Antero de Quental
Antero Tarquínio de Quental, was a Portuguese poet and writer, whose works became a milestone in the Portuguese language, alongside those of Camões, Bocage and Pessoa. He was born in Ponta Delgada on the island of São Miguel, in the Azores, into one of the oldest families of the provincial captaincy system. Antero was baptized on 2 May 1842, much to the rejoicing of his mother, his parents were Fernando de Quental, a veteran from Portuguese Liberal Wars who took part in the Landing of Mindelo and liberal in outlook, wife Ana Guilhermina da Maia, a devout Roman Catholic. He was a relative of Frei Bartolomeu de Quental, founder of the Congregation of the Oratory in Portugal, he began to write poetry at an early age, though not devoting himself to the sonnet. He took French lessons under António Feliciano de Castilho, a leading figure of Portuguese Romantic movement, who resided in Ponta Delgada at the time. Antero was seven when he enrolled in Liçeu Açoriano, where he received English lessons from a Mr. Rendall, a renowned prospector on the island.
In August 1852, he moved with his mother to the Portuguese capital, where he studied at Colégio do Pórtico, whose headmaster was his old tutor Castilho. But the institution closed its doors, Antero returned to Ponta Delgada in 1853. On writing to his old headmaster, he would say: Your excellency once put-up with me at your Colégio do Pórtico when I was still ten years old, I confess that I owe you much for your great patience, for the little French that I have known until this day. Throughout the latter part of his life Quental would dedicate his studies to poetry and philosophy. By 1855, at the age of 16, he had returned to Lisbon to Coimbra where he graduated from the Colégio de São Bento in 1857. In the fall of 1856 he enrolled at the University of Coimbra, where he studied Law, manifesting his first socialist ideals; the important fact in my life during those years, the most decisive one, was the sort of intellectual and moral revolution that took place within myself, as I left a poor child, pulled away from an patriarchal living of a remote province immersed in its placid historical slumber, towards the middle of the irrespective intellectual agitation of an urban center, where the newly found currents of the modern spirit would come more or less to recuperate.
As all my Catholic and traditional upbringing swept away I fell into a state of doubt and uncertainty, as the more pungent as I, a religious spirit, had been born to believe placidly and obey without effort to an unknown rule. I found myself without direction, a terrible state of mind, shared more or less by all those of my generation, the first one in Portugal to leave the old road of tradition with decision and awareness. If to this I add a burning imagination, with which Nature had blessed me in excess, the awakening of the loving passions known to early manhood and petulance, the enthusiasms and discouragements of a meridional temperament, a lot of good faith and good will but a severe lack of patience and method, the portrait of my qualities and defects with which I, at 18 years old, penetrated in the vast world of thought and poetry, shall be drawn, he soon distinguished himself for his oral and written talents, as well as turbulent and eccentric nature. While in Coimbra, he founded the Sociedade do Raio, which pretended to promote literature to the masses, but which launched blasphemous challenges to religion.
In 1861, he published his first sonnets. Four years he published Odes Modernas, influenced by the Socialist Experimentalism of Proudhon, who championed an intellectual revolution. During that year a conflict would develop between the traditionalist poets, championed by António Feliciano de Castilho, a group of students; the contact with the nation's cultural and literary elite, the liberal and progressives in academia, did not identify with the aesthetic formalism in the literature of the day. Accusing this modernist group of poetic exhibitionism, a lack of good sense and taste, Castilho attacked the modernist poets for instigating the intellectual revolution. In response, Antero published Bom Senso e Bom Gosto, A Dignidade das Letras and Literaturas Oficiais in which he defended their independence, pointing to the mission of poets in an era of great transformation, the necessity of being the messengers of the great ideological questions of the day, included the ridiculousness and insignificance of Castilho's style of poetry under the circumstances.
