In religion and folklore, Hell is an afterlife location, sometimes a place of torment and punishment. Religions with a linear divine history depict hells as eternal destinations while religions with a cyclic history depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations; these traditions locate hell in another dimension or under the Earth's surface and include entrances to Hell from the land of the living. Other afterlife destinations include Heaven, Purgatory and Limbo. Other traditions, which do not conceive of the afterlife as a place of punishment or reward describe Hell as an abode of the dead, the grave, a neutral place located under the surface of Earth; the modern English word hell is derived from Old English hel, helle reaching into the Anglo-Saxon pagan period. The word has cognates in all branches of the Germanic languages, including Old Norse hel, Old Frisian helle, Old Saxon hellia, Old High German hella, Gothic halja. All forms derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic feminine noun *xaljō or *haljō.
In turn, the Proto-Germanic form derives from the o-grade form of the Proto-Indo-European root *kel-, *kol-:'to cover, save'. Indo-European cognates including Latin cēlāre and early Irish ceilid. Upon the Christianization of the Germanic peoples, extension of Proto-Germanic *xaljō were reinterpreted to denote the underworld in Christian mythology, for which see Gehenna. Related early Germanic terms and concepts include Proto-Germanic *xalja-rūnō, a feminine compound noun, *xalja-wītjan, a neutral compound noun; this form is reconstructed from the Latinized Gothic plural noun *haliurunnae, Old English helle-rúne, Old High German helli-rūna'magic'. The compound is composed of two elements: *xaljō and *rūnō, the Proto-Germanic precursor to Modern English rune; the second element in the Gothic haliurunnae may however instead be an agent noun from the verb rinnan, which would make its literal meaning "one who travels to the netherworld". Proto-Germanic *xalja-wītjan is reconstructed from Old Norse hel-víti'hell', Old English helle-wíte'hell-torment, hell', Old Saxon helli-wīti'hell', the Middle High German feminine noun helle-wīze.
The compound is a compound of * * wītjan. Hell appears in several religions, it is inhabited by demons and the souls of dead people. A fable about Hell which recurs in folklore across several cultures is the allegory of the long spoons. Hell is depicted in art and literature most famously in Dante's Divine Comedy. Punishment in Hell corresponds to sins committed during life. Sometimes these distinctions are specific, with damned souls suffering for each sin committed, but sometimes they are general, with condemned sinners relegated to one or more chamber of Hell or to a level of suffering. In many religious cultures, including Christianity and Islam, Hell is depicted as fiery and harsh, inflicting suffering on the guilty. Despite these common depictions of Hell as a place of fire, some other traditions portray Hell as cold. Buddhist - and Tibetan Buddhist - descriptions of Hell feature an equal number of hot and cold Hells. Among Christian descriptions Dante's Inferno portrays the innermost circle of Hell as a frozen lake of blood and guilt.
But cold played a part in earlier Christian depictions of Hell, beginning with the Apocalypse of Paul from the early third century. The Sumerian afterlife was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth"; this bleak domain was known as Kur, was believed to be ruled by the goddess Ereshkigal. All souls went to the same afterlife, a person's actions during life had no effect on how the person would be treated in the world to come; the souls in Kur were believed to eat nothing but dry dust and family members of the deceased would ritually pour libations into the dead person's grave through a clay pipe, thereby allowing the dead to drink. Nonetheless, funerary evidence indicates that some people believed that the goddess Inanna, Ereshkigal's younger sister, had the power to award her devotees with special favors in the afterlife. During the Third Dynasty of Ur, it was believed that a person's treatment in the afterlife depended on how he or she was buried.
The entrance to Kur was believed to be located in the Zagros mountains in the far east. It had seven gates; the god Neti was the gatekeeper. Ereshkigal's sukkal, or messenger, was the god Namtar. Galla were a class of demons, they are fr
The prehistoric and ancient history of the Serer people of modern-day Senegambia has been extensively studied and documented over the years. Much of it comes from Serer tradition rooted in the Serer religion. In Charles Becker’s paper titled "Vestiges historiques, trémoins matériels du passé clans les pays Sereer", two types of Serer relics were noted: "the non-material remains which are cultural in nature" and "material remains, which are many revealed through products or artefacts." The historical vestiges of Serer country in modern-day Senegambia, the diversity of Serer culture manifested across dialects and social organisation which reflect different historical territories were observed. Although many Serer artefacts remain unknown and preserved despite the efforts in the 1960s and 1970s to collect and document them all, many material relics were found in different Serer countries, most of which refer to the past origins of Serer families and Serer Kingdoms; some of these Serer relics included gold and metals.
