2004 Republican Party presidential primaries
The 2004 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 2004 U. S. presidential election. Incumbent President George W. Bush was again selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 2004 Republican National Convention held from August 30 to September 2, 2004, in New York City. Incumbent President George W. Bush announced in mid-2003, he went on, throughout early 2004, to win every nomination contest, including a sweep of Super Tuesday, beating back the vacuum of challengers and maintaining the recent tradition of an easy primary for incumbent Presidents. Bush managed to raise US$130 million in 2003 alone, expected to set a national primary fund-raising record of $200 million by the time of the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City. Senator Lincoln Chafee of Rhode Island, an opponent of the war in Iraq, Bush's tax cuts, drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, much of Bush's social agenda, considered challenging Bush in the New Hampshire primary in the fall of 2003.
He decided not to run, after the capture of Saddam Hussein in December 2003. He would change his party affiliation to Democratic and run in that party's 2016 presidential primaries. William Tsangarse ran for president under the pseudonym "Bill Wyatt." The then-43-year-old T-shirt maker left the Democratic Party to become a Republican after Democrats voted for the war in Iraq, an action he saw as a betrayal. Tsangares spent an estimated $20,000 on his Presidential campaign, he managed to get on the ballot in New Hampshire, Missouri and Louisiana, the Democratic Primary ballot in Arizona. He finished tenth in the New Hampshire primary with 0.23% of the vote, placed second in Missouri, where he received 1,268 votes. However, a major upset occurred on Mini-Tuesday when Tsangares won just over 10% of the vote in Oklahoma and 4% in Louisiana, he received 233 votes in the Arizona Democratic primary. All but one of the following were on the ballot only in the state of New Hampshire. There were 2,509 total delegates to the 2004 Republican National Convention, of which 650 were so-called "superdelegates" who were not bound by any particular state's primary or caucus votes and could change their votes at any time.
A candidate needs 1,255 delegates to become the nominee. Except for the Northern Mariana Islands and Midway Atoll, all states and other inhabited areas of the United States offer delegates to the 2004 Republican National Convention. Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2004
War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
The War in Afghanistan, code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan and Operation Freedom's Sentinel, followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of 7 October 2001. The U. S. was supported by the United Kingdom and Australia and by a coalition of over 40 countries, including all NATO members. The war's public aims were to dismantle al-Qaeda and to deny it a safe base of operations in Afghanistan by removing the Taliban from power. Since the initial objectives were completed at the end of 2001, the war involves U. S. and allied Afghan government troops battling Taliban insurgents. The War in Afghanistan is the longest war in U. S. history. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001 on the U. S. which President George W. Bush blamed on Osama bin Laden, living or hiding in Afghanistan and had been wanted since 1998, President Bush demanded that the Taliban, who were de facto ruling the country, hand over bin Laden; the Taliban declined to extradite him unless they were provided clear evidence of his involvement in the attacks, which the U.
S. dismissed as a delaying tactic and on 7 October 2001 launched Operation Enduring Freedom with the United Kingdom. The two were joined by other forces, including the Northern Alliance – the Afghan opposition, fighting the Taliban in the ongoing civil war since 1996. By December 2001, the Taliban and their al-Qaeda allies were defeated in the country, at the Bonn Conference new Afghan interim authorities elected Hamid Karzai to head the Afghan Interim Administration; the United Nations Security Council established the International Security Assistance Force to assist the new authority with securing Kabul, which after a 2002 loya jirga became the Afghan Transitional Administration. A nationwide rebuilding effort was made following the end of the totalitarian Taliban regime. In the popular elections of 2004, Karzai was elected president of the country, now named the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. NATO became involved in ISAF in August 2003, that year assumed leadership of it. At this stage, ISAF included troops from 43 countries with NATO members providing the majority of the force.
One portion of U. S. forces in Afghanistan operated under NATO command. S. command. Following defeat in the initial invasion, the Taliban was reorganized by its leader Mullah Omar, launched an insurgency against the Afghan government and ISAF in 2003. Though outgunned and outnumbered, insurgents from the Taliban - and to a lesser extent Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin and other groups - waged asymmetric warfare with guerrilla raids and ambushes in the countryside, suicide attacks against urban targets, turncoat killings against coalition forces; the Taliban exploited weaknesses in the Afghan government to reassert influence across rural areas of southern and eastern Afghanistan. From 2006 the Taliban made significant gains and showed an increased willingness to commit atrocities against civilians – ISAF responded by increasing troops for counter-insurgency operations to "clear and hold" villages. Violence escalated from 2007 to 2009. Troop numbers began to surge in 2009 and continued to increase through 2011 when 140,000 foreign troops operated under ISAF and U.