This gave rise to the 1865 controversy known as the "Coimbra Question", his groups reference as the 70s Generation which opposed the ultra-romantic group of António Feliciano de Castilho. He traveled, engaged in political and socialist agitation, found his way through a series of disappointments to a mild pessimism. Strangely, it animated his latest poetry. In 1866 he went to live in Lisbon, experimented with proletarianism, worked as a typographer, a job that he continued in Paris, between January and February 1867, he went to the United States, but returned to Lisbon in 186
An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum, is a book, pamphlet, or broadside printed in Europe before the year 1501. Incunabula are not documents written by hand; as of 2014, there are about 30,000 distinct known incunable editions extant, but the probable number of surviving copies in Germany alone is estimated at around 125,000. "Incunable" is the anglicised singular form of incunabula, Latin for "swaddling clothes" or "cradle", which can refer to "the earliest stages or first traces in the development of anything". A former term for "incunable" is "fifteener"; the term incunabula as a printing term was first used by the Dutch physician and humanist Hadrianus Iunius and appears in a passage from his posthumous work: Hadrianus Iunius, Batavia, ex officina Plantiniana, apud Franciscum Raphelengium, 1588, p. 256 l. 3: «inter prima artis incunabula», a term to which he arbitrarily set an end of 1500 which still stands as a convention. Only by a misunderstanding was Bernhard von Mallinckrodt considered to be the inventor of this meaning of incunabula.
Ita igitur Iunius». So the source is only one, the other is a quotation; the term incunabula came to denote the printed books themselves in the late 17th century. John Evelyn, in moving the Arundel Manuscripts to the Royal Society in August 1678, remarked of the printed books among the manuscripts: "The printed books, being of the oldest impressions, are not the less valuable; the convenient but arbitrarily chosen end date for identifying a printed book as an incunable does not reflect any notable developments in the printing process, many books printed for a number of years after 1500 continued to be visually indistinguishable from incunables. "Post-incunable" refers to books printed after 1500 up to another arbitrary end date such as 1520 or 1540. From around this period the dating of any edition becomes easier, as the practice of printers including information such as the place and year of printing became more widespread. There are two types of incunabula in printing: the block book, printed from a single carved or sculpted wooden block for each page, employing the same process as the woodcut in art.
Many authors reserve the term incunabula for the latter kind only. The spread of printing to cities both in the north and in Italy ensured that there was great variety in the texts chosen for printing and the styles in which they appeared. Many early typefaces were modelled on local forms of writing or derived from the various European forms of Gothic script, but there were some derived from documentary scripts, in Italy, types modelled on handwritten scripts and calligraphy employed by humanists. Printers congregated in urban centres where there were scholars, ecclesiastics and nobles and professionals who formed their major customer base. Standard works in Latin inherited from the medieval tradition formed the bulk of the earliest printed works, but as books became cheaper, vernacular works began to appear; the most famous incunabula include two from Mainz, the Gutenberg Bible of 1455 and the Peregrinatio in terram sanctam of 1486, printed and illustrated by Erhard Reuwich. Other printers of incunabula were Günther Zainer of Augsburg, Johannes Mentelin and Heinrich Eggestein of Strasbourg, Heinrich Gran of Haguenau and William Caxton of Bruges and London.
The first incunable to have woodcut illustrations was Ulrich Boner's Der Edelstein, printed by Albrecht Pfister in Bamberg in 1461. Many incunabula are undated; the post-incunabula period marks a time of development during which the printed book evolved as a mature artefact with a standard format. After c. 1540 books tended to conform to a template that included the author, title-page, date and place of printing. This makes it much easier to identify any particular edition; as noted above, the end date for identifying a printed book as an incunable is convenient but was chosen arbitrarily. Books printed for a number of years after 1500 continued to look much like incunables, with the notable exception of the small format books printed in italic type introduced by Aldus Manutius in 1501; the term post-incunable is sometimes used to refer to books printed "after 1500—how long aft
The Portuguese Renaissance refers to the cultural and artistic movement in Portugal during the 15th and 16th centuries. Though the movement coincided with the Spanish and Italian Renaissances, the Portuguese Renaissance was separate from other European Renaissances and instead was important in opening Europe to the unknown and bringing a more worldly view to those European Renaissances, as at the time the Portuguese Empire spanned the globe; as the pioneer of the Age of Discoveries, Portugal flourished in the 15th, 16th, 17th centuries, with voyages to India, the Orient, the Americas, Africa. This immense trade network would create an wealthy Portuguese nobility and monarchy, that would become patrons for an incredible flourishing of culture and technology in Portugal and all over the world. Diplomats, students, humanists and artists, from all over Europe, were drawn to Portugal during its Renaissance; the maritime trade of the Age of Discovery played a decisive role in the evolution of the Portuguese Renaissance.