The known objects found in Serer countries, are divided into two types: 1. The remnants of earlier populations. " These are the traces left by the proto-populations with which the Sereer were in contact when they came from the Fuuta".2. Laterite megaliths carved planted in circular structures with stones directed towards the east are found only in small parts of the ancient Serer kingdom of Saloum; the sand tumulus, on the other hand which resembles ancestral tombs still built by Serers are observed everywhere including the Kingdom of Sine, Kingdom of Saloum. The following table lists the archaeological sites in some of the Serer countries with their densities. Note: Some of these are now regions with their cities and villages: Shell mounds are found in the islands and around the estuary of Saloum. In the provinces of the Gandun, Numi and south-western Sine around Joal, 139 sites have been identified and they sometimes have shaped burial mounds; these relics are numerous and imposing. The graves of the founding ancestors were very sanctified as "Fangool".
Such relics associated with the ancestors are venerated relics. For example, the relics evoking memories of migration or foundation of states are sometimes sacralised; the remnants of royalty in the Kingdoms of Sine and Saloum are similar because the "Geulowars" have the same Serer tradition, but there are peculiarities in the objects and the scene of the coronation of royalty and power which have existed since the beginnings of dynasty with the annual ritual and mandatory ceremonies. The family relics in other Serer countries which are brought from Takrur or Kaabu by the founders were noted in places of worship of the village or province history; this may be stone, musical instruments, ceremonial objects used by the Saltigue or "Yaal Pangool". These relics kept by families since ancient times remain unknown. There are two types of Serer relics relating to two lineages that come into play in the social organisation of the Serer people: "kucarla" - which means paternal lineage or paternal inheritance.
"ƭeen yaay" - which means maternal maternal inheritance. The history of the Serer people who resided at Takrur, part of what is referred to as Serer country, the influence of their culture, history and tradition on the land is summarized by Becker in the following terms: Serer people Roog Serer religion Lamane States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes Timeline of Serer history Serer history
The Serer-Ndut or Ndut spelt are an ethnic group in Senegal numbering 38600 They are part of the Serer people who collectively make up the third largest ethnic group in Senegal. The Serer-Ndut live in central Senegal in the district of Mont-Roland, northwest of the city of ancient Thiès, their language Ndut, is one of the Cangin languages related to Palor. Like the other Cangin languages, the speakers are ethnically Serers but they do not speak the Serer-Sine language, their language is not a dialect of Serer-Sine. The people are agriculturalists and lake fishermen. Serer-Ndut people traditionally and still practice the Serer religion which involves honouring the ancestors covering all dimensions of life, cosmology etc, their name for the Supreme Deity is Kopé Tiatie Cac -. The Ndut initiation rite, a rite of passage in Serer religion takes its name from the Ndut language; some Serer-Ndut are Catholic. The main Catholic mission is at the town of Tiin; the Serer people to which they are a sub-group of are the oldest inhabitants of Senegambia along with the Jola people.
