Möckernbrücke (Berlin U-Bahn)
Möckernbrücke is a station of the Berlin U-Bahn network in the western Kreuzberg district, named after a nearby bridge crossing the Landwehrkanal. It is in the vicinity of Potsdamer Platz; the station located on a viaduct at the northern shore of the Landwehrkanal is part of the first Stammstrecke route of the Berlin U-Bahn opened on 15 February 1902. As the station served the nearby Anhalter Bahnhof the original building was soon getting too small to cope with the rising number of passengers, it therefore was demolished and replaced by the current station opened on 25 March 1937. Damaged by air raids it was closed on 30 January 1944 and not reopened until 16 June 1947. In the course of the extension of the U7 line from Mehringdamm to the west a twin underground station was built at the southern shore of the Landwehrkanal; the U7 platform opened on 28 February 1966 Möckernbrücke became the line's western terminus until the second continuation to Fehrbelliner Platz on 29 January 1971. The U1/U3 and U7 platforms are connected by a glazed bridge over the Landwehr Canal.
U 1U 3: The next station is Hallesches Tor or Gleisdreieck.
Uhlandstraße (Berlin U-Bahn)
The underground station Uhlandstraße is the western terminus of U1 line, part of the Berlin U-Bahn network. It is located on Kurfürstendamm boulevard in the central Charlottenburg quarter of Berlin, among a mix of chain and high end shopping facilities; the station opened on October 12, 1913 at the intersection of Kurfürstendamm and Uhlandstraße, named after the poet Ludwig Uhland. Built according to plans designed by Alfred Grenander it was meant as the first section of a projected metro line connecting Wittenbergplatz with Berlin-Halensee station which, was never built. Damaged by the bombing of Berlin in World War II, the station was closed in 1945. From 1970, trains only went to Wittenbergplatz station but since 1993 trains are going to Warschauer Straße station again; the second entrance at the eastern end of the station, at the junction of Kurfürstendamm and Fasanenstraße, was closed in 1964, but re-opened in 2005. Up to today, the area is somewhat reminiscent of the period of promoterism and the Wirtschaftswunder days of the 1950s.
Quiet, green roads with expensive flats make the area one of the most desirable but unaffordable in Berlin, comparable for instance to the area between Westminster and Kensington in London
The Berlin U-Bahn is a rapid transit railway in Berlin, the capital city of Germany, a major part of the city's public transport system. Together with the S-Bahn, a network of suburban train lines, a tram network that operates in the eastern parts of the city, it serves as the main means of transport in the capital. Opened in 1902, the U-Bahn serves 173 stations spread across ten lines, with a total track length of 151.7 kilometres, about 80% of, underground. Trains run every two to five minutes during peak hours, every five minutes for the rest of the day and every ten minutes in the evening. Over the course of a year, U-Bahn trains travel 132 million km, carry over 400 million passengers. In 2017, 553.1 million passengers rode the U-Bahn. The entire system is maintained and operated by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe known as the BVG. Designed to alleviate traffic flowing into and out of central Berlin, the U-Bahn was expanded until the city was divided into East and West Berlin at the end of World War II.
Although the system remained open to residents of both sides at first, the construction of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent restrictions imposed by the Government of East Germany limited travel across the border. The East Berlin U-Bahn lines from West Berlin were severed, except for two West Berlin lines that ran through East Berlin; these were allowed to pass through East Berlin without stopping at any of the stations, which were closed. Friedrichstraße was the exception because it was used as a transfer point between U6 and the West Berlin S-Bahn system, a border crossing into East Berlin; the system was reopened following the fall of the Berlin Wall, German reunification. The Berlin U-Bahn is the most extensive underground network in Germany. In 2006, travel on the U-Bahn was equivalent to 122.2 million km of car journeys. The Berlin U-Bahn was built in three major phases: Up to 1913: the construction of the Kleinprofil network in Berlin, Schöneberg, Wilmersdorf. At the end of the 19th century, city planners in Berlin were looking for solutions to the increasing traffic problems facing the city.
As potential solutions and inventor Ernst Werner von Siemens suggested the construction of elevated railways, while AEG proposed an underground system. Berlin city administrators feared that an underground would damage the sewers, favouring an elevated railway following the path of the former city walls. Years of negotiations followed until, on 10 September 1896, work began on a elevated railway to run between Stralauer Tor and Zoologischer Garten, with a short spur to Potsdamer Platz. Known as the "Stammstrecke", the route was inaugurated on 15 February 1902, was popular. Before the year ended, the railway had been extended: by 17 August, east to Warschauer Brücke. In a bid to secure its own improvement, Schöneberg wanted a connection to Berlin; the elevated railway company did not believe such a line would be profitable, so the city built the first locally financed underground in Germany. It was opened on 1 December 1910. Just a few months earlier, work began on a fourth line to link Wilmersdorf in the south-west to the growing Berlin U-Bahn.
