The Codex Manesse, Manesse Codex, or Große Heidelberger Liederhandschrift is a Liederhandschrift, the single most comprehensive source of Middle High German Minnesang poetry and illustrated between c. 1304 when the main part was completed, c. 1340 with the addenda. The codex was produced for the Manesse family; the manuscript is "the most beautifully illumined German manuscript in centuries. The Codex Manesse is an anthology of the works of a total of about 135 minnesingers of the mid 12th to early 14th century. For each poet, a portrait is shown, followed by the text of their works; the entries are ordered by the social status of the poets, starting with the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI, Kings Conradin and Wenceslaus II, down through dukes and knights, to the commoners. Most of the poems are Minnesang, but there are other genres, including fables and didactic poems; the oldest poets represented in the manuscript had been dead for more than a century at the time of its compilations, while others were contemporaries, the latest late additions of poems written during the early 14th century.
In the portraits, some of the nobles are shown in full armour in their heraldic colors and devices shown as taking part in a joust, or sometimes in single combat with sword and shield, sometimes in actual battle. Some images are motivated by the biography of the person depicted, but some designs just draw their motif from the poet's name, while others draw on imagery from their lyrics. 6r: Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor 7r: King Conrad the Young 8r: "King Tyro of Scotland and Fridebrant his son" 10r: King Wenceslaus of Bohemia 11v: Herzog Heinrich von Breslau 13r: Margrave Otto von Brandenburg 14v: Margrave Heinrich von Meißen 17r: the Duke of Anhalt 18r: John, Duke of Brabant 20r: Count Rudolf von Neuenburg 22v: Count Kraft von Toggenburg 24r: Count Konrad von Kirchberg 26r: Count Friedrich von Leiningen 27r: Count Otto von Botenlauben 29r: Margrave von Hohenburg. 30r: Herr Heinrich von Veldeke 32v: Herr Gottfried von Neifen 42r: Count Albrecht von Haigerloch 43v: Count Wernher von Homberg 46v: Herr Jakob von Warte 48v: Brother Eberhard von Sax 52r: Herr Walther von Klingen 54r: Herr Rudolf von Rotenburg 59v: Herr Heinrich von Sax 61v: Herr Heinrich von Frauenberg 63r: Der von Kürenberg 64r: Herr Dietmar von Aist 66v: Der von Gliers 69r: Herr Wernher von Teufen 70v: Herr Heinrich von Stretlingen 71v: Herr Kristan von Hamle 73r: Herr Ulrich von Gutenburg 75v: Herr Heinrich von der Mure 76v: Herr Heinrich von Morungen 82v: Der Schenk von Limpurg 84v: Schenk Ulrich von Winterstetten 98r: Herr Reinmar der Alte 110r: Herr Burkart von Hohenfels 113v: Herr Hesso von Reinach 115r: Burgrave von Lienz 116v: Herr Friedrich von Hausen 119v: Burgrave von Rietenburg 120v: Herr Meinloh von Sevelingen 122r: Herr Heinrich von Rugge 124r: Herr Walther von der Vogelweide 146r: Herr Hiltbold von Schwangau 149v: Herr Wolfram von Eschenbach 151r: Von Singenberg, Seneschal of St. Gallen 158r: Der von Sachsendorf 160v: Wachsmut von Künzingen 162v: Herr Wilhelm von Heinzenburg 164v: Herr Leuthold von Seven 166v: Herr Walther von Metze 169v: Herr Rubin 178r: Herr Bernger von Horheim 179v: Der von Johansdorf 181v: Herr Engelhardt von Adelnburg 182v: Herr Bligger von Steinach 183v: Herr Wachsmut von Mühlhausen 184v: Herr Hartmann von Aue 188r: Herr Reinmar von Brennenberg 190v: Johann von Ringgenberg 192v: Albrecht Marschall von Rapperswil 194r: Herr Otto vom Turne (of Lucerne, a late addition, fl. after 1300
Otto Henry, Elector Palatine
Otto-Henry, Elector Palatine, a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty was Count Palatine of Palatinate-Neuburg from 1505 to 1559 and prince elector of the Palatinate from 1556 to 1559. He was a son of Count Palatine, third son of Philip, Elector Palatine; as grandson of George of Bavaria, the young Otto Henry became regent of the new duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg after the Palatinate had lost the Landshut War of Succession against Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria. After the so-called Kölner Spruch the duchy was created from the territories north of the Danube for Otto Henry and Philipp, the sons of Ruprecht of the Palatinate. While they were minors, their grandfather Philip, Elector Palatine, ruled the duchy until his death in 1508, followed by Elector Frederick II, their uncle. In 1541 elector Otto Henry converted to Lutheranism and his palace chapel at Neuburg Castle was the first newly built protestant church of all, consecrated on 25 April 1543 by the reformed theologian Andreas Osiander. Otto Henry ordered to upgrade the Neuburg Castle, patronised the arts and was involved in several conflicts, due to his expensive holding of court a huge burden of debts caused his bankruptcy until he inherited the Electoral Palatinate in 1556.