Their ancestors were dispersed throughout the Senegambia Region and it is suggest that they built the Senegambian stone circles although other sources suggest it was the Jola. The Ndut were the original founders of Biffeche as well as the Mt Rolland. During the colonial period of Senegal, both the French administration and the Muslim communities of Senegal tried to annihilate the Serer-Ndut people, they failed to achieve their objectives. Thiaw, Issa Laye, "La Religiosite de Seereer, avant et pendant leur Islamisation", Ethiopiques no: 54, Revue semestrielle de Culture Négro-Africaine, Nouvelle série, volume 7, 2e Semestre Dione, Salif, "L'APPEL du Ndut. ou l'initiation des garcons Seereer", IFAN Cheikh Anta Diop Gravrand, Henry, "La Civilisation Sereer - Pangool", vol.2, Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Senegal, p 9 and 77, ISBN 2-7236-1055-1 Echenberg, Myron J, "Black death, white medicine: bubonic plague and the politics of public health in colonial Senegal, 1914-1945", pp 141–146, Heinemann, ISBN 0-325-07017-2 Gravrand, Henry, "La civilisation Sereer - Cosaan: les origines, vol.1, pp. 140–146, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, 1983, ISBN 2-7236-0877-8 Dupire, Marguerite, "Sagesse sereer: Essais sur la pensée sereer ndut": Becker, Charles, "Les Serer Ndut: Études sur les mutations sociales et religieuses", Microéditions Hachette Klein, Martin A. "Islam and Imperialism in Senegal, Sine-Saloum" 1847-1914, pp VII-5, Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-85224-029-5 Daggs, Elisa, "All Africa: All its political entities of independent or other status", Hasting House, ISBN 0-8038-0336-2 Taal, Alhaji Ebou Momar, "Senegambian Ethnic Groups: Common Origins and Cultural Affinities Factors and Forces of National Unity and Stability" Gamble, David P. & Salmon, Linda K. "Gambian Studies No. 17: People of The Gambia.
I. The Wolof, with notes on the Serer and Lebou", San Francisco
French colonial empire
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is made between the "first colonial empire," that existed until 1814, by which time most of it had been lost, the "second colonial empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers in 1830; the second colonial empire came to an end after the loss in wars of Indochina and Algeria, peaceful decolonizations elsewhere after 1960. Competing with Spain, the Dutch United Provinces and England, France began to establish colonies in North America, the Caribbean and India in the 17th century. A series of wars with Britain and others resulted in France losing nearly all of its conquests by 1814. France rebuilt a new empire after 1850, concentrating chiefly in Africa as well as Indochina and the South Pacific. Republicans, at first hostile to empire, only became supportive when Germany started to build their own colonial empire; as it developed, the new empire took on roles of trade with France supplying raw materials and purchasing manufactured items as well as lending prestige to the motherland and spreading French civilization and language and the Catholic religion.
It provided manpower in the World Wars. A major goal was the ‘Mission civilisatrice’ the mission to spread French culture and religion, this proved successful. In 1884, the leading proponent of colonialism, Jules Ferry, declared. Full citizenship rights – assimilation – were offered, although in reality "assimilation was always receding the colonial populations treated like subjects not citizens." France sent small numbers of settlers to its empire, contrary to Great Britain and Spain and Portugal, with the only notable exception of Algeria, where the French settlers nonetheless always remained a small minority. At its apex, it was one of the largest empires in history. Including metropolitan France, the total amount of land under French sovereignty reached 11,500,000 km2 in 1920, with a population of 110 million people in 1939. In World War II, Charles de Gaulle and the Free French used the overseas colonies as bases from which they fought to liberate France. Historian Tony Chafer argues: "In an effort to restore its world-power status after the humiliation of defeat and occupation, France was eager to maintain its overseas empire at the end of the Second World War."
However, after 1945 anti-colonial movements began to challenge European authority. The French constitution of 27 October 1946, established the French Union which endured until 1958. Newer remnants of the colonial empire were integrated into France as overseas departments and territories within the French Republic; these now total altogether 119,394 km², which amounts to only 1% of the pre-1939 French colonial empire's area, with 2.7 million people living in them in 2013. By the 1970s, says Robert Aldrich, the last "vestiges of empire held little interest for the French." He argues, "Except for the traumatic decolonization of Algeria, what is remarkable is how few long-lasting effects on France the giving up of empire entailed." During the 16th century, the French colonization of the Americas began. Excursions of Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier in the early 16th century, as well as the frequent voyages of French boats and fishermen to the Grand Banks off Newfoundland throughout that century, were the precursors to the story of France's colonial expansion.
But Spain's defense of its American monopoly, the further distractions caused in France itself in the 16th century by the French Wars of Religion, prevented any constant efforts by France to settle colonies. Early French attempts to found colonies in Brazil, in 1555 at Rio de Janeiro and in Florida, in 1612 at São Luís, were not successful, due to a lack of official interest and to Portuguese and Spanish vigilance; the story of France's colonial empire began on 27 July 1605, with the foundation of Port Royal in the colony of Acadia in North America, in what is now Nova Scotia, Canada. A few years in 1608, Samuel De Champlain founded Quebec, to become the capital of the enormous, but sparsely settled, fur-trading colony of New France. New France had a rather small population, which resulted from more emphasis being placed on the fur trade rather than agricultural settlements. Due to this emphasis, the French relied on creating friendly contacts with the local First Nations community. Without the appetite of New England for land, by relying on Aboriginals to supply them with fur at the trading posts, the French composed a complex series of military and diplomatic connections.
These became the most enduring alliances between the First Nation community. The French were, under pressure from religious orders to convert them to Catholicism. Through alliances with various Native American tribes, the French were able to exert a loose control over much of the North American continent. Areas of French settlement were limited to the St. Lawrence River Valley. Prior to the establishment of the 1663 Sovereign Council, the territories of New France were developed as mercantile colonies, it is only after the arrival of intendant Jean Talon in 1665 that France gave its American colonies the proper means to develop population colonies comparable to that of the British. Acadia itself was lost to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Back in France there was littl
The Serer people are a West African ethnic group. They are the third largest ethnic group in Senegal making up 15% of the Senegalese population, they are found in northern Gambia and southern Mauritania. The Serer people originated in the Senegal River valley at the border of Senegal and Mauritania, moved south in the 11th and 12th century again in the 15th and 16th centuries as their villages were invaded and they were subjected to religious pressures, they have had a sedentary settled culture and have been known for their farming expertise and transhumant stock-raising. The Serer people have been noted as a matrilineal ethnic group that long resisted the expansion of Islam, fought against jihads in the 19th century opposed the French colonial rule. In the 20th century, most of them converted to Islam, but some are Christians or follow their traditional religion; the Serer society, like other ethnic groups in Senegal, has had social stratification featuring endogamous castes and slaves. The Serer people are referred to as Sérère, Serere, Kegueme and sometimes wrongly "Serre".
The Serer people are found in contemporary Senegal in the west-central part of the country, running from the southern edge of Dakar to the Gambian border. In The Gambia, they occupy parts of old "Nuimi" and "Baddibu" as well as the Gambian "Kombo"; the Serer-Noon occupy the ancient area of Thiès in modern-day Senegal. The Serer-Ndut are found in southern north west of ancient Thiès; the Serer-Njeghen occupy old Baol. The Serer people are diverse and though they spread throughout the Senegambia region, they are more numerous in places like old Baol, Saloum and in the Gambia, a colony of the Kingdom of Saloum. Senegal: 1.84 million The Gambia: 31,900 Mauritania: 3,500The Serer occupy the Sine and Saloum areas. The Serer people include the Seex, Serer-Noon, Serer-Ndut, Serer-Njeghene, Serer-Safene, Serer-Niominka, Serer-Palor, the Serer-Laalaa; each group speaks a Cangin language. "Serer" is the standard English spelling. "Seereer" or "Sereer" reflects the Serer pronunciation of the name and are used by Senegalese Serer historians or scholars.
The meaning of the word "Serer" is uncertain. Issa Laye Thiaw views it as pre-Islamic and suggests four possible derivations:1. From the Serer Wolof word reer meaning'misplaced', i.e. doubting the truth of Islam. 2. From the Serer Wolof expression seer reer meaning "to find something hidden or lost." 3. From "the Arabic word seereer meaning sahir magician or one who practices magic". 4. From a Pulaar word meaning separation, divorce, or break, again referring to rejecting Islam. Professor Cheikh Anta Diop citing the work of the 19th century French archeologist and Egyptologist, Paul Pierret, states that the word Serer means "he who traces the temple." Diop went on to write: "That would be consistent with their present religious position: they are one of the rare Senegalese populations who still reject Islam. Their route is marked by the upright stones found at about the same latitude from Ethiopia all the way to the Sine-Salum, their present habitat." Professor Dennis Galvan writes that "The oral historical record, written accounts by early Arab and European explorers, physical anthropological evidence suggest that the various Serer peoples migrated south from the Fuuta Tooro region beginning around the eleventh century, when Islam first came across the Sahara."
Over generations these people Pulaar speaking herders migrated through Wolof areas and entered the Siin and Saluum river valleys. This lengthy period of Wolof-Serer contact has left us unsure of the origins of shared "terminology, political structures, practices."Professor Étienne Van de Walle gave a later date, writing that "The formation of the Sereer ethnicity goes back to the thirteenth century, when a group came from the Senegal River valley in the north fleeing Islam, near Niakhar met another group of Mandinka origin, called the Gelwar, who were coming from the southeast. The actual Sereer ethnic group is a mixture of the two groups, this may explain their complex bilinear kinship system", their own oral traditions recite legends on they being part of, or related to the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River valley area. Serer people resisted Islamization and Wolofization from the 11th century during the Almoravid movement, migrated south where they intermixed with the Diola people, they violently resisted the 19th century jihads and Marabout movement to convert Senegambia to Islam.
After the Ghana Empire was sacked as certain kingdoms gained their independence, Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar, leader of the Almoravids launched a jihad into the region. According to Serer oral history, a Serer bowman named Amar Godomat shot and killed Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar with an arrow; the last kings of Sine and Saloum were Maad a Sinig Mahecor Joof and Maad Saloum Fode N'Gouye Joof respectively. They both died in 1969. After their deaths, the Serer Kingdoms of Sine and Saloum
Point of Sangomar
The Point of Sangomar is a sand spit located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the Saloum Delta, which marks the end of the Petite Côte west of Senegal. This narrow sandbar extends south about twenty kilometers from Palmarin Diakhanor. Long threatened by coastal erosion, the fragile cord was again broken by a tidal wave in 1987, giving birth to the island of Sangomar; the gap between this new island and the point where the village of Djiffer continues to widen. The rupture in Sangomar is the result of a natural process for the past few thousand years, noticed by sailors. In 1891, it was found that the gap had widened from 25 to 30m since 1886. In the twentieth century, several breaks were reported including: 1928, 1960, 1970, etc.. The latest occurred on 27 February 1987 at a place called Lagoba. A year the gap was reported to be 1 km wide, ten years about 4 km. Several camps and buildings were destroyed; the fish packing plant at Djifer was closed in 1996. The village located 4 km north of the first breakpoint is threatened and authorities are considering the evacuation of its inhabitants to the new port of Diakhanor.
Parallel to the phenomenon of erosion, occurs a process of sedimentation: the extremity of the new Southern Island of Sangomar increases by 100 m per annum to the south and, on the opposite bank, the outskirts of the villages of Niodior and Dionewar are silting reducing traffic of vessels and contributing to the isolation of populations. All these phenomena are followed by a body established with the support of UNESCO in 1984, the multidisciplinary team that studies coastal ecosystems; the Point of Sangomar has been long described by navigators and hydrographers because of its bar and because of its strategic location downstream of the port of Kaolack, an important production center for peanuts and salt. In the mid-nineteenth century, Louis Faidherbe, the Governor of Senegal, tried to take control of the peanut producing countries and those encircling the Cayor. In May 1858, he made. To consolidate the French position, as in Rufisque, Saly and Joal-Fadiouth, a fort was built at Sangomar. In 1890, a customs post was built there.
According to Henry Gravrand, the word "Sangomar" among the Serer people, means "the village of shadows". In the Serer religion, the Point of Sangomar is a place believed to be a gathering place for pangool; the local population continue to visit this island to venerate ancestors. It is one of the most sacred places in Serer religion. Serer and Jola tradition speak of an ancient legend referred to as the legend of Jambooñ and Agaire. According to this legend, two sisters boarded a pirogue along with their parties; the boat broke in two at the Point of Sangomar. Those who survived and headed north were the ancestors of the Serer people, those who headed south became the ancestors of the Jola."Sangomar, a Serer place of worship, at Palmarin" appears on the List of monuments and historical sites in Senegal. J. Bouteiller, De Saint-Louis à Sierra-Leone. Huit ans de navigation dans les rivières du Sud, A. Challamel, Paris, 1891 Gabriela Ackermann, Frédéric Alexandre, Julien Andrieu, Catherine Mering et Claire Ollivier, « Dynamique des paysages et perspectives de développement durable sur la Petite Côte et dans le delta du Sine–Saloum », in Vertigo, vol.
7, n°. 2, September 2006 « Sites mythiques du Sénégal: Sangomar, ses merveilles et ses mystères »