S. command in Afghanistan. Of these 100,000 were from the U. S. On 1 May 2011, United States Navy SEALs killed Osama bin Laden in Pakistan. NATO leaders in 2012 commended an exit strategy for withdrawing their forces, the United States announced that its major combat operations would end in December 2014, leaving a residual force in the country. In October 2014, British forces handed over the last bases in Helmand to the Afghan military ending their combat operations in the war. On 28 December 2014, NATO formally ended ISAF combat operations in Afghanistan and transferred full security responsibility to the Afghan government; the NATO-led Operation Resolute Support was formed the same day as a successor to ISAF. As of May 2017, over 13,000 foreign troops remain in Afghanistan without any formal plans to withdraw, continue their fight against the Taliban, which remains by far the largest single group fighting against the Afghan government and foreign troops. Tens of thousands of people have been killed in the war.
Over 4,000 ISAF soldiers and civilian contractors, over 62,000 Afghan national security forces were killed, as well as over 31,000 civilians and more Taliban. Afghanistan's political order began to break down with the overthrow of King Zahir Shah by his distant cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan in a bloodless 1973 Afghan coup d'état. Daoud Khan had served as prime minister since 1953 and promoted economic modernization, emancipation of women, Pashtun nationalism; this was threatening to neighboring Pakistan, faced with its own restive Pashtun population. In the mid-1970s, Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto began to encourage Afghan Islamist leaders such as Burhanuddin Rabbani and Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, to fight against the regime. In 1978, Daoud Khan was killed in a coup by Afghan's Communist Party, his former partner in government, known as the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan; the PDPA pushed for a socialist transformation by abolishing arranged marriages, promoting mass literacy and reforming land ownership.
This provoked opposition across rural areas. The PDPA's crackdown was met including Ismail Khan's Herat Uprising; the PDPA was beset by internal leadership differences and was weakened by an internal coup on 11 September 1979 when Hafizullah Amin ousted Nur Muhammad Tara
Timeline of the George W. Bush presidency (2001)
The following is a timeline of the Presidency of George W. Bush from his inauguration as president of the United States on January 20, 2001, to December 31, 2001. January 20 – George W. Bush's presidency begins with his inauguration at the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. In his inaugural address, the president pledges to "work to build a single nation of justice and opportunity." He declares, "The enemies of liberty and our country should make no mistake. America remains engaged in the world, by history and by choice, shaping a balance of power that favors freedom." Full text January 22 – President Bush hosts the swearing in ceremony for new White House staff, saying in his remarks that they are all there for the same reason, which he defines as "making progress". Bush notes the prayer of John Adams as being inscribed in a mantle piece in the White House. January 22 – President Bush reinstates the ban on aid to international groups performing or counseling on abortion. January 24 – President Bush meets with congressional leaders during his sixth meeting with legislators since taking office for discussions on a wide range of issues with the intent of surpassing expectations.
January 24 – Roderick R. Paige is sworn in as the 7th United States Secretary of Education in the Barnard Auditorium at the Department of Education during the afternoon. January 26 – Donald Rumsfeld is sworn in as the 21st United States Secretary of Defense in the Oval Office during the afternoon. January 29 – President Bush creates the Office of Faith Based and Community Initiatives, which will work to ease regulations on religious charities and promote grass-roots efforts to tackle community issues such as aid to the poor and disadvantaged. January 29 – President Bush establishes the National Energy Policy Development Group—composed of Vice President Dick Cheney, nine cabinet-level officials, four other senior administration officials—and charges it with the task of developing a long-range plan for the meeting the nation's energy requirements. January 31 – President Bush meets with Catholic Church leaders in the Indian Treaty Room at the Dwight D. Eisenhower Executive Office Building during the afternoon.
February 1 – President Bush announces a $1.025 billion, five-year plan to assist disabled persons gain greater independence while seated at a wheelchair-accessible podium and surrounded by an audience of persons with disabilities and their supporters. February 4 – President Bush has a meeting with Congressional Democrats during their annual retreat telling reporters, "These are professionals who want to serve their nation." February 5 – President Bush appears at the White House with four families he describes as potential beneficiaries for his new tax rate system, as he launches a week of lobbying for his tax cut proposal. February 6 – President Bush makes several public appearances in support of a tax relief within Washington and northern Virginia, he acknowledges former President Ronald Reagan's 90th birthday with a public statement praising him. February 7 – A man identified as Robert Pickett fires gunshots at the White House in an attempt to assassinate President Bush, in the building at the time, was unharmed.
February 8 – President Bush conveys the blueprint for his $1.6 trillion, 10-year tax cut proposal to Congress. February 13 – President Bush telephones Prime Minister of Japan Yoshiro Mori to apologize for the unintended sinking of a U. S. nuclear submarine of a Japanese fishing ship with high school students aboard after a four-day search. February 16 – President Bush makes the first international trip of his presidency, travelling to San Cristóbal, Mexico, where he discusses trade, migration, educational opportunities, the battle against the illegal drug trade with President Vincente Fox. February 16 – American and British military aircraft attack targets in southern Iraq, including command centers and communications centers, to enforce the Iraqi no-fly zones. February 20 – After the indictment of Robert Philip Hanssen for passing classified documents to Russia, President Bush reads a statement to reporters traveling with him on Air Force One, referencing the event with the line that it was "a difficult day for those who love our country."