Trade intensified contacts with important centers of the Italian Renaissance and it allowed a new commercial bourgeoisie to prosper and have excess funds to become patrons of the Portuguese Renaissance, much like the other Renaissances of Europe. The discovery of new worlds and contact with other civilizations led to a cultural mix, reflected in the arts and literature of the Portuguese Renaissance; the contact with the civilizations of Africa and the East led to the importation of numerous objects of ceramics and furniture, precious woods and silk, in turn, led to the emergence of new artistic forms resulting cultural exchanges between Europe, East Africa, through the Portuguese. The new trade of items with the newly discovered lands is what allowed the Portuguese Renaissance to be funded, by creating a wealthy Portuguese nobility and merchant class, it was Portugal's connection, through the vast Portuguese Empire, to a full world of trade and commerce, from Japan to Brazil and from the Azores to Goa, that allowed the Portuguese Renaissance to be born.
Portugal's unique ability to interact and colonize other peoples, allowed it fund a flourishing Renaissance of its own, of arts, humanities and sciences alike, not just in its mainland, but throughout its empire, due to the special link that the Portuguese Empire had to Portugal. The arts in the Portuguese Renaissance are a matter of historiographical dispute; this is because despite arts flourishing in this time, they did not follow the classicist aesthetic standards on which the Italians built their Renaissance. The arts of the Portuguese Renaissance were unique amongst other Renaissance arts, they were a mixing of Late Gothic style with the innovations of the fifteenth century and a Portuguese national twist all at once. The assimilation with the Italian Renaissance arts model only begins around 1540, when Portuguese Renaissance artists start breaking away from their national norms and adapt their works to the classicist Italian and Spanish model, though still keeping a Portuguese nature.
In terms of architecture, much like many sections of the arts, the Portuguese Renaissance did not, for the most and initial part, follow the paths of the other Renaissances, which focused on the sophistication and simplicity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. For the larger part of the Portuguese Renaissance, its architecture was the continuation and elaboration of the Gothic style; the profits of the spice trade, during the reigns of John II, Manuel I, John III, financed the sumptuous and dominant style of the Portuguese Renaissance, the Manueline style. The Manueline was an intricate and complex style, with heavy gothic and light neo-classical influence, unique to Portugal; the first known building to be done in Manueline style is the Monastery of Jesus of Setubal, by the architect Diogo de Boitaca, one of the originators and masters of the style. The nave of the monastery's church, supported by spiral columns, reveals the attempt to unify and make equal of the church, a style which reaches its climax in the church of Jerónimos Monastery, completed in 1520 by architect João de Castilho.
Francisco de Arruda's Belém Tower and chapter window of the Convent of the Order of Christ, in Tomar, are some of the most famous examples of the Manueline style, Portuguese Renaissance architecture in a whole. Austere Renaissance classicism did not flourish much in the Portuguese Renaissance, but established itself from the 1530s and onward, with the help of both foreigners and nationals, like Francisco de Holanda and Diogo de Torralva; the Hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Conceição, in Tomar, by Diogo de Torralva, is an excellent examples of the pure Renaissance classical architecture from the Portuguese Renaissance. Some examples of the strong and pure classical Renaissance are Miguel de Arruda's Igreja da Graça, in Évora, Diogo de Arruda's Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa, in Vila Viçosa, the Cloister of King D. John III, at the Convent of the Order of Christ, by Diogo de Torralva and Filippo Terzi, considered one of the most emblematic pieces of the Portuguese Renaissance; the Quinta da Bacalhoa and the Casa dos Bicos are good examples of strong classical Renaissance style palaces, which still hold Manueline tendencies.
Painting was one of the more distinguishing factors of the Portuguese Renaissance, being one of the more contrasting arts to the other Renaissances of Europe. Painting in the Portuguese Renaissance was sober and exclusively religious, being more inline with the Northern Renaissance in nature, not following the pomp and excess of the Italian and Spanish Renaissances. Portuguese Renaissance painting was in contact w
José Maria de Eça de Queirós
José Maria de Eça de Queiroz is considered to have been the greatest Portuguese writer in the realist style. Zola considered him to be far greater than Flaubert; the London Observer critics ranked him alongside Dickens and Tolstoy. During his lifetime, the spelling was "Eça de Queiroz" and this is the form that appears on many editions of his works. Eça de Queirós was born in Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal, in 1845. An illegitimate child, he was recorded as the son of José Maria de Almeida Teixeira de Queirós and Carolina Augusta Pereira d'Eça. At age 16, he went to Coimbra to study law at the University of Coimbra. Eça's first work was a series of prose poems, published in the Gazeta de Portugal magazine, which appeared in book form in a posthumous collection edited by Batalha Reis entitled Prosas Bárbaras, he worked as a journalist at Évora returned to Lisbon and, with his former school friend Ramalho Ortigão and others, created the Correspondence of the fictional adventurer Fradique Mendes. This amusing work was first published in 1900.