In the 1550s Otto Henry established the Bibliotheca Palatina. In September 1546 Neuburg was occupied by the troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor as Otto Henry had supported the Schmalkaldic League. In 1552 in occasion of the Peace of Passau Otto Henry could return to Neuburg; as Elector from 1556 he re-introduced the Protestant Reformation. Otto Henry married Susanna of Bavaria, daughter of Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria, on October 16, 1529 in Neuburg an der Donau, he was her second husband after Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. They had no children, she left him a widower 14 years in 1543. Otto Henry died in Heidelberg in 1559, he is buried in the Heiliggeistkirche in Heidelberg. Andreas Edel, "Ottheinrich", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 19, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 655–656 Robert Salzer, "Otto Heinrich", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 24, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 713–719 "Otto Henry, Elector Palatine". Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. Hans Kilian, Drawings from Elector Ottheinrich's alchemical laboratory Digital exhibition of the Ottheinrich-Bible
Joseph Justus Scaliger
Joseph Justus Scaliger was a French religious leader and scholar, known for expanding the notion of classical history from Greek and ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian and ancient Egyptian history. He spent the last sixteen years of his life in the Netherlands. Scaliger was born at Agen, the tenth child and third son of Italian scholar Julius Caesar Scaliger and Andiette de Roques Lobejac; when he was twelve years old, he was sent with two younger brothers to the College of Guienne in Bordeaux, under the direction of Jean Gelida. An outbreak of the plague in 1555 caused the boys to return home, for the next few years Joseph was his father's constant companion and amanuensis; the composition of Latin verse was the chief amusement of his father Julius in his years, he would daily dictate to his son between eighty and a hundred lines, sometimes more. Joseph was required each day to write a Latin theme or declamation, though in other respects he seems to have been left to his own devices.
He learned from his father to be not only a scholar, but an acute observer, aiming at historical criticism more than at correcting texts. After his father's death he spent four years at the University of Paris, where he began the study of Greek under Adrianus Turnebus, but after two months he found he was not in a position to profit from the lectures of the greatest Greek scholar of the time. He read Homer in twenty-one days, went through all the other Greek poets and historians, forming a grammar for himself as he went along. From Greek, at the suggestion of Guillaume Postel, he proceeded to attack Hebrew, Arabic, his most important teacher was Jean Dorat. He was able not only to impart knowledge, but to kindle enthusiasm in Scaliger, it was to Dorat that Scaliger owed his home for the next thirty years of his life, for in 1563 the professor recommended him to Louis de Chastaigner, the young lord of La Roche-Posay, as a companion in his travels. A close friendship sprang up between the two young men, which remained unbroken till the death of Louis in 1595.