February 21 – President Bush reports the budget for the following year will include federal support of another $1.6 billion for both primary and secondary education programs. February 22 – During a press conference, President Bush states his intent to return money to the taxpayers after completion of funding priorities and paying a portion of the national debt, he declines to answer questions pertaining to former President Clinton's controversial pardons, saying, "it's time to go forward." February 24 – President Bush promises funding for the most essential national priorities that still restrain spending during his weekly radio address. February 26 – President Bush hosts a session of the National Governors Association annual winter meeting. During his prepared public remarks prior to the closed-door discussion, the president envisions that, "When the history of this administration is written, it will be said the nation's governors had a faithful friend in the White House." He announces his "new federalism" initiative.
February 27 – President Bush delivers a speech to a joint session of Congress on his administration's goals. Full text February 28 – Vice President Cheney says the president's budget plan leaves room for more in the budget post the tax cut, dismissing claims of otherwise as "wrong, factually untrue" while speaking to manufacturing executives. March 6 – President Bush addresses questions
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
2004 United States presidential debates
The United States presidential election debates were held in the 2004 presidential election. Three debates were held between Republican incumbent George W. Bush and Democratic candidate John Kerry, the major candidates, one debate was held with their vice presidential running mates, incumbent Dick Cheney and John Edwards. All four debates were sponsored by the non-profit Commission on Presidential Debates, which has organized presidential debates since its establishment in 1987; the vice presidential debate was held on October 5 at Case Western Reserve University. The presidential debates were held on September 30 at the University of Miami, October 8 at Washington University in St. Louis, October 13 at Arizona State University, ahead of the November 2 Election Day. Different moderators and debate formats were used in each debate. An alternative was not carried out. There were several third-party candidate debates held independently from the CPD-sponsored debates; the debates were the latest in a series of presidential debates first held during the 1960 presidential election and held every four years since the 1976 election.
Post-debate polls suggested that the 2004 presidential debates were a positive factor for John Kerry's candidacy, as CNN/USA Today/Gallup immediate post-debate polls showed that Kerry won the first and third debates in the eyes of the American television audience, he tied with Bush in the second. In the follow-up polls taken days after the first two debates, Kerry's perceived positive performance in the debates increased, so that the public saw Kerry, rather than Bush, as the winner of all three debates. According to the Commission on Presidential Debates, the predetermined criteria for selecting candidates to participate in its 2004 presidential debates are based on evidence of eligibility as defined in Article Two of the United States Constitution), evidence of ballot access, evidence of electoral support based on national public opinion polls. Participants must have appeared on enough state ballots to have at least a mathematical chance of securing the Electoral College majority needed to win the election.
While several third-party candidates met the eligibility and ballot access criteria, none had the support of at least 15 percent of the national electorate based on the average of five selected national public opinion polling organizations. The criteria specified that invitations to the CPD's vice-presidential debate would be extended to the running mates of the candidates participating in the first presidential debate. Only President George W. Bush and U. S. Senator John Kerry met the CPD selection criteria for any of the presidential debates; as a result, only Vice President Dick Cheney and Senator John Edwards met the criteria for the vice presidential debate. On October 1, 2004, the Arizona Libertarian Party filed suit against the Commission on Presidential Debates and Arizona State University in the Superior Court of Arizona for Maricopa County regarding the staging of the third presidential debate, they contested that the debate, to be held on the grounds of and funded by a state university, constituted an illegal in kind campaign donation because it excluded Michael Badnarik, the Libertarian candidate.
In the complaint the Arizona Libertarian Party alleged that ASU was "making a donation to two individual campaigns through the Commission on Presidential Debates as a conduit, in violation of the Arizona Constitution's prohibition on making gifts or donations to individuals or corporations." Superior Court Judge F. Pendleton Gaines III issued an order to show cause for the president of ASU and for the director of the CPD to appear in court for a hearing on October 12, a day before the scheduled debate. Gaines denied a restraining order on the grounds of laches and that there was a sufficient public purpose for the debate, but ruled that the AZLP could continue to pursue damages for any violations to their constitutional rights; the Arizona debate nonetheless proceeded on October 13. On October 8, at the second debate at Washington University in St. Louis and another third-party nominee, Green candidate David Cobb, were arrested in a civil disobedience action after crossing a police line outside the debate venue to protest their exclusion from the debate.