In 1869 and 1870, Eça de Queirós travelled to Egypt and watched the opening of the Suez Canal, which inspired several of his works, most notably O Mistério da Estrada de Sintra, written in collaboration with Ramalho Ortigão, in which Fradique Mendes appears. A Relíquia was written at this period but was published only in 1887; the work was influenced by Memorie di Giuda by Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina, such as to lead some scholars to accuse the Portuguese writer of plagiarism. When he was dispatched to Leiria to work as a municipal administrator, Eça de Queirós wrote his first realist novel, O Crime do Padre Amaro, set in the city and first appeared in 1875. Eça worked in the Portuguese consular service and after two years' service at Havana was stationed, from late 1874 until April 1879, at 53 Grey Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, where there is a memorial plaque in his honour, his diplomatic duties involved the dispatch of detailed reports to the Portuguese foreign office concerning the unrest in the Northumberland and Durham coalfields – in which, as he points out, the miners earned twice as much as those in South Wales, along with free housing and a weekly supply of coal.
The Newcastle years were among the most productive of his literary career. He published the second version of O Crime de Padre Amaro in 1876 and another celebrated novel, O Primo Basílio in 1878, as well as working on a number of other projects; these included the first of his "Cartas de Londres" which were printed in the Lisbon daily newspaper Diário de Notícias and afterwards appeared in book form as Cartas de Inglaterra. As early as 1878 he had at least given a name to his masterpiece Os Maias, though this was written during his residence in Bristol and was published only in 1888. There is a plaque to Eça in that city and another was unveiled in Grey Street, Newcastle, in 2001 by the Portuguese ambassador. Eça, a cosmopolite read in English literature, was not enamoured of English society, but he was fascinated by its oddity. In Bristol he wrote: "Everything about this society is disagreeable to me – from its limited way of thinking to its indecent manner of cooking vegetables." As happens when a writer is unhappy, the weather is endlessly bad.
He was bored and was content to stay in England for some fifteen years. "I detest England, but this does not stop me from declaring that as a thinking nation, she is the foremost." It may be said that England acted as a constant stimulus and a corrective to Eça’s traditionally Portuguese Francophilia. In 1888 he became Portuguese consul-general in Paris, he continued to write journalism as well as literary criticism. He died in 1900 of either tuberculosis or, according to numerous contemporary physicians, Crohn's disease, his son António Eça de Queirós would hold government office under António de Oliveira Salazar. O Mistério da Estrada de Sintra 1870, in collaboration with Ramalho Ortigão O Crime do Padre Amaro O Primo Basílio O Mandarim As Minas de Salomão, translation of H. Rider Haggard's King Solomon's Mines A Relíquia 1887 Os Maias Uma Campanha Alegre Correspondence of Fradique Mendes,1890 A Ilustre Casa de Ramires, 1900. Published in Portuguese as part of the volume Últimas páginas A Capital O Conde d'Abranhos Alves & C.a. published in English as "The Yellow Sofa", as "Alves & Co." in 2012 by Dedalus O Egipto ("Egypt", 1926
First Portuguese Republic
The First Portuguese Republic spans a complex 16-year period in the history of Portugal, between the end of the period of constitutional monarchy marked by the 5 October 1910 revolution and the 28 May 1926 coup d'état. The latter movement instituted a military dictatorship known as Ditadura Nacional that would be followed by the corporatist Estado Novo regime of António de Oliveira Salazar; the sixteen years of the First Republic saw nine presidents and 44 ministries, have been described as consisting of "continual anarchy, government corruption and pillage, arbitrary imprisonment and religious persecution". As far as the October 1910 Revolution is concerned, a number of valuable studies have been made, first among which ranks Vasco Pulido Valente’s polemical thesis; this historian posited the Jacobin and urban nature of the revolution carried out by the Portuguese Republican Party and claimed that the PRP had turned the republican regime into a de facto dictatorship. This vision clashes with an older interpretation of the First Republic as a progressive and democratic regime which presented a clear contrast to Salazar’s ensuing dictatorship.
A republican Constitution was approved in 1911, inaugurating a parliamentary regime with reduced presidential powers and two chambers of parliament. The constitution accorded full civil liberties, the religious liberties of Catholics being an exception; the First Republic was intensely anti-clerical. The leaders of the Republic were secularists and, were following liberal tradition of disestablishing the powerful role the Catholic Church once held. Historian Stanley Payne points out, "The majority of Republicans took the position that Catholicism was the number one enemy of individualist middle-class radicalism and must be broken as a source of influence in Portugal." Under the leadership of Afonso Costa, the justice minister, the revolution targeted the Catholic Church: churches were plundered, convents were attacked and clergy were harassed. Scarcely had the provisional government been installed when it began devoting its entire attention to an anti-religious policy, in spite of the disastrous economic situation.
On 10 October – five days after the inauguration of the Republic – the new government decreed that all convents and religious orders were to be suppressed. All residents of religious institutions were expelled and their goods confiscated; the Jesuits were forced to forfeit their Portuguese citizenship. A series of anti-Catholic laws and decrees followed each other in rapid succession. On 3 November, a law legalizing divorce was passed and there were laws to recognize the legitimacy of children born outside wedlock, authorize cremation, secularize cemeteries, suppress religious teaching in the schools and prohibit the wearing of the cassock. In addition, the ringing of church bells to signal times of worship was subjected to certain restraints, the public celebration of religious feasts was suppressed; the government interfered in the running of seminaries, reserving the right to appoint professors and determine curricula. This whole series of laws authored by Afonso Costa culminated in the law of Separation of Church and State, passed on 20 April 1911.
The republicans were anticlerical and had a "hostile" approach to the issue of church and state separation, like that of the French Revolution, the future Mexican Constitution of 1917 and Spanish Constitution of 1931. On 24 May 1911, Pope Pius X issued the encyclical Iamdudum which condemned the anticlericalism of the new republic for its deprivation of religious civil liberties and the "incredible series of excesses and crimes, enacted in Portugal for the oppression of the Church." The PRP had to endure the secession of its more moderate elements, who formed conservative republican parties such as the Evolutionist Party and the Republican Union. In spite of these splits the PRP, led by Afonso Costa, preserved its dominance due to a brand of clientelist politics inherited from the monarchy. In view of these tactics, a number of opposition forces resorted to violence in order to enjoy the fruits of power. There are few recent studies of this period of the Republic's existence, known as the ‘old’ Republic.
An essay by Vasco Pulido Valente should be consulted, as should the attempt to establish the political and economic context made by M. Villaverde Cabral; the Republic repelled a royalist attack on Chaves in 1912. The PRP viewed the outbreak of the First World War as a unique opportunity to achieve a number of goals: putting an end to the twin threats of a Spanish invasion of Portugal and of foreign occupation of the colonies and, at the internal level, creating a national consensus around the regime and around the party; these domestic objectives were not met, since participation in the conflict was not the subject of a national consensus and since it did not therefore serve to mobilise the population. Quite the opposite occurred: existing lines of political and ideological fracture were deepened by Portugal's intervention in the First World War; the lack of consensus around Portugal's intervention in turn made possible the appearance of two dictatorships, led by General Pimenta de Castro and Sidónio Pais.
Sidonismo known as Dezembrismo, aroused a strong interest among historians as a result of the elements of modernity that it contained. António José Telo has made clear the way in which this regime predated some of the political solutions invented by the totalitarian and fascist dictatorship
1755 Lisbon earthquake
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on the morning of Saturday, 1 November, Feast of All Saints, at around 09:40 local time. In combination with subsequent fires and a tsunami, the earthquake totally destroyed Lisbon and adjoining areas. Seismologists today estimate the Lisbon earthquake had a magnitude in the range 8.5–9.0 on the moment magnitude scale, with its epicentre in the Atlantic Ocean about 200 km west-southwest of Cape St. Vincent. Chronologically it was the third known large scale earthquake. Estimates place the death toll in Lisbon alone between 10,000 and 100,000 people, making it one of the deadliest earthquakes in history; the earthquake accentuated political tensions in the Kingdom of Portugal and profoundly disrupted the country's colonial ambitions. The event was discussed and dwelt upon by European Enlightenment philosophers, inspired major developments in theodicy; as the first earthquake studied scientifically for its effects over a large area, it led to the birth of modern seismology and earthquake engineering.
