Holly Springs National Forest
The Holly Springs National Forest was established by the United States Forest Service on June 15, 1936 during the tenure of United States Department of Agriculture Chief Forester Ferdinand A. Silcox; that same year, it was combined administratively with the Bienville, De Soto and Homochitto national forests, known collectively as "National Forests in Mississippi." The Holly Springs Ranger District controls 155,661 acres of Forest Service land, interspersed with 530,000 acres of owned properties, within the national forest's proclamation zone. Before the HSNF was established, much of the land was abandoned agricultural land with eroding soils; these rolling hills are now covered with loblolly and shortleaf pines, upland hardwoods. The Civilian Conservation Corps used loblolly pine because it was easy to plant, was suitable for the depleted soils of the north central hills, cast a large load of needles to help prevent further erosion; the land owned by the Forest Service is intermingled with private woodlots.
The district ranger for the HSNF is headquartered in Mississippi. In 1983, the Reagan administration proposed auctioning off the entire national forest to private bidders as part of a nationwide asset management program; the plan was abandoned. The HSNF is divided into two major sections; the largest section lies to the southeast of the city of Holly Springs and straddles U. S. Highway 78; the second section 20,776 acres, sits about 40 miles southwest of the main section, in Yalobusha County, between Coffeeville and Oakland, just east of Interstate 55. In descending order of land area the forest is located in parts of Benton, Marshall, Yalobusha and Union counties; the Chewalla Lake, Puskus Lake, Lake Tillatoba, Baker's Pond Hiking Trail, North Cypress Non-Motorized Trail recreation areas are found in the Holly Springs National Forest, offering varying levels of facilities and services. The source of the Wolf River, Baker's Pond, is located in the northernmost tip of the national forest 1-mile southwest of where U.
S. Highway 72 crosses the border between Benton counties; the Forest Service began working with the Wolf River Conservancy in 1999 to develop hiking trails there. National Forests in Mississippi Forest History Society – summary of Reagan Administration asset management plan Current federal projects and planning in the HSNF Wolf River Conservancy
Natchez Trace Parkway
The Natchez Trace Parkway is a National Parkway in the southeastern United States that commemorates the historic Old Natchez Trace and preserves sections of the original trail. Its central feature is a two-lane parkway road that extends 444 miles from Natchez, Mississippi, to Nashville, Tennessee. Access to the parkway is limited, with more than fifty access points in the states of Mississippi and Tennessee; the southern end of the route is in Natchez at an intersection with Liberty Road, the northern end is northeast of Fairview, Tennessee, in the suburban community of Pasquo, Tennessee, at an intersection with Tennessee State Route 100. In addition to Natchez and Nashville, the larger cities along the route include Jackson and Tupelo and Florence, Alabama; the All-American Road is maintained by the National Park Service, to commemorate the original route of the Natchez Trace. The road has been designated an All-American Road. Commercial traffic is prohibited along the entire route, the speed limit is 50 miles per hour, except north of Leiper's Fork and Ridgeland, where the speed limit is reduced to 40 miles per hour.
The total area of the Parkway is 51,746.50 acres, of which 51,680.64 acres are federal, 65.86 acres are non-federal. The Parkway is headquartered in Tupelo and has nine district offices: Leipers Fork, Meriwether Lewis, Tupelo, Kosciusko, Port Gibson, Natchez; the Parkway manages two battlefields: Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site and Tupelo National Battlefield. The gentle sloping and curving alignment of the current route follows the original foot passage, its design harkens back to the way the original interweaving trails aligned as an ancient salt-lick-to-grazing-pasture migratory route of the American bison and other game that moved between grazing the pastures of central and western Mississippi and the salt and other mineral surface deposits of the Cumberland Plateau. The route traverses the tops of the low hills and ridges of the watershed divides from northeast to southwest. Native Americans, following the "traces" of bison and other game, further improved this "walking trail" for foot-borne commerce between major villages located in central Mississippi and middle Tennessee.
The route is locally circuitous. Avoided was the danger to a herd of being caught en-masse at the bottom of a hollow or valley if attacked by predators; the nature of the route, to this day, affords good all-around visibility for those. At all times the road is on the high ground of the ridge dividing the watersheds and provides a view to either see or catch the scent of danger, from a distance great enough to afford the time to flee to safety, if necessary. By the time of European exploration and settlement, the route had become well known and established as the fastest means of communication between the Cumberland Plateau, the Mississippi River, the Gulf of Mexico settlements of Pensacola and New Orleans. In the early post-American Revolutionary War period of America's westward expansion, the Trace was the return route for American flat-boat commerce between the territories of the upper and lower Ohio and Cumberland River valleys; the Americans constructed flat-boats, loaded their commerce therein, drifted upon those rivers, one-way south-southwestward to New Orleans, Louisiana.