The travellers first went to Rome. Here they found Marc Antoine Muret, when at Bordeaux and Toulouse, had been a great favourite and occasional visitor of Julius Caesar Scaliger at Agen. Muret soon recognized the young Scaliger's merits, introduced him to many contacts well worth knowing. After visiting a large part of Italy, the travellers moved on to England and Scotland, passing as it would seem La Roche-Posay on their way. Scaliger formed an unfavourable opinion of the English, their inhuman disposition and inhospitable treatment of foreigners made a negative impression on him. He was disappointed in finding only a few Greek manuscripts and few learned men, it was not until a much period that he became intimate with Richard Thomson and other Englishmen. In the course of his travels he had become a Protestant. On his return to France he spent three years with the Chastaigners, accompanying them to their different châteaux in Poitou, as the calls of the civil war required. In 1570 he accepted the invitation of Jacques Cujas and proceeded to Valence to study jurisprudence under the greatest living jurist.
Here he remained three years, profiting not only by the lectures but more by the library of Cujas, which filled no fewer than seven or eight rooms and included five hundred manuscripts. The massacre of St Bartholomew — occurring as he was about to accompany the bishop of Valence on an embassy to Poland — made Scaliger flee, together with other Huguenots, for Geneva, where he was appointed a professor in the academy, he lectured on the Organon of Aristotle and the De Finibus of Cicero to much satisfaction for the students, but not appreciating it himself. He hated lecturing, was bored with the importunities of the fanatical preachers. Of his life during this period we have interesting details and notices in the Lettres françaises inédites de Joseph Scaliger, edited by Tamizey de Larroque. Moving through Poitou and the Limousin, as the exigencies of the civil war required taking his turn as a guard, at least on one occasion trailing a pike on an expedition against the Leaguers, with no access to libraries, separated from his own books, his life during this period seems most unsuited to study.
He had, what so few contemporary scholars possessed—leisure, freedom from financial cares. It was during this period of his life that he composed and published his books of historical criticism, his editions of the Catalecta, of Festus, of Catullus and Propertius, are the work of a man determined to discover the real meaning and force of his author. He was the first to lay down and apply sound rules of criticism and emendation, to change textual criticism from a series of haphazard guesses into a "rational procedure subject to fixed laws", but these works, while proving Scaliger's right to the foremost place among his contemporaries as Latin scholar and critic, did not go beyond mere scholarship. It was reserved for his edition of Manilius, his De emendatione temporum, to revolutionize perceived ideas of ancient chronology—to show that ancient history is not confined to that of the Greeks and Romans, but comprises that of the Persians, the Babylonians and the Egyptians, hitherto neglected, that of the Jews, hitherto treated as a thing apart.
It was this innovation that disti
Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly
Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly was a field marshal who commanded the Catholic League's forces in the Thirty Years' War. From 1620–31, he had an unmatched and demoralizing string of important victories against the Protestants, including White Mountain, Wimpfen, Höchst and the Conquest of the Palatinate, he destroyed a Danish army at Lutter and sacked the Protestant city of Magdeburg, which caused the death of some 20,000 of the cities inhabitants, both defenders and non-combatants, out of a total population of 25,000. Tilly was crushed at Breitenfeld in 1631 by the Swedish army of King Gustavus Adolphus. A Swedish cannonball took his life at Rain. Along with Duke Albrecht von Wallenstein of Friedland and Mecklenburg, he was one of two chief commanders of the Holy Roman Empire’s forces in the first half of the war. Johann Tserclaes was born in February 1559 in Castle Tilly, Walloon Brabant, now in Belgium the Spanish Netherlands. Johann Tserclaes was born into a devoutly Roman Catholic Brabantine family.
After this he joined in the Holy Roman Empire's campaign against the Ottoman Turks in Hungary and Transylvania as a mercenary in 1600 and through rapid promotion became a field marshal in only five years. When the Turkish Wars ended in 1606, he remained in the service of Rudolf II in Prague until he was appointed commander of the Catholic League forces by Bavaria under Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria in 1610; as commander of the forces of the Catholic League he fought against the Bohemian rebels following the Defenestration of Prague, by which time he had trained his soldiers in the Spanish Tercio system, which featured musketeers supported by deep ranks of pikemen. A force of 25,000 soldiers, including troops of both the Catholic League and the Emperor scored an important victory against Christian of Anhalt and Count Thurn at the decisive Battle of White Mountain west of Prague on 8 November 1620. Half of the enemy forces were captured, while the Catholic League lost only 700 men; this victory was vital in crushing resistance to the Emperor in Bohemia, as it allowed Prague to be captured several days later.
Next he turned west and marched through Germany, but was defeated at the Battle of Mingolsheim on 27 April 1622. He joined with the Spanish general Duke Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba – not to be confused with the famous Spanish general of the same name from the Italian Wars in Italy at the end of the 15th century – and was victorious at the Battle of Wimpfen against George Fredrick, Margrave of Baden-Durlach on 6 May, he was made a count for this victory. These three battles in two months allowed him to capture the city of Heidelberg following an eleven-week siege on 19 September. Christian the Younger of Brunswick, whom he had defeated at Höchst, raised another army, but again lost to him at the Battle of Stadtlohn, where 13,000 out of his army of 15,000 were lost, including fifty of his high-ranking officers. Together with the complete surrender of Bohemia in 1623, this ended all resistance in Germany; this caused King Christian IV of Denmark to enter the Thirty Years' War in 1625 to protect Protestantism, in a bid to make himself the primary leader of Northern Europe.
Count Tilly besieged and captured Münden on 30 May 1626, whereupon local and refugee Protestant ministers were thrown into the river Werra, but could not lay a siege to Kassel. Tilly fought the Danes at the Battle of Lutter on 26–27 August 1626, in which his disciplined infantry charged the enemy lines four times, breaking through; this led him to win decisively, destroying more than half the fleeing Danish army, uncharacteristic of the warfare of the time. Denmark was forced to sue for peace at the Treaty of Lübeck; this disrupted the balance of power in Europe resulting in Swedish involvement in 1630 under their redoubtable leader, the brilliant King and field general Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, trying to dominate the Baltic for the previous ten years in wars with Poland a continental power of note. While Gustavus Adolphus landed his army in Mecklenburg and was in Berlin, trying to make alliances with the leaders of Northern Germany, Tilly laid siege to the city of Magdeburg on the Elbe, which promised to support Sweden.
The siege began on 20 March 1631 and Tilly put his subordinate Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim in command while he campaigned elsewhere. After two months of laying siege, after the fall of Frankfurt an der Oder to the Swedes, Pappenheim convinced Tilly, who had brought reinforcements, to storm the city on 20 May with 40,000 men under the personal command of Pappenheim; the assault was successful and the walls were breached, but the commanders lost control of their soldiers. A massacre of the populace ensued in which 20,000 of the 25,000 inhabitants of the city perished by sword and the fire which destroyed most of the city one of the largest cities in Germany and about the size of Cologne or Hamburg; some historians debate how much responsibility he bore for what happened. His enemies blamed him, claiming the massacre was ordered and used it as justification to enact similar killings, but many historians consider it unlikely. Magdeburg was a
De arte venandi cum avibus
De Arte Venandi cum Avibus On The Art of Hunting with Birds, is a Latin treatise on ornithology and Falconry written in the 1240s by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. One of the surviving manuscripts is dedicated to his son Manfred. Manuscripts of De arte venandi cum avibus exist in a six-book version; the work is divided into six books: Book I: The general habits and structure of birds Book II: Birds of prey, their capture and training Book III: The different kinds of lures and their use Book IV: Hunting cranes with the gerfalcon Book V: Hunting herons with the saker falcon Book VI: Hunting water-birds with smaller falcons Surviving manuscripts fall into two groups: those that include all six books and those that include only the first two. All of the manuscripts containing the six books derive from a 13th century codex now in the library of the University of Bologna, it is possible. The 144 parchment folios measure 20 cm × 27 cm; the text is split in two columns each containing 47 lines.
