The Bidasoa is a river in the Basque Country of northern Spain and southern France that runs south to north. Named as such downstream of the small town of Oronoz-Mugairi in the province of Navarra, the river results from the merger of several streams near the village Erratzu, with the stream Baztan that rises at the north-eastern side of the mount Autza being considered the source of the Bidasoa, it joins the Cantabrian Sea between the towns of Hondarribia. The river is best known for establishing the borderline at its lower tract; this stretch is crossed not only by aircraft at low height but by important European communication axes, namely AP8 E5 E80 - E70 A63, main roads N1 - N10 and major French and Spanish railway networks,—RENFE and SNCF. Besides these major lines, other regional ones cross it too, e.g. regional railway EuskoTren and another double bridge joining the towns on the border, i.e. the historical Santiago Bridge. At this stage of the river, urban landscape prevails. Before pouring its waters into the ocean, it forms a bay called Txingudi located between these towns and Irun, the site being designated Wetland of International Importance in 2002, with a total area of 1.28 km2.
The banks of Hondarribia hold the minor San Sebastian Airport serving domestic flights and mired in controversy over its lengthening and upgrading scheme. The river comprises an area of linguistic contact, so it is pronounced differently depending on the language, namely in Basque, in Spanish, in French. Linguistic and historic research point to the name stemming from Latin phrase "Via ad Oiassonem" on account of the road that linked at Roman times Basque town Pompaelo with Oiasso, which may have run along the river; the Bidasoa flows through much of its 66 km length over Navarrese territory, except for the last 10 km, where it establishes the borderline between France and Spain, as well as the boundary between the Basque provinces of Gipuzkoa and Labourd. In line with the distribution of the river's length, the bulk of its watershed's area lies on Navarre; the basin holds 105 permanent streams and rivers that number 497 km, the region being drenched in rains regularly. The Navarrese side of the basin is inhabited by 22,000 inhabitants.
70% of its population have the sewage treated before spilling to the river. But for the first 15-odd kilometres, the river clings to the north to south disposition of other neighbouring rivers of Gipuzkoa joining the Bay of Biscay, e.g. Urumea, etc. Strengthened by the waters harvested from the sides of the pass of Belate, downstream of Doneztebe the river heads north and crosses the town of Bera at the north end of Navarre before entering Gipuzkoa at Endarlatsa. From the town of Doneztebe on, the main road N-121 runs along till the roundabout across the river from the toll of Biriatu by the AP-8. Next comes the major towns on the shores of the estuary; the main tributaries of the Bidasoa are the minor rivers Zeberia, Ezkurra and Endara. Additionally, further small rivers and streams feed the Bidasoa all along; the Navarrese tract of the river is a preferred destination for fishing enthusiasts, the river being home to several native fish species, namely eel, trout, Barbatula barbatula, Phoxinus phoxinus, sea lamprey, allis shad and grey mullet, some of them declared endangered species and interesting.