They would sell their goods, return home via the Trace, to as far away as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Improved communications and the development of ports along the rivers named above made the route obsolete as a means of passenger and freight commerce; as a result, no major population centers were born or developed along the Trace, because of its alignment, between its termini Nashville and Natchez. The two cities of note, near or on the Trace's alignment, developed only as a result of their alignment along axes of communication different from the Trace, thus the Trace and its alignment are today entirely undeveloped and unspoiled along its whole route. Many sections of the original footpath are visible today for observing and hiking the Parkway's right-of-way. Construction of the Parkway was begun by the federal government in the 1930s; the development of the modern roadway was one of the many projects of the Civilian Conservation Corps during the Great Depression. The road was the proposal of U.
S. Congressman T. Jeff Busby of Mississippi, who proposed it as a way to give tribute to the original Natchez Trace. Inspired by the proposal, the Daughters of the American Revolution began planting markers and monuments along the Trace. In 1934, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt administration ordered a survey. President Roosevelt signed the legislation to create the parkway on May 18, 1938. Construction on the Parkway began in 1939, the route was to be overseen by the National Park Service, its length includes more than 45,000 acres and the towering Natchez Trace Parkway Bridge in Williamson County, completed in 1994 and one of only two post-tensioned, segmental concrete arch bridges in the world. The Emergency Appropriations Act of June 19, 1934, allocated initia
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus of the family Pinaceae. Pinus is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae; the Plant List compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens and Missouri Botanical Garden accepts 126 species names of pines as current, together with 35 unresolved species and many more synonyms. The modern English name "pine" derives from Latin pinus, which some have traced to the Indo-European base *pīt- ‘resin’. Before the 19th century, pines were referred to as firs. In some European languages, Germanic cognates of the Old Norse name are still in use for pines—in Danish fyr, in Norwegian fura/fure/furu, Swedish fura/furu, Dutch vuren, German Föhre—but in modern English, fir is now restricted to fir and Douglas fir. Pine trees are evergreen, coniferous resinous trees growing 3–80 m tall, with the majority of species reaching 15–45 m tall; the smallest are Siberian dwarf pine and Potosi pinyon, the tallest is an 81.79 m tall ponderosa pine located in southern Oregon's Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest.
Pines are long lived and reach ages of 100–1,000 years, some more. The longest-lived is Pinus longaeva. One individual of this species, dubbed "Methuselah", is one of the world's oldest living organisms at around 4,600 years old; this tree can be found in the White Mountains of California. An older tree, now cut down, was dated at 4,900 years old, it was discovered in a grove beneath Wheeler Peak and it is now known as "Prometheus" after the Greek immortal. The bark of most pines is thick and scaly; the branches are produced in regular "pseudo whorls" a tight spiral but appearing like a ring of branches arising from the same point. Many pines are uninodal, producing just one such whorl of branches each year, from buds at the tip of the year's new shoot, but others are multinodal, producing two or more whorls of branches per year; the spiral growth of branches and cone scales may be arranged in Fibonacci number ratios. The new spring shoots are sometimes called "candles"; these "candles" offer foresters a means to evaluate fertility of the vigour of the trees.
Pines have four types of leaf: Seed leaves on seedlings are borne in a whorl of 4–24. Juvenile leaves, which follow on seedlings and young plants, are 2–6 cm long, green or blue-green, arranged spirally on the shoot; these are produced for six months to five years longer. Scale leaves, similar to bud scales, are small and not photosynthetic, arranged spirally like the juvenile leaves. Needles, the adult leaves, are green and bundled in clusters called fascicles; the needles can number from one to seven per fascicle, but number from two to five. Each fascicle is produced from a small bud on a dwarf shoot in the axil of a scale leaf; these bud scales remain on the fascicle as a basal sheath. The needles persist depending on species. If a shoot is damaged, the needle fascicles just below the damage will generate a bud which can replace the lost leaves. Pines are monoecious, having the male and female cones on the same tree, though a few species are sub-dioecious, with individuals predominantly, but not wholly, single-sex.