The two prologues and each of the six books begin with a miniature initial. On the first page there is a dedication to "M. E." Several names have been proposed for the identity of M. E. including Malik El-Kamil, a Sultan of Egypt who died in 1238 and "magister Encius", a master falconer of Frederick's court. There are five copies of the Bologna manuscript, they are held by libraries in Paris, Valencia and Oxford. Frederick II may have lost an illuminated copy of the De arte venandi cum avibus at the Battle of Parma in 1248. In a letter dating from 1264–1265 addressed to Charles I of Anjou, the Milanese merchant Guilielmus Bottatus offered to sell two large volumes that had once belonged to Frederick II; the volumes are described as containing text discussing dogs and their diseases. This description only matches the contents of the surviving copies of the De arte venandi cum avibus and some scholars have suggested that the letter may have been referring to other manuscripts. There are about seven copies of the Latin manuscript with the most famous copy being an illuminated manuscript commissioned by his son Manfred, a two-column parchment codex of 111 folios, now in the Vatican Library in the Bibliotheca Palatina.
The manuscript belongs to the two book version and is illustrated with brilliantly coloured, extraordinarily lifelike and minute images of birds, their attendants, the instruments of the art. This manuscript contains additions made by Manfred, which are all marked in the beginning by notations such as "Rex", "Rex Manfredus" or "addidit Rex". A 1596 Latin edition was published in Augsburg by Marcus Welser and reprinted in Leipzig in 1788–89 with commentary by the naturalist Johann Gottlob Schneider; the first translation of this work was into French and was commissioned around 1300 by Jean II, Lord of Dampierre. The first translation into English was by Casey A. Wood and F. Marjorie Fyfe, as The Art of Falconry by Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, published in 1943; this work is notable for the fact that Frederick II confides in his own observations and experiments: he experimented with eggs to see if they would hatch only by the warmth of the sun. The author keeps to his intention, formulated in the preface.
It is a scientific book. At the same time it is a scholastic book and mechanical in its divisions and subdivisions. Frederick II was familiar with Aristotle's treatises on animals in Latin translation: Liber Animalum, a translation by Michael Scot from the Arabic translation Kitāb al-Hayawān, he was familiar with De Scientia Venandi per Aves, a treatise by the Arab falconer Moamyn, translated into Latin at his court by Master Theodore of Antioch, much copied. The Vatican edition has nearly 900 images of birds, it includes figures of Frederick in a Byzantine pose and another of Manfred. While the historian Charles Haskins wrote approvingly of the bird illustrations and their lifelike appearance, the zoologist William Yapp found them inaccurate. "Friedrich II von Hohenstaufen". Achives de Littérature du Moyen Age. Preface
Catholic League (German)
The Catholic League was a coalition of Catholic states of the Holy Roman Empire formed 10 July 1609. While formed as a confederation to act politically to negotiate issues vis-à-vis the Protestant Union, modelled on the more intransigent ultra-Catholic French Catholic League, it was subsequently concluded as a military alliance "for the defence of the Catholic religion and peace within the Empire". Notwithstanding the league's founding, as had the founding of the Protestant Union, it further exacerbated long standing tensions between the Protestant reformers and the adherents of the Catholic Church which thereafter began to get worse with more frequent episodes of civil disobedience and retaliation that would ignite into the first phase of the Thirty Years' War a decade with the act of rebellion and calculated insult known as the Second Defenestration of Prague on 23 May 1618. In 1555, the Peace of Augsburg was signed, which confirmed the result of the Diet of Speyer and ended the violence between the Catholics and the Lutherans in the Holy Roman Empire.
It stated that: Princes of the Holy Roman Empire could choose the religion for their realms according to their conscience. Lutherans living in an ecclesiastical state could remain Lutherans. Lutherans could keep the territory that they had captured from the Catholic Church since the Peace of Passau; the ecclesiastical leaders of the Catholic Church that converted to Lutheranism had to give up their territory. Those occupying a state that had chosen either Catholicism or Lutheranism could not practice the religion differing to that of the state. Although the Peace created a temporary end to hostilities, the underlying bases of the religious conflict remained unsolved. Both parties interpreted it at their convenience, the Lutherans in particular considering it only a momentary agreement. Further, Calvinism spread throughout the Holy Roman Empire, adding a third major Christian worldview to the region, but its position was not supported in any way by the Augsburg terms, since Catholicism and Lutheranism were the only permitted creeds.