Badnarik said. A memorandum of understanding between the Bush 2004 campaign and the Kerry 2004 campaign, covering in minute detail all aspects of the presidential candidate debates held between the two candidates was created, it was 32 pages long and dated September 20, 2004. The Citizens' Debate Commission and others were instrumental in getting the campaigns to publish the MOU in advance of the debates. One of the commissioners of the CDC, George Farah, has written about the earlier debate MOUs in the 2004 tome No Debate: How the Republican and Democratic Parties Secretly Control the Presidential Debates. Three presidential debates were scheduled by the Commission on Presidential Debates: September 30 at the University of Miami, with questions from moderator Jim Lehrer of PBS. One vice-presidential debate was held: October 5 at Case Western Reserve University, moderated by Gwen Ifill of PBSOriginally, the CPD specified that the first debate would be focused on domestic policy and the third focused on foreign policy.
War on Terror
The War on Terror known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign, launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks against the United States. The naming of the campaign uses a metaphor of war to refer to a variety of actions that do not constitute a specific war as traditionally defined. U. S. president George W. Bush first used the term "war on terrorism" on 16 September 2001, "war on terror" a few days in a formal speech to Congress. In the latter speech, George Bush stated, "Our enemy is a radical network of terrorists and every government that supports them." The term was used with a particular focus on countries associated with al-Qaeda. The term was criticised by such people as Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, more nuanced terms subsequently came to be used by the Bush administration to publicly define the international campaign led by the U. S.. S. operations in internal government documentation. U. S. President Barack Obama announced on 23 May 2013 that the Global War on Terror was over, saying the military and intelligence agencies will not wage war against a tactic but will instead focus on a specific group of networks determined to destroy the U.
S. On 28 December 2014, the Obama administration announced the end of the combat role of the U. S.-led mission in Afghanistan. However, the unexpected rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant terror group—also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria —led to a new operation against terror in the Middle East and South Asia, Operation Inherent Resolve. Criticism of the War on Terror focused on morality, economics; the notion of a "war" against "terrorism" has proven contentious, with critics charging that it has been exploited by participating governments to pursue long-standing policy/military objectives, reduce civil liberties, infringe upon human rights. Critics assert that the term "war" is not appropriate in this context since there is no identifiable enemy and it is unlikely that international terrorism can be brought to an end by military means; the phrase "War on Terror" has been used to refer to the ongoing military campaign led by the U. S. U. K. and their allies against organizations and regimes identified by them as terrorist, excludes other independent counter-terrorist operations and campaigns such as those by Russia and India.
The conflict has been referred to by names other than the War on Terror. It has been known as: World War III World War IV Bush's War on Terror The Long War The Forever War The Global War on Terror The War Against al-Qaeda In 1984, the Reagan administration, which had expanded the CIA-run program of funding the Jihadi militants in Afghanistan, employed the term "war against terrorism" to pass legislation aimed at countering terrorist groups in the wake of the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing that killed 241 U. S. and 58 French peacekeepers. In 2017, U. S. Vice President Mike Pence called the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing "the opening salvo in a war that we have waged since—the global war on terror."The concept of the U. S. at war with terrorism may have begun on 11 September 2001 when Tom Brokaw, having just witnessed the collapse of one of the towers of the World Trade Center, declared "Terrorists have declared war on."On 16 September 2001, at Camp David, U. S. president George W. Bush used the phrase war on terrorism in an ostensibly unscripted comment when answering a journalist's question about the impact of enhanced law enforcement authority given to the U.
S. surveillance agencies on Americans' civil liberties: "This is a new kind of—a new kind of evil. And we understand, and the American people are beginning to understand. This crusade, this war on terrorism is going to take a while, and the American people must be patient. I'm going to be patient." Shortly after, the White House said the president regretted use of the term crusade, as it might have been misunderstood as referring to the historical Crusades. On 20 September 2001, during a televised address to a joint session of Congress, George Bush said, "Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there, it will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found and defeated."In April 2007, the British government announced publicly that it was abandoning the use of the phrase "War on Terror" as they found it to be less than helpful. This was explained more by Lady Eliza Manningham-Buller. In her 2011 Reith lecture, the former head of MI5 said that the 9/11 attacks were "a crime, not an act of war.
So I never felt it helpful to refer to a war on terror."U. S. president Barack Obama used the term, but in his inaugural address on 20 January 2009, he stated: "Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred." In March 2009 the Defense Department changed the name of operations from "Global War on Terror" to "Overseas Contingency Operation". In March 2009, the Obama administration requested that Pentagon staff members avoid the use of the term and instead to use "Overseas Contingency Operation". Basic objectives of the Bush administration "war on terror", such as targeting al Qaeda and building international counterterrorism alliances, remain in place. In May 2010, the Obama administration published a report outlining its National Security Strategy; the document dropped the Bush-era phrase "global war on terror" and reference to "Islamic extremism," and stated, "This is not a g
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami