The bibliographical definition of an edition includes all copies of a book printed “from the same setting of type,” including all minor typographical variants. The numbering of book editions is a special case of the wider field of revision control; the traditional conventions for numbering book editions evolved spontaneously for several centuries before any greater applied science of revision control became important to humanity, which did not occur until the era of widespread computing had arrived. The old and new aspects of book edition numbering are discussed below. According to the definition of edition above, a book printed today, by the same publisher, from the same type as when it was first published, is still the first edition of that book to a bibliographer. However, book collectors use the term first edition to mean the first print run of the first edition. Since World War II, books include a number line that indicates the print run. A "first edition" per se is not a valuable collectible book.
A popular work may be published and reprinted over time by many publishers, in a variety of formats. There will be a first edition of each, which the publisher may cite on the copyright page, such as: "First mass market paperback edition"; the first edition of a facsimile reprint is the reprint publisher's first edition, but not the first edition of the work itself. The Independent Online Booksellers Association has a A First Edition Primer which discusses several aspects of identifying first editions including publishing and specific publishers way of designating first editions; the classic explanation of edition was given by Fredson Bowers in Principles of Bibliographical Description. Bowers wrote that an edition is “the whole number of copies printed at any time or times from the same setting of type-pages,” including “all issues and variant states existing within its basic type-setting, as well as all impressions.” Publishers use the same typesetting for the hardcover and trade paperback versions of a book.
These books have different covers, the title page and copyright page may differ, the page margin sizes may differ, but to a bibliographer they are the same edition. From time to time, readers may observe an error in the text, report these to the publisher; the publisher keeps these "reprint corrections" in a file pending demand for a new print run of the edition, before the new run is printed, they will be entered. The method of entry depends on the method of typesetting. For letterpress metal, it meant resetting a few characters or a line or two. For linotype, it meant casting a new line for any line with a change in it. With film, it involved inserting a new bit. In an electronic file, it means entering the changes digitally; such minor changes do not constitute a new edition, but introduce typographical variations within an edition, which are of interest to collectors. A common complaint of book collectors is that the bibliographer's definition is used in a book-collecting context. For example, J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye as of 2016 remains in print in hardcover.
The type is the same as the 1951 first printing, therefore all hardcover copies are, for the bibliographer, the first edition. Collectors would use the term for the first printing only. First edition most refers to the first commercial publication of a work between its own covers if it was first printed in a periodical: the complete text of Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea appeared in the September 1, 1952 issue of Life, yet the accepted “first” edition is the hardcover book Scribner’s published on September 8, 1952; the term "first trade edition," refers to the earliest edition of a book offered for sale to the general public in book stores. For example, Upton Sinclair's 1906 novel. A "Sustainers' Edition", published by the Jungle Publishing Company, was sent to subscribers who had advanced funds to Sinclair; the first trade edition was published by Page to be sold in bookstores. Many book collectors place maximum value on the earliest bound copies of a book—promotional advance copies, bound galleys, uncorrected proofs, advance reading copies sent by publishers to book reviewers and booksellers.
It is true. Publishers use "first edition" according to their own purposes, among them the designation is used inconsistently; the "first edition" of a trade book may be the first iteration of the work printed by the publisher in question or the first iteration of the work that includes a specific set of illustrations or editorial commentary. Publishers of non-fiction, academic works, textbooks distinguish between revisions of the text of the work, by citing the dates of the first and latest editions of the work in the copyright page. Exceptions to this rule of thumb include denominating as a "second edition" a new textbook that has a different format, and/or author because a previous textbook that shares only the same subject matter as the "second edition" is considered the first edition; the reason for this stretch of the definition is for the short-term marketing advantage of the
John Ferriar, was a Scottish physician and a poet, most noted for his leadership of the Manchester Infirmary, his studies of the causes of diseases such as typhoid. M. D. Edinburgh, 1781. In 1795 he helped to set up a Board of Health in Manchester which rented houses in Portland Street for use as a fever hospital, he described to the Committee for the Regulation of the Police the appalling living conditions of the poor in cellars without lighting, sanitation or ventilation. People newly arrived from the country were vulnerable to fevers His obituary, published in 1815, read: Died, on the 4th of February, aged 52, JOHN FERRIAR, M. D. Senior Physician of the Manchester Infirmary; the eminent rank which he held in his profession, not only in that town and its immediate neighbourhood, but through a extended district of the surrounding country, was founded on long and general experience of the efficacy of his counsels. He was endowed by nature with an acute and vigorous understanding, which he had matured by a life of diligent study, of careful and well-digested observation, into a judgment unusually correct and prompt in its decisions.
The purposes of his sagacious mind were pursued with a steadiness of determination which secured their accomplishment. As a professional author he had obtained a high station, the world is indebted to him for a large fund of valuable knowledge, conveyed in a style, for perspicuity, aud for manly strength and simplicity, deserves to be proposed as a model to medical writers, his character as a polite scholar will be preserved, in the literary annals of his country, by writings, in which he has displayed correct taste and various readings and original views of the subjects of his investigations. In the relations of private life he will long be remembered as a man of inflexible honour and integrity, he published An essay towards a theory of apparitions in 1813 in which he argued that apparitions could be explained by optical illusions. Biography of John Ferriar John Ferriar's Medical histories and reflections
The illustration of manuscript books was well established in ancient times, the tradition of the illuminated manuscript thrived in the West until the invention of printing. Other parts of the world had comparable traditions, such as the Persian miniature. Modern book illustration comes from the 15th-century woodcut illustrations that were rapidly included in early printed books, block books. Other techniques such as engraving, etching and various kinds of colour printing were to expand the possibilities and were exploited by such masters as Daumier, Doré or Gavarni. Book illustration as we now know. In the early 15th century, playing cards were created using block printing, the first use of prints in a sequenced and logical order. "The first known European block printings with a communications function were devotional prints of saints." As printing took off and books became common, printers began to use woodcuts to illustrate them. Hence, "centers for woodblock playing-card and religious-print production became centers for illustrated books.
Printers of large early books reused several times, had detachable "plugs" of figures, or the attributes of saints, which they could rearrange within a larger image to make several variations. Luxury books were for a few decades printed with blank spaces for manual illumination in the old way. Unlike techniques, woodcut uses relief printing just as metal moveable type does, so that pages including both text and illustration can be set up and printed together; however the technique either gives rather crude results or was expensive if a high-quality block-cutter was used, could only manage fine detail on atypically large pages. It was not suitable for the level of detail required for maps, for example, the 1477 Bolognese edition of Ptolemy's Cosmographia was both the first book to contain printed maps and the first to be illustrated by engravings rather than woodcuts; however hardly any further engraved illustrations were produced for several decades after about 1490, instead a style of expensive books decorated in metalcut religious and produced in Paris, was a popular luxury product between about 1480 and 1540.
In the middle of the 16th century woodcut was overtaken by the intaglio printing techniques of engraving and etching which became dominant by about 1560-90, first in Antwerp Germany and Italy, the important publishing centres. They remained so until the 19th century, they required the illustrations to be printed separately, on a different type of printing press, so encouraging illustrations that took a whole page, which became the norm. Engraving and etching gave sharper definition and finer detail to the illustrations, became dominant by the late 15th century with the two techniques mixed together in a single plate. A wide range of books were now illustrated mostly on a few pages, but with the number of illustrations rising over the period, tending to use more etching than engraving. Particular kinds of books such as scientific and technical works, children's books, atlases now became heavily illustrated, from the mid-18th century many of the new form of the novel had a small number of illustrations.
Luxury books on geographical topics and natural history, some children's books, had printed illustrations which were coloured by hand, but in Europe none of the experimental techniques for true colour printing became used before the mid-19th century, when several different techniques became successful. In East Asia colour printing with many different woodblocks was increasing used. Lithography allowed for more textual accuracy; this is. New techniques developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries revolutionized book illustrations and put new resources at the disposal of artists and designers. In the early nineteenth century, the photogravure process allowed for photographs to be reproduced in books. In this process, light-sensitive gelatin was used to transfer the image to a metal plate, which would be etched. Another process, chromolithography, developed in France in the mid-nineteenth century, permitted color printing; the process was labor-intensive and expensive though as the artist would have to prepare a separate plate for each color used.
In the late twentieth century, the process known as offset lithography made color printing cheaper and less-time consuming for the artist. The process used a chemical process to transfer a photographic negative to a rubber surface before printing. There were various artistic movements and their proponents in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that took an interest in the enrichment of book design and illustration. For example, Aubrey Beardsley, a proponent of both Art Nouveau and Aestheticism, had a great influence over book illustrations. Beardsley specialized in erotica and some of the best examples of his drawings were for the first English edition of Oscar Wilde's Salomé. Douglas Martin, The Telling Line Essays On Fifteen Contemporary Book Illustrators Edward Hodnett, Five Centuries of English Book Illustration Maurice Sendak, Caldecott & Co.: Notes on Books and Pictures Joyce Irene Whalley and Tessa Rose Chester, A History of Children's Book Illustration Elaine Moss, Part of the Pattern John Lewis, The Twentieth Century Book: Its Illustration and Design (new ed
Tsundoku is acquiring reading materials but letting them pile up in one's home without reading them. The term originated in the Meiji era as Japanese slang, it combines elements of dokusho. It is used to refer to books ready for reading when they are on a bookshelf; as written, the word combines the characters for "pile up" and the character for "read". A. Edward Newton is quoted as saying: Even when reading is impossible, the presence of books acquired produces such an ecstasy that the buying of more books than one can read is nothing less than the soul reaching towards infinity... we cherish books if unread, their mere presence exudes comfort, their ready access reassurance. Bibliomania
Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. Alternative methods of binding that are cheaper but less permanent include loose-leaf rings, individual screw posts or binding posts, twin loop spine coils, plastic spiral coils, plastic spine combs. For protection, the bound stack is either attached to stiff boards. An attractive cover is adhered to the boards, including identifying information and decoration. Book artists or specialists in book decoration can greatly enhance a book's content by creating book-like objects with artistic merit of exceptional quality. Before the computer age, the bookbinding trade involved two divisions. First, there was Stationery binding that deals with books intended for handwritten entries such as accounting ledgers, business journals, blank books, guest log books, along with other general office stationery such as note books, manifold books, day books, portfolios, etc.
Computers have now replaced the pen and paper based accounting that constituted most of the stationery binding industry. Second was Letterpress binding which deals with making books intended for reading, including library binding, fine binding, edition binding, publisher's bindings. A third division deals with the repair and conservation of old used bindings. Today, modern bookbinding is divided between hand binding by individual craftsmen working in a shop and commercial bindings mass-produced by high-speed machines in a factory. There is a broad grey area between the two divisions; the size and complexity of a bindery shop varies with job types, for example, from one-of-a-kind custom jobs, to repair/restoration work, to library rebinding, to preservation binding, to small edition binding, to extra binding, to large-run publisher's binding. There are cases where binding jobs are combined in one shop. For the largest numbers of copies, commercial binding is effected by production runs of ten thousand copies or more in a factory.
Bookbinding is a specialized trade that relies on basic operations of measuring and gluing. A finished book might need dozens of operations to complete, according to the specific style and materials. Bookbinding combines skills from other trades such as paper and fabric crafts, leather work, model making, graphic arts, it requires knowledge about numerous varieties of book structures along with all the internal and external details of assembly. A working knowledge of the materials involved is required. A book craftsman needs a minimum set of hand tools but with experience will find an extensive collection of secondary hand tools and items of heavy equipment that are valuable for greater speed and efficiency. Bookbinding is an artistic craft of great antiquity, at the same time, a mechanized industry; the division between craft and industry is not so wide. It is interesting to observe that the main problems faced by the mass-production bookbinder are the same as those that confronted the medieval craftsman or the modern hand binder.
The first problem is still. The craft of bookbinding originated in India, where religious sutras were copied on to palm leaves with a metal stylus; the leaf was dried and rubbed with ink, which would form a stain in the wound. The finished leaves were given numbers, two long twines were threaded through each end through wooden boards, making a palm-leaf book; when the book was closed, the excess twine would be wrapped around the boards to protect the manuscript leaves. Buddhist monks took the idea through Afghanistan to China in the first century BC. Similar techniques can be found in ancient Egypt where priestly texts were compiled on scrolls and books of papyrus. Another version of bookmaking can be seen through the ancient Mayan codex. Writers in the Hellenistic-Roman culture wrote longer texts as scrolls. Court records and notes were written on wax tablets, while important documents were written on papyrus or parchment; the modern English word book comes from the Proto-Germanic *bokiz, referring to the beechwood on which early written works were recorded.
The book was not needed in ancient times, as many early Greek texts—scrolls—were 30 pages long, which were customarily folded accordion-fashion to fit into the hand. Roman works were longer, running to hundreds of pages; the Greeks used to call their books tome, meaning "to cut". The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a massive 200 pages long and was used in funerary services for the deceased. Torah scrolls, editions of the Jewish holy book, were—and still are—also held in special holders when read. Scrolls can be rolled in one of two ways; the first method is to wrap the scroll around a single core, similar to a modern roll of paper towels. While simple to construct, a single core scroll has a major disadvantage: in order to read text at the end of the scroll, the entire scroll must be unwound; this is overcome in the second method, to wrap the scroll around two cores, as in a Torah. With a double scroll, the text can be accessed from both beginning and end, th
Preservation (library and archival science)
In library and archival science, preservation is a set of activities aimed at prolonging the life of a record while making as few changes as possible. Relevant metadata, enhancement of cultural value, improvement of access are important aspects of preservation work. Actions taken to influence record creators prior to selection and acquisition must be avoided for proper preservation. Preservation, in this definition, is practiced in a library or an archive by a librarian, archivist, or other professional when they perceive a record is in need of care. Preservation should be distinguished from conservation-restoration of cultural heritage, which refers to the treatment and repair of individual items to slow the process of decay, or restore them to a usable state. Conservation is used interchangeably with preservation outside the professional literature. Collections care is the general preventive care of a collection as a whole; this can include activities such as security, environmental monitoring, preservation surveys and more specialized activities such as mass deacidification.
Conservation is the treatment and repair of individual items to slow decay or restore them to a usable state. Conservation is used interchangeably with preservation outside the professional literature. Digital preservation is the maintenance of digitally stored information; some means of digital preservation include refreshing, migration and emulation. This should not be confused with digitization, a process of creating digital information which must itself be preserved digitally. Disaster preparedness is the practice of arranging for the necessary resources and planning the best course of action to prevent or minimize damage to a collection in the event of a disaster of any level of magnitude, whether natural or man-made. Reformatting is the practice of creating copies of an object in another type of data-storage device. Reformatting processes include digitization. Books - Sizing & Leather Binding Ephemera and Realia Paper - Acid-free paper, Japanese tissue, Mummy paper, Paper splitting, & Print permanence Parchment - Parchment repair & Preservation of Illuminated Manuscripts Moving image - Film preservation & Video recording Sound recording - Preservation of magnetic audiotape Oral history preservation Language Preservation Visual material - Color photography § Preservation issues & Architectural reprography, a variety of technologies and media used to make multiple copies of original drawings or records created by architects, engineers and related professionals.
Optical media preservation Ink A new concept, has been hailed as a way to preserve historical items for future use. "Digitizing refers to the process of converting analog materials into digital form."For manuscripts, digitization is achieved through scanning an item and saving it to a digital format. For example, the Google Book Search program has partnered with over forty libraries around the world to digitize books; the goal of this library partnership project is to "make it easier for people to find relevant books – books they wouldn't find any other way such as those that are out of print – while respecting authors' and publishers' copyrights."Although digitization seems to be a promising area for future preservation, there are problems. The main problems are that digital space costs money, formats change, backwards compatibility is not guaranteed. Higher-quality images take a longer time to scan, but are more valuable for future use. Fragile items are more difficult or more expensive to scan, which creates a selection problem for preservationists.
Other problems include scan quality, redundancy of digitized books among different libraries, copyright law. However, many of these problems are being solved through educational initiatives. Educational programs are tailoring themselves to fit preservation needs and help new students understand preservation practices. Programs teaching graduate students about digital librarianship are important. Groups such as the Digital Preservation Network strive to ensure that "the complete scholarly record is preserved for future generations"; the Library of Congress maintains a Sustainability of Digital Formats web site that educates institutions on various aspects of preservation: most notably, on 200 digital format types and which are most to last into the future. Digital Preservation is another name for digitization, is the term more used in archival courses; the main goal of digital preservation is to guarantee that people will have access to the digitally preserved materials long into the future. When practicing preservation one has several factors to consider to properly preserve a record: 1) the environment the record is store in, 2) the criteria to determine when preservation is necessary, 3) what standard practices will be laid down for preservation in an individual institution, 4) research and testing, 5) vendor services needed for preservation.
Environmental controls are necessary to facilitate the preservation of organic materials and are important to monitor in rare and special collections. Key environmental factors to watch include temperature, relative humidity, pests and light exposure. In general, the lower the temperature is, the better it is for the collection. However, since books and other materials are housed in areas with people, a compromise must be struck to accommodate human comfort. A reasonable temperature to accomplish both goals is 65-68˚F however, if possible and photography collections should be kept in a segr
Sir Thomas Phillipps, 1st Baronet was an English antiquary and book collector who amassed the largest collection of manuscript material in the 19th century. He was an illegitimate son of a textile manufacturer and inherited a substantial estate, which he spent entirely on vellum manuscripts and, when out of funds, borrowed to buy manuscripts, thereby putting his family deep into debt. Phillipps recorded in an early catalogue that his collection was instigated by reading various accounts of the destruction of valuable manuscripts; such was his devotion that he acquired some 40,000 printed books and 60,000 manuscripts, arguably the largest collection a single individual has created, coined the term "vello-maniac" to describe his obsession, more termed bibliomania. In 1798, when Phillipps was 6 years old, he owned 110 books, is recorded to have said that he wanted to own one of every book in the world. Philipps began collecting in earnest while still at Rugby, he continued buying books when he went on to University College Oxford and graduated in 1815.
In 1820, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. A. N. L. Munby notes that, " spent between two hundred thousand and a quarter of a million pounds altogether four or five thousand pounds a year, while accessions came in at the rate of forty or fifty a week.". Phillipps would purchase the entire stock, his country seat, Middle Hill near Broadway, Worcestershire gave over sixteen of twenty rooms to books. In 1850 at a meeting of the Cambrian Archaeological society, Phillips announced that he was seeking to locate his large collection at a location in Wales, he employed a distant relative by marriage, Amelia Elizabeth Guppy, to photograph some of his collection in 1853 including artefacts from Babylon and Utrecht. In 1863, Phillipps began to move the collection as he was fearful that his son-in-law, James Orchard Halliwell, would gain ownership of it when Phillipps's estranged daughter inherited Middle Hill. Halliwell was a book thief and a destroyer of other valuable old books, cutting out pages to stick them in his scrapbook.
At least 105 wagon-loads, each drawn by two horses and accompanied by one or two men, were used to move the collection to Thirlestaine House in Cheltenham over a period of eight months, leaving Middle Hill to fall to ruin. The previous owner of Thirlestaine House was John Rushout, 2nd Baron Northwick, whose important art collection had been sold in 1859 after he died intestate. There are thus numerous MSS named "Codex Middlehillianus", "Cheltenham Codex" or "Codex Cheltenhamensis". On his death in 1872 the probate valuation of his manuscripts was £74,779 17s 0d, his success as a collector owed something to the dispersal of the monastic libraries following the French Revolution and the relative cheapness of a large amount of vellum material, in particular English legal documents, many of which owe their survival to Phillipps. He was an assiduous cataloguer who established the Middle Hill Press in 1822 not only to record his book holdings but to publish his findings in English topography and genealogy.
The press was housed in Broadway Tower, a folly completed on Broadway Hill, Worcestershire, in 1798. During his lifetime, Phillipps attempted to turn over his collection to the British nation and corresponded with the then-Chancellor of the Exchequer Disraeli in order that it should be acquired for the British Museum. Negotiations proved unsuccessful and the dispersal of his collection took over 100 years. Phillipps's will stipulated that his books should remain intact at Thirlestaine House, that no bookseller or stranger should rearrange them and that no Roman Catholic his son-in-law James Halliwell, should be permitted to view them. In 1885, the Court of Chancery declared this too restrictive and thus made possible the sale of the library which Phillipps's grandson Thomas FitzRoy Fenwick supervised for the next fifty years. Significant portions of the European material were sold to the national collections on the continent including the Royal Library, the Royal Library of Belgium, the Provincial Archives in Utrecht as well as the sale of outstanding individual items to the J. Pierpont Morgan and Henry E. Huntington libraries.
By 1946, what was known as the "residue" was sold to London booksellers Phillip and Lionel Robinson for £100,000, though this part of the collection was uncatalogued and unexamined. The Robinsons endeavoured to sell these books through their own published catalogues and a number of Sotheby's sales; the final portion of the collection was sold by Christie's on 7 June 2006, lots 18–38. A five-volume history of the collection and its dispersal, Phillipps Studies, by A. N. L. Munby was published between 1951 and 1960. Phillipps married Henrietta Elizabeth Molyneux, daughter of Major-General Thomas Molyneux, in 1819; this was after the death of his father. In 1821, he was made baronet of Middle Hill in the County of Worcester at the age of 29; the honour was the result of his father-in-law's connections with the Duke of Beaufort. He was appointed High Sheriff of Worcestershire in 1825. Phillipps' eldest daughter, married the Shakesperean scholar James Orchard Halliwell. While still an undergraduate at Cambridge, Halliwell had collaborated in r