German: Kreuz- und Fahnengefecht, lit.'Cross and Flag engagement' The best documented reason of the foundation of the Catholic League was an incident in the town of Donauwörth, a Free Imperial City within the territory of Bavaria. On 25 April 1606, the Lutheran majority of the town barred the Catholic residents of the town from holding an annual Markus procession, to show the rule of their confession over the town; the Catholics, led by five monks, wanted to pass through the town and on to the nearby village of Ausesheim, showing their flags and singing hymns. They were permitted to do so by the terms of the Peace of Augsburg; the city council would only allow them to re-enter town without flags and singing. The conflict ended in a brawl. On protest of the bishop of Augsburg, Catholic Emperor Rudolf II of Habsburg threatened an Imperial ban in case of further violation of the rights of the Catholic citizens. Next year similar anti-Catholic incidents of civil disobedience took place, the participants of the Markus procession were thrown out of town.
Emperor Rudolf declared an Imperial ban on the town and ordered Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria to execute the ban. Facing his army, the town surrendered. According to Imperial law, the disciplinary measures should not have been executed by the Catholic duke of Bavaria, but by the Protestant duke of Württemberg, like Donauwörth, was a member of the Swabian Imperial Circle. Maximilian de facto absorbed the former Free Imperial City, a violation of Imperial law as well. In the same year, the Catholic majority of the Reichstag meeting in the Diet of Augsburg resolved that the renewal of the Peace of Augsburg of 1555 should be conditional on the restoration of all church land appropriated since 1552. Acting on these events, the Protestant princes formed a military alliance on 14 May 1608, the Protestant Union, whose leader was Frederick IV of Wittelsbach, the Elector Palatine. To create a union of Catholic states as a counterpart to this Protestant Union, early in 1608 Maximilian started negotiations with other Catholic princes.
On 5 July 1608, the spiritual electors manifested a tendency in favour of the confederacy suggested by Maximilian. Opinions were expressed as to the size of the confederate military forces to be raised. In July 1609, the representatives of the Prince-Bishops of Augsburg, Passau, Würzburg assembled at Munich; the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, having shown disapproval, was not invited, the Prince-Bishop of Eichstädt hesitated. On 10 July 1609, the participating states concluded an alliance "for the defence of the Catholic religion and peace within the Empire." The most important regulation of the League was the prohibition of attacks on one another. Instead of fighting, conflicts had to be decided by the laws of the Empire or, if these failed to solve the conflict, by arbitration within the League. Should one member be attacked, it had to be helped with alternatively legal support. Duke Maximilian was to be the president, the Prince-Bishops of Augsburg, Würzburg his councillors; the League was to continue for nine years.
The Munich Diet failed to erect a substantial structure for the newly formed League. On 18 June 1609, the Electors of Mainz and Trier had proposed an army of 20,000 men, they had considered making Maximilian president of the alliance, on August 30 they announc
Fugger is a German family, a prominent group of European bankers, members of the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century mercantile patriciate of Augsburg, international mercantile bankers, venture capitalists. Alongside the Welser family, the Fugger family controlled much of the European economy in the sixteenth century and accumulated enormous wealth; the Fuggers held a near monopoly on the European copper market. This banking family replaced the de' Medici family, who influenced all of Europe during the Renaissance; the Fuggers took over their political power and influence. They were affiliated with the House of Habsburg whose rise to world power they financed. Unlike the citizenry of their hometown, they never converted to Lutheranism as presented in the Augsburg Confession but rather remained with the Roman Catholic Church. Jakob Fugger "the Rich" was elevated to the nobility of the Holy Roman Empire in May 1511 and assumed the title Imperial Count of Kirchberg and Weissenhorn in 1514. Today he is considered to be one of the wealthiest people to have lived.
