimonica and Clavioline.
In the late 1940s, Canadian inventor and composer, Hugh Le Caine invented the Electronic Sackbut, a voltage-controlled electronic musical instrument that provided the earliest real-time control of three aspects of sound —corresponding to today's touch-sensitive keyboard and modulation controllers. The controllers were impl
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Warp (record label)
Warp is an English independent record label, founded in Sheffield in 1989 by record store workers Steve Beckett, Rob Mitchell and record producer Robert Gordon. It is based in London. In the 1990s, the label became associated with experimental electronic styles such as intelligent dance music, served as the home of a variety of acclaimed and influential electronic musicians, including Aphex Twin, Boards of Canada, Squarepusher, LFO, The Black Dog, Autechre. Current artists on the label roster include Flying Lotus, Oneohtrix Point Never, Danny Brown, Grizzly Bear, Brian Eno, TNGHT, Kelela. Warp was founded by Steve Beckett and the late Rob Mitchell, who had both gained experience working at Sheffield's FON record shop, alongside record producer Robert Gordon; the name was chosen because the original name,'Warped Records', was difficult to distinguish over the telephone. The first release was by Forgemasters, whose 500 copy pressing of "Track with no Name" was financed by an Enterprise Allowance grant and distributed in a borrowed car.
It set a trend for the early releases both in terms of sound, the use of purple sleeves. The follow-up was Nightmares on Wax's "Dextrous"; this led to greater commercial success. Warp's third record, "Testone" by Sweet Exorcist, defined Sheffield's bleep techno sound, by making playful use of sampled sounds from Yellow Magic Orchestra's "Computer Game" and the film Close Encounters of the Third Kind; the first album released was Sweet Exorcist's C. C. E. P. in 1991. In the same year Robert Gordon left Warp acrimoniously. Warp went on to release a series of singles and albums from 1992 under the Artificial Intelligence heading, a series of experimental electronic music releases by artists such as Aphex Twin, Autechre, B12, The Black Dog, Richie Hawtin and Alex Paterson. All the album releases used gatefold sleeves and coloured vinyl designed by The Designers Republic or Phil Wolstenholme. A VHS compilation of digitally animated music videos called Motion was released in conjunction with the second Artificial Intelligence compilation, featured an early work by director David Slade.
In 1996 Warp started the Blech club night in Sheffield in London between 1997 and 1999, released an accompanying compilation CD under the same name. The artwork, created by the Designers Republic, had a distinctive Japanese manga influence. Blech club nights include: Blech01: Seefeel with Boards of Canada Blech 02: Autechre with Cylob Blech 03: PloneIn 1998 Warp signed Boards Of Canada, a duo that would go on to release some of the most revered electronic music albums of their time: Music Has the Right to Children, The Campfire Headphase and Tomorrow's Harvest. In 1999, the label released Warp 10: Influences, Remixes, a compilation spanning six discs, featuring early acid house and techno music that influenced the label and its artists, as well as tracks from Warp's back catalogue, new remixes of Warp material; the collection celebrated the label's tenth anniversary. In 2000, the label moved its operations to London along with its physical music and merchandise store Warpmart. Co-founder Rob Mitchell was diagnosed with cancer in early 2001.
He died that year, aged 38. In January 2004, Warp launched an online digital music and entertainment store, Bleep.com, notable for being the first store in the world to avoid all digital rights management features in the downloadable tracks, unlike other music stores such as iTunes and Rhapsody. Warpmart has now been absorbed into Bleep.com. Today Bleep sells a curated selection of music from a diverse range of labels; the site has released its own limited edition LPs The Green Series, an annual digital release comprising the Top 100 tracks of each year. On 27 September 2004, Warp released its second music video compilation, named WarpVision, featuring most of the videos produced from 1989 to 2004.2005 saw the release of Warp, the first book in the Labels Unlimited series. Written by Rob Young, the book gave an illustrated history of the label, as well as offering a complete discography; the Warp website said the book was “A beautiful thing and like our own This Is Your Life", referring to the This Is Your Life UK TV series.