The early network ran east to west, connecting the richer areas in and around Berlin, as these routes had been deemed the most profitable. In order to open up the network to more of the workers of Berlin, the city wanted north-south lines to be established. In 1920, the surrounding areas were annexed to form Groß-Berlin, removing the need for many negotiations, giving the city much greater bargaining power over the private Hochbahngesellschaft; the city mandated that new lines would use wider carriages—running on the same, standard-gauge track—to provide greater passenger capacity. Construction of the Nord-Süd-Bahn connecting Wedding in the north to Tempelhof and Neukölln in the south had started in December 1912, but halted for the First World War. Work resumed in 1919, although the money shortage caused by hyperinflation slowed progress considerably. On 30 January 1923, the first section opened between Hallesches Tor and Stettiner Bahnhof, with a continuation to Seestraße following two months later.
Underfunded, the new line had to use trains from the old Kleinprofil network. The line branched at Belle-Alliance-Straße, now. In 1912, plans were approved for AEG to build its own north-south underground line, named the GN-Bahn after its termini and Neukölln, via Alexanderplatz. Financial difficulties stopped the construction in 1919; the first section opened on 17 July 1927 between Boddinstraße and Schönleinstraße, with the intermediate Hermannplatz becoming the first
Kurfürstendamm (Berlin U-Bahn)
Kurfürstendamm is an underground station, part of the Berlin U-Bahn network in Germany. It is on the U 1 and U 9 line and opened on 28 August 1961, when the first section of the U9 between Spichernstraße and Leopoldplatz was inaugurated; as there had been no stop of the U1 where it now crossed the U9, the line received an additional station here. It lies in eastern Charlottenburg on the intersection of Kurfürstendamm and Joachimstaler Straße, south of Zoologischer Garten Berlin and the Bahnhof Zoo. At the road junction above the station can be found the Café Kranzler, successor of the Café des Westens, a famous venue for artists and bohémiens of the pre–World War I era, as well as the Swissôtel Berlin; the well-known Kurfürstendamm boulevard is the most important upscale shopping district in Berlin. Next to the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche on Breitscheidplatz, shattered during the air raids in World War II, a modern new church was built
Gleisdreieck (Berlin U-Bahn)
Gleisdreieck is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on a viaduct on the U 1/U 3 and the U 2 lines in the Kreuzberg district. The station has platforms; the platforms of the U1/U3 are at a higher level than, at right angles to, those of the U2. The station's name means "railway triangle" or wye in English and marks the spot of an earlier major train hub opened in 1902, where the three branches of the first Stammstrecke U-Bahn line from Zoologischer Garten, Potsdamer Platz and Warschauer Brücke met. A major accident at the triangle happened on 26 September 1908. One car derailed and fell from the viaduct, killing 18 people and injuring 21. Upon another dangerous incident, the single level triangle from 1912 was rebuilt and replaced by the current two-level station. Since there is no direct rail connection between the two lines at Gleisdreieck, only an intersection. Though in 1939 the North-South Tunnel was opened in close vicinity, there is no interchange to the S-Bahn system. In 28/29 January 1944, there was a heavy hit in the viaduct, on 14 February 1945, there was adverse bombing hits heavy air pressure damage to the steel station construction.
It was directly hit on 3 February 1945. On 11/12 March 1945, the signal box was destroyed, on 18 March 1945, the upper platform was destroyed. A viaduct was destroyed in the Battle of Berlin. After the building of the Berlin Wall from 13 August 1961 the lower platform became the eastern terminus of the U2, until service discontinued on 1 January 1972. Between 1984 and 1991 it served as the southern terminal of the short-lived M-Bahn maglev running to Kemperplatz near the Philharmonie; the U2 train service on the lower platform was resumed on 13 November 1993. It is the westernmost station in Kreuzberg for both lines; the German Museum of Technology is adjacent to the station. The name Gleisdreieck refers to a large area in the south, the former freight yards of the Anhalter and Potsdamer Bahnhof, which are redeveloped as an urban park. Gardner, Nicky. "Letter from Europe: The Lost Kingdom". Hidden Europe website. Hidden europe. Retrieved 30 August 2013
U5 (Berlin U-Bahn)
U5 is a line on the Berlin U-Bahn. It runs from Alexanderplatz in Mitte eastwards through Friedrichshain and Friedrichsfelde, surfaces in Biesdorf-Süd to pass Kaulsdorf and Hellersdorf above ground and reaches city limits at Hönow. U5 at present only connects to other U-Bahn lines at its Alexanderplatz terminus, although work is ongoing to extend it across central Berlin to Berlin Hauptbahnhof, providing further U-Bahn and S-Bahn interchanges. Before control of the U-Bahn network was handed over to the BVG in 1929, the Hochbahngesellschaft started construction on a final line that, in contrast to its previous lines, was built as part of the Großprofil network, it was supposed to be a branch for the U2, which starts from Klosterstraße in 1908. The E line ran under Frankfurter Allee, for which the company had received the concession in 1914, between Alexanderplatz and Friedrichsfelde before the World War II; the construction work proceeded since 1927 without delay or undue expense, the first servicing station was established in the eastern part of the city.