Moreover, a species of the Ebro, i.e. Chondrostoma miegii, has been introduced in the last 30–40 years on the lower tract of the Bidasoa, thereafter extending upstream; as a result, overfishing has become a major problem for the river's fauna, with special pressure put on salmon migrating upstream to spawn. They don't make it to their goal and die before spawning, either falling prey to fishers' bait or an inability to overcome hydroelectric power stations and the 114 related dams, since 63% of them prevent migratory fish from achieving their purpose. Schemes by the Regional Government of Navarre are underway with a view to handling the issue. List of rivers of Spain Île des Faisans Battle of the Bidassoa Bidasoa-Txingudi Report on the Environmental State of the Bidasoa by the Basque Regional Govt Report for Correction Measures on the Bidasoa Briefing on the Bidasoa by an Agency of the Navarrese Regional Govt Geographical descriptive account of the Lower Bidasoa region by Geological Research Agency The Bidasoa at the Sandre database
The France–Spain border was formally defined in 1659. It separates the two countries from Hendaye and Irun in the west, running through the Pyrenees to Cerbère and Portbou on the Mediterranean Sea; the Franco-Spanish border runs for 656.3 kilometres between southwestern France and northeastern Spain. It begins in the west on the Bay of Biscay at the French city of Hendaye and the Spanish city of Irun; the border continues eastward along the Pyrenees to Andorra. At this point, the small country interrupts the border between Spain and France for 63.7 kilometres on the Spanish side and 56 kilometres on the French side. It continues eastward to the Mediterranean Sea at Cerbère in France and Portbou in Spain. From west to east, crossing the border: Spain Gipuzkoa Navarre Province of Huesca Province of Lleida Province of Girona France Pyrénées-Atlantiques Hautes-Pyrénées Haute-Garonne Ariège Pyrénées-Orientales Spain has an exclave in France, Llívia, in the Pyrénées-Orientales. Shortly after the start of the western border, following the course of Bidasoa River, Pheasant Island located in the middle of the river has a particular border regime: the island is a condominium whose sovereignty is shared between the two countries dertermined by if it is the first or the second half of a year.
The formal layout of the Franco-Spanish border dates back to the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees between the kingdoms of Spain and France in 1659. This would be followed by the Treaty of Llivia the following year, which transferred to France the sovereignty of several villages in the valley of Querol. There would be some agreements on specific areas: the agreement signed in Perpignan in 1764, which established the boundaries between Empordà and Coll Pertús and the Elizondo Treaty in 1785 establishing limits on the height of Aldudes is demarcated and Valcarlos; the final definition, that for the most part still in force, was conducted with the signing of the Bayonne Treaties between 1856 and 1868. During the mandates of the Queen of Spain Isabel II and French emperor Napoleon III between the two countries were signed several agreements by which the border was established: The Treaty of 1856, establishing the boundary between the provinces of Guipuzcoa is demarcated and Navarre; the treaty of 1862, which marked the boundaries in the provinces of Huesca and Lleida.
The treaty of 1866, which did the same from the valley of Andorra to Mediterranean. Final Act of limits, signed in 1868. Both countries concluded agreements under the same point. In 1980 an agreement was signed to define the border into the Bielsa-Aragnouet tunnel, 1984, during the construction of the road linking the Roncal Valley with Arette, it was agreed a mutual transfer of land of 2710 m2. In 1995, with the entry into force of Schengen Agreement, border controls for people and goods were abolished, thus ensuring freedom of movement across the border. Following the provisions of the treaties of Bayonne, the border is physically marked on the ground by 602 cairns showing the division between the two countries; these markers are numbered from west to east: one located on the Bidasoa and the last in Cap Cerbere, marked with consecutive numbers and letters. Another 45 cairns mark the border around Llivia. Maintaining this signaling runs either on behalf of both states. Irun / Hendaye Ibardin Larrún Col de Lizuniaga Col de Lizarrieta Ainhoa / Urdax Col d'Iguskiegui Col d'Ispeguy Col d'Esnazu Valcarlos / Arnéguy Port of Larrau Col de la Pierre Saint-Martin Pas d'Arlas Somport Col du Pourtalet Port of Boucharo Aragnouet–Bielsa Tunnel Col du Portillon Pont du Roi Puigcerdà / Bourg-Madame Col d'Ares Col du Perthus Col des Balistres
Donostialdea is one of the eight regions of Gipuzkoa, Basque Autonomous Community, corresponding to the basin of the lower Urumea along with a strip of basin corresponding to the Oria River, the region borrowing its name after the capital city of Gipuzkoa Donostia-San Sebastian, in Spain. The region comprises eleven municipalities extending in an area of 305.72 km2. It borders in the east with the region or subcomarca of Oarsoaldea, on the south with Leitzaldea or Norte de Aralar in Spanish, on the west with Urola Kosta and on the north with the Bay of Biscay; the area is served by the Metro Donostialdea, a service of Euskotren Trena or Basque Railways