The company was dissolved in 1657, however the Fuggers remained wealthy landowners and ruled the County of Kirchberg and Weissenhorn. The Babenhausen branch became Princes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1803, the Glött branch princes in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1914; the founder of the family was Johann Fugger, a weaver at Graben, near the Swabian Free City of Augsburg. His son called Johann, settled in Augsburg, the first reference to the Fugger family there is his arrival, recorded in the tax register of 1367, he became an Augsburg citizen. After Klara's death, he married Elizabeth Gattermann, he joined the weaver's guild, by 1396 he was ranked high in the list of taxpayers. He added the business of a merchant to that of a weaver, his eldest son, Andreas Fugger, was a merchant in the weaving trade, was nicknamed "Fugger the Rich" after buying land and other properties. The Fugger family itemized and inventoried a large number of Asian rugs, an unusual undertaking at the time. Andreas's son, Lukas Fugger, was granted arms by the Emperor Frederick III, a golden deer on a blue background, he was soon nicknamed "the Fugger of the Deer".
He was too ambitious and went bankrupt. His descendants served their cousins of the famous younger branch and went to Silesia. Contemporary members of the Fugger of the Deer are descendants of Matthäus Fugger; the current patriarch is Markus Fugger von dem Rech. Hans Fugger's younger son, Jakob the Elder, founded another branch of the family; this branch progressed more and they became known as the "Fuggers of the Lily" after their chosen arms of a flowering lily on a gold and blue background. Jakob was a master weaver, a merchant, an alderman, he married the daughter of a goldsmith. His fortune progressed, by 1461, he was the twelfth richest man in Augsburg, he died in 1469. Jakob's eldest son, took over the business on his father's death, in 1473 he provided new suits of clothes to Frederick, his son Maximilian I, his suite on their journey to Trier to meet Charles the Bold of Burgundy and the betrothal of the young prince to Charles's daughter Maria, thus began a profitable relationship between the Fugger family and the Habsburgs.
With the help of their brother in Rome, Markus and his brother George handled remittances to the papal court of monies for the sale of indulgences and the procuring of church benefices. From 1508 to 1515 they leased the Roman mint. Ulrich died in 1510; when the Fuggers made their first loan to the Archduke Sigismund in 1487, they took as security an interest in silver and copper mines in the Tirol. This was the beginning of an extensive family involvement in mining and precious metals; the Fuggers participated in mining operations in Silesia, owned copper mines in Hungary. Their trade in spices and silk extended to all parts of Europe. Ulrich's youngest brother Jakob Fugger, born in 1459, was to become the most famous member of the dynasty. In 1498 he married Sibylla Artzt, Grand Burgheress to Augsburg, the daughter of an eminent Grand Burgher of Augsburg, they had no children, but this marriage gave Jakob the opportunity to elevate to Grand Burgher of Augsburg and allowed him to pursue a seat on the city council of Augsburg.
He was elevated to the nobility of the Holy Roman Empire in May 1511, made Imperial Count in 1514, in 1519 led a consortium of German and Italian businessmen that loaned Charles V 850,000 florins to procure his election as Holy Roman Emperor over Francis I of France. The Fuggers' contribution was 543,000 florins. In 1494, the Fuggers established their first public company. Jakob's aim was to establish a copper monopoly by opening foundries in Hohenkirchen and Fuggerau and by expanding the sales organization in Europe the Antwerp agency. Jakob leased the copper mines in Neusohl in 1495 making them the greatest mining centre of the time. At the height of his power Jakob Fugger was criticized by his contemporaries by Ulrich von Hutten and Martin Luther, for selling indulgences and benefices and urging the Pope to rescind or amend the prohibition on the levying of interest; the imperial fiscal and governmental authorities in Nuremberg brought action against him and other merchants in an attempt to halt their monopolistic practices.
In 1511, Jakob deposited 15,000 florins as an endowment for some almshouses. In 1514, he bought up par