The several stations do include: Alexanderplatz Schillingstraße Strausberger Platz Memeler Straße Petersburger Straße Samariterstraße Frankfurter Allee Magdalenenstraße Lichtenberg Friedrichsfelde Heavy bomb damage caused by Allied air raids and invaded water at the end of the war curtailed operations in the first post-war months. Thereafter, the trains of this line had to be sent as reparations to Moscow and replaced accordingly. Only in the 1960s were comprehensively procured new trains until 1968 were still small profile trains in use. Line E was the only purely East Berlin line. For a long time, it was planned to extend it beyond its former terminus Friedrichsfelde and to lead via Karlshorst to Oberschöneweide. Karlshorst was known for its villa colony. There, after the war, the Soviet military administration established itself, but both reasons were not sufficient to extend the line E to Karlshorst. Due to the large demand for housing in Berlin, a large part of the construction capacity was needed for housing construction.
The areas intended for housing included the areas west of the zoo. For about 25,000 residents, 9,000 apartments were to be built here. To connect this residential area better to the city center, it was decided to extend the subway line E by one stop. In addition, about 2.5 million zoo visitors per year were expected. For these expected passenger flows, it was worthwhile to extend the subway. During the time when Berlin was divided, the U5 was the only line to fall within East Berlin, the only line to be extended by the East German authorities. Work on this extension was started in September 1969. On 6 June 1973, the first extension was opened, to Tierpark station. In the 1970s, there were plans to extend the line over to Hellersdorf. For this purpose, the district Marzahn was divided, it was the municipality - Hellersdorf. Due to the large extent of the developing area, the rapid transit connection to the centre of East Berlin, Alexanderplatz was needed. For this purpose, several proposals have been worked out.
The idea to build the S-Bahn, as it did for the new residential areas in Marzahn and Hohenschönhausen, was rejected because the trams were heavily utilised and could not accommodate another train group. An express tram, realised in Potsdam, did not have the right capacity. Only the extension of the subway came into the question. Again, there were several route variants, it was decided to run the underground above ground on the unused railway line of the VnK route. In addition, the intersection at Wuhletal, which connects to the S-Bahn S5, was needed; the extension was planned in the years 1983 and 1984. It should receive nine stations; the new building, completely above ground, was opened in two sections. Construction began on 1 March 1985; the final extension over the route of an abandoned section of the VnK Railway, to the developing areas in the boroughs of Marzahn and Hellersdorf, went into service on 1 July 1988 and 1 July 1989. The last two stations of the extension, Louis-Lewin-Straße and Hönow, were located outside Berlin city limit, in Bezirk Frankfurt.
The area was joined to Berlin at German reunification in 1990. All stations were designed by surveying operations. For the first time, the stations were equipped with ramps so that passengers with prams and wheelchair users can steplessly reach the platforms. In Hellersdorf a connection to the local tram has been created: the stops islands can be reached via a tunnel, the crossing of the street is thus eliminated. After the reunification, the U5 had upgraded to the new signalling system, under Systemtechnik für den automatischen Regelbetrieb; the test stretch is from Friedrichsfelde to Biesdorf-Süd, using H-Zug trains, of which it was upgraded from 1996 to April 2000. The Class H, used on the U5 can be converted to automatic train operation, there is still a test train from the Bombardier, built in 1995, who can drive the train automatically. In contrast to the test farms with LZB 501 on the U9 as well as SelTrac on U2 and U4, which used the transmission of the information between route and train line conductor loop, STAR made use of radio technology.