The earthquake struck on the morning of 1 November 1755, All Saints' Day. Contemporary reports state that the earthquake lasted between three and a half and six minutes, causing fissures 5 metres wide in the city centre. Survivors rushed to the open space of the docks for safety and watched as the sea receded, revealing a plain of mud littered with lost cargo and shipwrecks. 40 minutes after the earthquake, a tsunami engulfed the harbour and downtown area, rushing up the Tagus river "so fast that several people riding on horseback... were forced to gallop as fast as possible to the upper grounds for fear of being carried away." It was followed by two more waves. Candles lit in homes and churches all around the city for All Saints' Day were knocked over, starting a fire that developed into a firestorm which burned for hours in the city, asphyxiating people up to 30 meters from the blaze. Lisbon was not the only Portuguese city affected by the catastrophe. Throughout the south of the country, in particular the Algarve, destruction was rampant.
The tsunami destroyed some coastal fortresses in the Algarve and, in the lower levels, it razed several houses. All the coastal towns and villages of the Algarve were damaged, except Faro, protected by the sandy banks of Ria Formosa. In Lagos, the waves reached the top of the city walls. Other towns of different Portuguese regions, such as Peniche and Covilhã, located near the Serra da Estrela mountain range in central inland Portugal, were affected; the shock waves of the earthquake destroyed its large towers. On the island of Madeira and many smaller settlements suffered significant damage. All of the ports in the Azores archipelago suffered most of their destruction from the tsunami, with the sea penetrating about 150 m inland. Portuguese towns in northern Africa were affected by the earthquake, such as Ceuta and Mazagon, where the tsunami hit hard the coastal fortifications of both towns, in some cases going over it, flooding the harbor area. In Spain, the tsunamis swept the Andalusian Atlantic Coast, nearly destroying the city of Cadiz, killing at least 1/3 of its population.
Shocks from the earthquake were felt throughout Europe as far as Finland and North Africa, according to some sources in Greenland, the Caribbean. Tsunamis as tall as 20 metres swept the coast of North Africa, struck Martinique and Barbados across the Atlantic. A three-metre tsunami hit Cornwall on the southern English coast. Galway, on the west coast of Ireland, was hit, resulting in partial destruction of the "Spanish Arch" section of the city wall. At Kinsale, several vessels were whirled round in the harbor, water poured into the marketplace. In 2015, it was revealed that the tsunami waves may have reached the coast of Brazil a colony of Portugal; such a hypothesis was raised by reviewing letters sent by Brazilian authorities at the time of the earthquake. These letters describe destruction caused by gigantic waves. Although seismologists and geologists have always agreed that the epicentre was in the Atlantic to the West of the Iberian Peninsula, its exact location has been a subject of considerable debate.
Early hypotheses had proposed the Gorringe Ridge until simulations showed that a source closer to the shore of Portugal was required to comply with the observed effects of the tsunami. A seismic reflection survey of the ocean floor along the Azores–Gibraltar Transform Fault has revealed a 50 km-long thrust structure southwest of Cape St. Vincent, with a dip-slip throw of more than 1 km; this structure may have created the primary tectonic event. Economic historian Álvaro Pereira estimated that of Lisbon's population at the time, of 200,000 people, some 30,000–40,000 were killed. However, a 2009 study of contemporary reports relating to the 1 November event found them vague and difficult to separate from reports of another local series of earthquakes on 18–19 November. Pereira estimated the total death toll in Portugal and Morocco from the earthquake and the resulting fires and tsunami at 40,000 to 50,000 people. Eighty-five percent of Lisbon's buildings were destroyed, including famous palaces and libraries, as well as most examples of Portugal's distinctive 16th-century Manueline architecture.
Several buildings that had suffered little earthquake damage were destroyed by the subsequent fire. The new Lisbon opera house, opened just six months before, burned to the ground; the Royal Ribeira Palace