The label continued to expand its roster, signing acts including!!!, Born Ruffians, Maxïmo Park and Grizzly Bear. For the label's 20th anniversary in 2009, several Warp20 concerts took place in Paris, New York City, Tokyo and London. Warp celebrated by releasing the Warp20 box set, composed of six parts: Warp20 The Complete Catalogue: a 192-page book of artwork from every Warp release since the label began. Warp20: a double CD album, with ten songs chosen by Warp fans and ten chosen by founder Steve Beckett Warp20: a double CD album that included twenty brand new cover versions of Warp songs by Warp artists past and present Warp20: a triple 10” vinyl set of unheard tracks from artists such as Boards Of Canada and Broadcast. Warp20: a CD album featuring an hour-long piece by Osymyso, made from sections and fragments of Warp music from the prev
West Midlands (region)
The West Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It covers the western half of the area traditionally known as the Midlands, it contains Birmingham and the larger West Midlands conurbation, the third most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Coventry is located within the West Midlands county, but is separated from the conurbation to the west by several miles of green belt; the region contains 6 shire counties which stretch from the Welsh Border to the East Midlands. The region is geographically diverse, from the urban central areas of the conurbation to the rural western counties of Shropshire and Herefordshire which border Wales; the longest river in the UK, the River Severn, traverses the region southeastwards, flowing through the county towns of Shrewsbury and Worcester, the Ironbridge Gorge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Staffordshire is home to the industrialised Potteries conurbation, including the city of Stoke-on-Trent, the Staffordshire Moorlands area, which borders the southeastern Peak District National Park near Leek.
The region encompasses five Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, the Wye Valley, Shropshire Hills, Cannock Chase, Malvern Hills, parts of the Cotswolds. Warwickshire is home to the towns of Stratford upon Avon, birthplace of writer William Shakespeare, the birthplace of Rugby football and Nuneaton, birthplace to author George Eliot; the official region contains the ceremonial counties of Herefordshire, Staffordshire, West Midlands and Worcestershire. There is some confusion in the use of the term "West Midlands", as the name is used for the much smaller West Midlands county and conurbation, in the central belt of the Midlands and on the eastern side of the West Midlands Region, it is still used by various organisations within that area, such as West Midlands Police and West Midlands Fire Service. The highest point in the region is Black Mountain, at 703 metres in west Herefordshire on the border with Powys, Wales; the region contains five Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, including the Shropshire Hills, Malvern Hills and Cannock Chase, parts of the Wye Valley and Cotswolds.
The Peak District national park stretches into the northern corner of Staffordshire. Served by many lines in the urban areas such as the West Coast Main Line and branches; the Welsh Marches Line and the Cotswold Line transect the region as well as the Cross Country Route and Chiltern Line. There are plans to reopen the Honeybourne Line. Numerous notable roads pass with most converging around the central conurbation; the M5, which connects South West England to the region, passes through Worcestershire, near to Worcester, through the West Midlands county, past West Bromwich, with its northern terminus at its junction with the M6 just south of Walsall. The M6, which has its southern terminus just outside the southeast of the region at its junction with the M1, which connects the region to North West England, passes Rugby and Nuneaton in Warwickshire and Birmingham, Stafford and Stoke-on-Trent in Staffordshire; the M6 toll provides an alternative route to the M6 between Coleshill and Cannock, passing north of Sutton Coldfield and just south of Lichfield.
The M40 connects the region through South East England to London, with its northern terminus at its junction with the M42. The M42 connects the M5 at Bromsgrove, passing around the south and east of Birmingham, joining the M40 and M6, passing Solihull and Castle Bromwich, to Tamworth, northeast of Birmingham; the M50 connects the M5 from near Tewkesbury to Ross-on-Wye in the southwest. The M54 connects Wellington in the west, to the M6 near Cannock; the A5 road traverses the region northwest-southeast, passing through Shrewsbury, Cannock and Nuneaton. The longest elevated road viaduct in the UK is the 3 miles section from Gravelly Hill to Castle Bromwich on the M6, opened on 24 May 1972; the section of the A45 in Coventry from Willenhall to Allesley in 1939 was one of the UK's first large planned road schemes. Princes Square in Wolverhampton had Britain's first automatic traffic lights on 5 November 1927. On 13 January 2012, 34-year-old Ben Westwood of Wednesfield, was caught by the police, when speeding at 180 mph, in an Audi RS5 with a Lamborghini engine, from Wolverhampton up to Stafford on the M6, back again.
He was travelling so fast that he was outpacing the Central Counties Air Operations Unit Eurocopter helicopter. He and the vehicle had been in fifteen smash and grab raids and he was jailed for nine years at Wolverhampton Crown Court in August 2012; as part of the transport planning system, the Regional Assembly is under statutory requirement to produce a regional transport strategy to provide long term planning for transport in the region. This involves region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by Highways England and Network Rail. Within the region, the local transport authorities carry out transport planning through the use of a local transport plan which outlines their strategies and implementation programme; the most recent LTP is that for the period 2006–11. In the West Midlands region, the following transport authorities have published their LTP online: Herefordshire, Shropshire U. A. Staffordshire and Wrekin U. A. Warwickshire, West Midlands and Worcestershire; the transport authority of Stoke-on-Trent U.
A. publishes a joint local transport plan in partnership with