When the Berlin Senate reiterated in 2002 that the U5 should not be extended further, the BVG announced that it would no l
Berlin Potsdamer Platz station
Berlin Potsdamer Platz is a railway station in Berlin. It is underground and situated under Potsdamer Platz in central Berlin. Regional and S-Bahn services call at the station; the first station at Potsdamer Platz was the Potsdamer Bahnhof terminus, closed on 27 September 1945 due to war damage. In 1939 the S-Bahn, or Stadtbahn, arrived; the idea for a North-South Link rapid transit rail line from Unter den Linden to Yorckstrasse, via Potsdamer Platz and Anhalter Bahnhof, had first been mooted in 1914, but it was not planned in detail until 1928, approval had to wait until 1933. Begun in 1934, it was plagued with disasters. Determination to have it finished in time for the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936 meant vital safety measures were ignored: on 20 August 1935, a tunnel collapse just south of the Brandenburg Gate buried 23 workmen of whom only four survived. Needless to say, the line was not ready for the Berlin Olympics. In spite of all the setbacks, it was opened from Unter den Linden to Potsdamer Platz on 15 April 1939, extended to Anhalter Bahnhof on 9 October, to Yorckstrasse, to complete the link, on 6 November.
The Potsdamer Platz S-Bahn station contained an underground shopping arcade, the largest in Europe. Four platforms were provided at the station and all were used although just two were planned to suffice: the other two were intended to be utilised by another new line, to branch off eastwards and run under the city to Görlitzer Bahnhof. A connection from Anhalter Bahnhof was to be made. Although construction of some tunnel sections went ahead, the line was never opened. During the war, many of the sections in the Berlin U-Bahn and S-Bahn were all closed due to enemy action, the sections through Potsdamer Platz were of no exception; the S-Bahn North-South Link, less than six years old, became the setting for one of the most contentious episodes of the final Battle for Berlin, in late April and early May 1945. On 2 May, the Tunnel was flooded as a consequence of the decision of the remaining Nazi leaders to blow up the section of the North-South Tunnel beneath the nearby Landwehrkanal as a desperate measure to slow the Soviet advance.
Because of this incident, the North-South Link was unable to be used until 1947. Shortly after war's end the Ringbahnhof got a reprieve of sorts, temporarily reopening on 6 August 1945 as terminus of the Wannseebahn trains, while the Nord-Süd-Tunnel received massive repairs; the Ringbahnhof closed for good on 27 July 1946 after some fragmentary train workings had resumed along the North-South Link on 2 June. Full services recommenced on 16 November 1947, although repairs were not complete until May 1948; the S-Bahn North-South Link saw a more bizarre - - state of affairs. This line, plus two U-Bahn lines elsewhere in the city, suffered from a quirk of geography in that they passed through East German territory en route from one part of West Berlin to another; this gave rise to the infamous "Geisterbahnhofe", Potsdamer Platz being the most notorious, those unfortunate ones on the eastern side that were sealed off from the outside world and which trains ran straight through without stopping, being there from 1961 to 1989.
They would slow down however, affording passengers the strange sight of dusty, dimly lit platforms patrolled by armed guards, there to prevent any East Berliners from trying to escape to the West by train. At the points where the lines passed directly beneath the actual border, concrete "collars" were constructed within the tunnels with just the minimum clearance for trains, to prevent people clinging to the sides or roof of the coaches; the station was the last to be reopened, with major refurbishment work included to the entire North South line and the station, with re-coating/repainting of the station and huge removal of wartime flood damage, on the 3 March 1992. Major refurbishment began to be carried out on January 1991; the U-Bahn, or Untergrundbahn, was a major revolution in Berlin's public transport, the forerunner of similar systems now seen in several German cities. The underground sections alternated with sections elevated above ground on viaducts – hence the alternative name Hochbahn.
The first line ran from Stralauer Tor to Potsdamer Platz. Begun on 10 September 1896 and opened on 18 February 1902, the actual Potsdamer Platz station was rather poorly sited. Though it was reached via an entrance right outside the main-line terminus, people had to walk about 200 metres along an underground passage beneath the appropriately named Bahnstraße, it was built by a Swedish architect Grenander in 1902, it was supposed to be named Potsdamer Bahnhof, or Potsdamer Ringbahnhof. But after 5 years the station was relocated just 180m to the southwest at Leipziger Platz; that year, the system was developed into a through line running from Warschauer Brücke to Knie, which placed Potsdamer Platz on a branch accessed via a triangle of lines between Möckernbrücke and Bülowstraße stations near the current Gleisdreieck station. The first Potsdamer Platz U-Bahn station saw use for just over five and a half years, until its inconvenient site, the desire to reach other parts of the city, enabled it to be superseded by a better sited new station on an extension of the line to Spittelmarkt.
The new station opened first, on 29 September 1907, the rest of