The male cones are small 1–5 cm long, only present for a short period, falling as soon as they have shed their pollen. The female cones take 1.5–3 years to mature after pollination, with actual fertilization delayed one year. At maturity the female cones are 3–60 cm long; each cone has numerous spirally. The seeds are small and winged, are anemophilous, but some are larger and have only a vestigial wing, are bird-dispersed. At maturity, the cones open to release the seeds, but in some of the bird-dispersed species, the seeds are only released by the bird breaking the cones open. In others, the seeds are stored in closed cones for many years until an environmental cue triggers the cones to open, releasing the seeds; the most common form of serotiny is pyriscence, in which a resin binds the cones shut until melted by a forest fire. Pines are gymnosperms; the genus is divided into two subgenera, which can be distinguished by cone and leaf characters: Pinus subg. Pinus, the yellow, or hard pine group with harder wood and two or three needles per fascicle Pinus subg.
Strobus, the white, or soft pine group with softer wood and five needles per fascicle Pines are native to the Northern Hemisphere, in a few parts of the tropics in the Southern Hemisphere. Most regions of the Northern Hemisphere host some native species of pines. One species crosses the equator in Sumatra to 2°S. In North America, various species occur in regions at latitudes from as far north as 66°N to as far south as 12°N. Pines may be found in a large variety of environments, ranging from semi-arid desert to rainforests, from sea level up to 5,200 metres, from the coldest to the hottest environments on Earth, they occur in mountainous areas with favorable soils and at least some water. Various species have been introduced to temperate and subtropical regions of both hemisp
Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve
The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve is one of the most biologically productive estuarine ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico region, supporting several rare or endangered plant and animal species, numerous important marine fishery resources, diverse habitat types and archaeological sites, in the U. S. State of Mississippi; the reserve encompasses coastal bay, expansive saltwater marshes, maritime pine forest, pine savanna and pitcher plant bogs. It supports extensive and productive oyster seagrass habitats, it serves as nursery area for many of the Gulf of Mexico's important recreational and commercial marine species, such as shrimp, blue crab, speckled trout, red fish. As part of the Grand Bay Savannah Conservation Partnership, the Grand Bay Reserve is participating in a prescribed burn management program for the East Mississippi Sound Region; this project is supported by local and state government agencies as well as the oil and gas industry with facilities in adjacent fire-dependent woodlands.
The Grand Bay Coastal Resources Center Interpretative Area is the headquarters for the Reserve and the Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Completed in 2009, the Center features interpretive exhibits, laboratories and a dormitory. Environmental education programs for and special events are offered. Visitor activities include hiking, paddling, photography and hunting. Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve - official site This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the NOAA
Vicksburg National Military Park
Vicksburg National Military Park preserves the site of the American Civil War Battle of Vicksburg, waged from March 29 to July 4, 1863. The park, located in Vicksburg, Mississippi commemorates the greater Vicksburg Campaign which led up to the battle. Reconstructed forts and trenches evoke memories of the 47-day siege that ended in the surrender of the city. Victory here and at Port Hudson, farther south in Louisiana, gave the Union control of the Mississippi River; the park includes 1,325 historic monuments and markers, 20 miles of historic trenches and earthworks, a 16-mile tour road, a 12.5-mile walking trail, two antebellum homes, 144 emplaced cannons, the restored gunboat USS Cairo, the Grant's Canal site, where the Union Army attempted to build a canal to let their ships bypass Confederate artillery fire. The Cairo known as the "Hardluck Ironclad," was the first U. S. ship in history to be sunk by a torpedo/mine. It was recovered from the Yazoo in 1964; the Illinois State Memorial has 47 steps, one for every day Vicksburg was besieged.
Battle of Chickasaw Bayou Battle of Arkansas Post Battle of Grand Gulf Battle of Snyder's Bluff Battle of Port Gibson Battle of Raymond Battle of Jackson Battle of Champion Hill Battle of Big Black River Bridge Siege of Vicksburg 8 The 116.28-acre Vicksburg National Cemetery, is within the park. It has 18,244 interments; the time period for Civil War interments was 1866 to 1874. The cemetery is not open to new interments; the cemetery has only one airman of Royal Australian Air Force buried during World War II. The remnants of Grant's Canal, a detached section of the military park, are located across from Vicksburg near Delta, Louisiana. Union Army Major General Ulysses S. Grant ordered the project, started on June 27, 1862, as part of his Vicksburg Campaign, with two goals in mind; the first was to alter the course of the Mississippi River in order to bypass the Confederate guns at Vicksburg. For various technical reasons the project failed to meet this goal; the river did change course by itself on April 26, 1876.