Bay of Txingudi
The Bay of Txingudi is a bay in the right or French bank of the estuary of the Bidasoa river, near Hendaye in the département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques in south-west France. It faces the town of Hondarribia and the airport of San Sebastián in the Gipuzkoa province of the Basque Country, in north-eastern Spain; the border between the two countries passes through the Bidasoa estuary. It is an important area for bird-watching; the name may, by extension, be applied to the whole body of water between the French and Spanish sides
Hondarribia is a town situated on the west shore of Bidasoa river's mouth, in Gipuzkoa, in Basque Country, Spain. The border town is sited on a little promontory facing Hendaye over the Txingudi bay. A service boat makes the trip between the two cities; the town holds an ancient old quarter with a castle. In addition, Hondarribia features a beach across the Bidasoa from the touristy housing estate Sokoburu in Hendaye, alongside a mountain called Jaizkibel providing a hilly backdrop to the town. A road leads north-east from the beach area to the Cape Higuer, located in this municipality; the town harbours the San Sebastian Airport. The population as of 2005 is 15,700 inhabitants; the battles fought for possession of this fortified stronghold are known by the Spanish name for the place. Battle of Fuenterrabía, in which Claude, Duke of Guise distinguished himself, was instigated by Guillaume Gouffier, seigneur de Bonnivet, in command of the army of Navarre; the city was reoccupied by Charles V's forces in 1524 after the first Siege of Fuenterrabía.
Siege of Fuenterrabía was the outcome of a siege by the invading forces of Louis XIII, led by Condé. 27,000 French soldiers besieged the city for two months, firing 16,000 shells into the walled city, leaving only 300 survivors, most of them women and children. The city was destroyed, but did not surrender; the Spanish soldiers were successful, the raising of the siege is celebrated annually on 8 September in a parade, known as Alarde. Battle of Fuenterrabía, during the War of the Quadruple Alliance. Battle of Fuenterrabía, in which the French Revolutionary Army took the city by breaching the walls. After they took over the city, they blew up with the help of German engineers the section of wall facing France; the signing of the Peace of Basel took place. The women's basketball team Hondarribia-Irun and the rowing club Hondarribia Arraun Elkartea are the two most prestigious sports clubs in the town. In the last decade, the judo club Ama Guadalupekoa has had a lot of national medals in this discipline.
The Hondarribia-Irun plays in the Spanish women's basketball league since 2003, it has competed against European teams several times. Hondarribia has a rowing team called Hondarribia Arraun Elkartea, its boat is characterized by its green color and its name, “Ama Guadalupekoa”. In 2005 it won “La Bandera de la Concha”, one of the most prestigious competitions for Basque rowers. Furthermore, the Vilariño family, linked to the world of the engine, continues to achieve success at national and European levels. Hondarribia has its own golf course, where the great player Jose Maria Olazabal, one of the best golf players in the world, was raised; the construction of a jetty and other ancillary works by the engineer Iribarren, created the beach of Hondarribia that provides a place to enjoy the waters of the bay. In the late twentieth century the beach was modified, building on its surroundings a recreational port and a sports center. Throughout the year, but in the summer months, Arma Plaza Fundazioa organizes guided visits to the old town, the port-quarter of the Marina and the Fort of Guadalupe.
The tourist office managed by Arma Plaza Fundazioa, located in the Plaza de Armas, incorporates an interpretation center with spaces for audiovisual presentations / temporary exhibitions and souvenirs of the city. Juan de Alcega and tailor known by his book on geometrical tailoring. Josune Amunarriz, prominent female avant-garde artist whose large-scale installations can be seen in San Sebastián, New York. Jorge Bolet, legendary American-Cuban pianist José María Olazábal famous Spanish golfer, winner of two U. S. Masters titles and regular member of the European Ryder Cup team. Unai Emery, winner of Europa League and current manager of Arsenal. Former manager of French football club, Paris Saint Germain, Spanish football clubs, Sevilla FC and Valencia CF, Russian football club Spartak Moscow. Íñigo Cervantes, professional tennis player Official Website. Hondarribia in the Bernardo Estornes Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Tourism in Hondarribia, official website permanent dead link] Official website of the Pintxos contest, which takes place in Hondarribia Santiago Sanchez, et al.