The project met its second goal, keeping troops occupied during the laborious maneuvering required to begin the Battle of Vicksburg. The national military park was established on February 21, 1899, to commemorate the siege and defense of Vicksburg; the park sprawls over 1,800 acres of land. The park and cemetery were transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933. Of the park's 1,736.47 acres, 1,729.63 acres are federally owned. In the late 1950s, a portion of the park was transferred to the city as a local park in exchange for closing local roads running through the remainder of the park, it allowed for the construction of Interstate 20. The monuments in land transferred to the city are still maintained by the NPS; as with all historic areas administered by the NPS, the park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Over half a million visitors visit the park every year. Michigan Memorial The National Parks: Index 2001-2003.
Washington: U. S. Department of the Interior. Cell Phone Audio Tour of Vicksburg 601-262-2100 Cell Phone Audio Tour of Vicksburg mp3 Official NPS website: Vicksburg National Military Park Main park map links: 32°20′39″N 90°51′6″W Grant's Canal map links: 32°19′14″N 90°56′0″W Vicksburg National Military Park, National Park Service at Google Cultural Institute
Jackson the City of Jackson, is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Mississippi. It is one of two county seats of Hinds County, along with Mississippi; the city of Jackson includes around 3,000 acres comprising Jackson-Medgar Evers International Airport in Rankin County and a small portion of Madison County. The city's population was estimated to be 165,072 in 2017, a decline from 173,514 in 2010; the city sits on the Pearl River and is located in the greater Jackson Prairie region of Mississippi. Founded in 1821 as the site for a new state capital, the city is named after General Andrew Jackson, honored for his role in the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812 and would serve as U. S. president. Following the nearby Battle of Vicksburg in 1863 during the American Civil War, Union forces under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman began the Siege of Jackson and the city was subsequently burned. During the 1920s, Jackson surpassed Meridian to become the most populous city in the state following a speculative natural gas boom in the region.
The current slogan for the city is "The City with Soul". It has had numerous musicians prominent in blues, gospel and jazz. Jackson is the anchor for Mississippi Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the state's largest metropolitan area with a 2016 population of 579,332, about one-fifth of Mississippi's population. The region, now the city of Jackson was part of the large territory occupied by the Choctaw Nation, the historic culture of the Muskogean-speaking indigenous peoples who had inhabited the area for thousands of years before European colonization; the Choctaw name for the locale was Chisha Foka. The area now called Jackson was obtained by the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, by which The United States acquired the land owned by the Choctaw Native Americans. After the treaty was ratified, American settlers moved into the area, encroaching on remaining Choctaw communal lands. One of the original Choctaw members, in 1849, described what he and his people experienced during this turbulent time when the Europeans had come to take their land.
"We have had our habitations torn down and burned" as well as their "fences burned" while they themselves faced personal abuse and have been "scoured and fettered". Under pressure from the U. S. government, the Choctaw Native Americans agreed to removal after 1830 from all of their lands east of the Mississippi River under the terms of several treaties. Although most of the Choctaw moved to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma, along with the other of the Five Civilized Tribes, a significant number chose to stay in their homeland, citing Article XIV of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, they became state and United States citizens at the time. Today, most Choctaw in Mississippi have reorganized and are part of the federally recognized Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, they live in several majority-Indian communities located throughout the state. The largest community is located in Choctaw 100 miles northeast of Jackson. Located on the historic Natchez Trace trade route, created by Native Americans and used by European-American settlers, on the Pearl River, the city's first European-American settler was Louis LeFleur, a French-Canadian trader.
The village became known as LeFleur's Bluff. During the late 18th century and early 19th century, this site had a trading post, it was connected to markets in Tennessee. Soldiers returning to Tennessee from the military campaigns near New Orleans in 1815 built a public road that connected Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana to this district. A United States treaty with the Choctaw, the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, formally opened the area for non-Native American settlers. LeFleur's Bluff was developed; the Mississippi General Assembly decided in 1821. They commissioned Thomas Hinds, James Patton, William Lattimore to look for a suitable site; the absolute center of the state was a swamp, so the group had to widen their search. After surveying areas north and east of Jackson, they proceeded southwest along the Pearl River until they reached LeFleur's Bluff in today's Hinds County, their report to the General Assembly stated that this location had beautiful and healthful surroundings, good water, abundant timber, navigable waters, proximity to the Natchez Trace.
The Assembly passed an act on November 28, 1821, authorizing the site as the permanent seat of the government of the state of Mississippi. On the same day, it passed a resolution to instruct the Washington delegation to press Congress for a donation of public lands on the river for the purpose of improved navigation to the Gulf of Mexico. One Whig politician lamented the new capital as a "serious violation of principle" because it was not at the absolute center of the state; the capital was named for General Andrew Jackson, to honor his victory at the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812. He was elected as the seventh president of the United States; the city of Jackson was planned, in April 1822, by Peter Aaron Van Dorn in a "checkerboard" pattern advocated by Thomas Jefferson. City blocks alternated with other open spaces. Over time, many of the park squares have been developed rather than maintained as green space; the state legislature first met in Jackson on December 23, 1822. In 1839, the Mississippi Legislature passed the first state law in the U.
S. to permit married women to administer their own property. Jackson was connected by public road to Vicksburg and
Shiloh National Military Park
Shiloh National Military Park preserves the American Civil War Shiloh and Corinth battlefields. The main section of the park is in the unincorporated town of Shiloh, about nine miles south of Savannah, with an additional area located in the city of Corinth, Mississippi, 23 miles southwest of Shiloh; the Battle of Shiloh began a six-month struggle for the key railroad junction at Corinth. Afterward, Union forces marched from Pittsburg Landing to take Corinth in a May siege withstood an October Confederate counter-attack; the visitor center provides films and a self-guided Auto Tour. The Battle of Shiloh was one of the first major battles in the Western Theater of the American Civil War; the two-day battle, April 6 and April 7, 1862, involved about 65,000 Union troops under Ulysses S. Grant and Don Carlos Buell and 44,000 Confederates under Albert Sidney Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard; the battle resulted in nearly 24,000 killed and missing. The two days of fighting did not end in a decisive tactical victory for either side —the Union held the battlefield but failed to pursue the withdrawing Confederate forces.
However, it was a decisive strategic defeat for the Confederate forces that had massed to oppose Grant's and Buell's invasion through Tennessee. After the Battle of Shiloh, the Union forces proceeded to capture Corinth and the critical railroad junction there; the battlefield is named after Shiloh Methodist Church, a small log church near Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee. Pittsburg Landing is the point on the Tennessee River. Shiloh Military Park Landmarks Total area: 3,996.64 acres Federal area: 3,941.64 acres Nonfederal area: 55 acres The Shiloh National Military Park was established on December 27, 1894. In 1904, Basil Wilson Duke was appointed commissioner of Shiloh National Military Park by President Theodore Roosevelt. There were requests of local farmers who had grown tired of their pigs rooting up the remains of soldiers that had fallen during the battle, insisting that the federal government do something about it; the park was transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933.
As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the military park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. On September 22, 2000, sites associated with the Corinth battlefield were added to the park; the Siege and Battle of Corinth Sites was designated a National Historic Landmark on May 6, 1991. The National Park Travelers Club held its 2013 convention at Shiloh; the Civil War Trust and its federal and local partners have acquired and preserved 1,317 acres of the battlefield in more than 25 different transactions since 2001. Most of this land has been sold or conveyed to the National Park Service and incorporated into the park. Permanent exhibitions, films and self-guided 12-mile Auto Tour, stopping at the Peach Orchard, the Hornet's Nest and General Johnston's death site. Shiloh National Cemetery is in the northeast corner of the park adjacent to the visitor center and bookstore. Buried within its 20.09 acres are 3584 Union dead, who were re-interred in the cemetery created after the war, in 1866.
There are two Confederate dead interred in the cemetery. The cemetery operations were transferred from War Department to the National Park Service in 1933. An unknown number of Confederate dead are interred in mass graves in the park; the Shiloh battlefield has within its boundaries the well preserved prehistoric Shiloh Indian Mounds Site, a National Historic Landmark. The site was inhabited during the Early Mississippian period from about 1000 to 1450 CE. Memphis and Charleston Railroad List of Mississippian sites The National Parks: Index 2001-2003. Washington: U. S. Department of the Interior. NPS website: Shiloh National Military Park Civil War Trails NPS Shiloh Auto Tour Map linked to photo galleries Guide to records for Shiloh National Cemetery, 1913 - 1933 Guide to records of Shiloh National Military Park Guide to records to Shiloh National Cemetery, 1891-1932 U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Shiloh National Military Park Shiloh National Military Park at Find a Grave