"CAAD and historical buildings: the importance of the simulation of the historical process": restoring the walls of Hondarribia
Irun is a town of the Bidasoaldea region in the province of Gipuzkoa in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain. It lies on the foundations of the ancient Oiasso, cited as a Roman-Vasconic town during the period. One of the biggest towns in Gipuzkoa, its border town situation, has made Irun into a commercial and logistic centre. Irun railway station is a major break-of-gauge where the SNCF 1,435 mm standard gauge rails meet the 1,668 mm broad gauge Renfe ones. Irun features a fair ground provided with modern exhibition and telecommunication facilities just at some 100 metres away from the actual borderline at the Santiago Bridge. Irun is part of the conurbation of Txingudi bay with Hondarribia and Hendaye, the town being involved in the Eurocité Basque Bayonne-San Sebastián. One of its main festivals is the Alarde de San Marcial, a parade recreating an episode of the Peninsular War, held on every 30 June yearly, its main sports club is the Real Unión where its football team plays in Spain's Segunda División B.
Irun has an oceanic climate courtesy of strong maritime moderation from the Bay of Biscay. Manuel Anatol was a naturalized French professional football player. Tirso de Olazábal y Lardizábal, Carlist politician Juan Olazábal Ramery, Carlist politician Luis Mariano, singer. Amaia Montero, singer. Fermin Muguruza, singer. Alberto Górriz, footballer. Alberto López Fernández, footballer. Iñaki Descarga, footballer. Javier Garrido, footballer. Javier Irureta, footballer. Javier Yubero, footballer. Luis Regueiro, footballer. Patricio Arabolaza, footballer. Oier Olazábal, footballer. Sergio Francisco, footballer. Juan Manuel Gárate, cyclist. Basilio Sánchez Beguiristáin, mayor of the Chilean commune of Pichilemu. Kortatu, punkrock band Menchu Gal, painter Jon Sistiaga, reporter Irun municipal government website & Lakaxita gaztetxea
Not to be confused with the metropolitan area of Bilbao, which includes this region. Greater Bilbao is an administrative division of the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, Spain, it is one of the most populated one. The capital city of Greater Bilbao is Bilbao. Greater Bilbao is made by the municipalities situated along the Estuary of Bilbao which themselves form a conurbation, which metropolitan area is the fifth most populous in Spain. Greater Bilbao, or Bilboaldea, is located at the northwest of the province of Biscay, limiting with the comarcas of Enkarterri in the west and Busturialdea in the east, Durangaldea in the southeast and Arratia-Nerbioi in the south; the Bay of Biscay limits at north. Greater Bilbao can be divided into six subregions: The city of Bilbao; the left bank: Traditionally an industrial and manufacturing zone. It includes Barakaldo, Sestao and Santurtzi; the right bank: A residential area, including Erandio and the more affluent Getxo. The mining zone, where the main iron ore resources were located: Muskiz, Ortuella Txoriherri, wide expansion zone where the international airport and the University of the Basque Country are located.
Hego Uribe, including Basauri and Arrigorriaga. Uribe-Kosta: the coastal area north of Getxo is being integrated into the metropolitan area in the recent years, with the development of low density residential areas connected by the metro. Greater Bilbao is divided into 25 municipalities, being Bilbao the capital city; the 25 municipalities, among some others, make the Metropolitan Area of Bilbao. Bilbao metropolitan area Bilbao Bilbao la Vieja Biscay Comarca del Gran Bilbao. Comarca del Gran Bilbao Bilbao Ría 2000. Bilbao Metrópoli-30