Cowrock Mountain is a mountain, located in Lumpkin and White counties in Georgia. The mountain forms a north/south ridge, its northern peak, has an elevation of 3,852 feet and its southern peak, Cowrock Flat, has an elevation of 3,502 feet. The boundary line between Lumpkin and White counties follows the ridge formed by Cowrock Mountain; the peak called Cowrock is the highest point in Lumpkin County, forms the northeast corner of the county. The Appalachian Trail crosses Cowrock Mountain; the mountain is located within the Raven Cliffs Wilderness in the Chattahoochee National Forest. Georgia's Named Summits - Lumpkin County TopoQuest map of Cowrock Mountain
Black Rock Mountain State Park
Black Rock Mountain State Park is a 1,743-acre Georgia state park west of Mountain City in Rabun County, Georgia, in Georgia's Blue Ridge Mountains. It is named after its sheer cliffs of dark-colored biotite gneiss. Astride the Eastern Continental Divide at an elevation of 3,640 feet, the park provides many scenic overlooks and 80-mile vistas of the southern Appalachian Mountains. On a clear day, four states are visible: Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee. In addition to Black Rock Mountain itself, the park includes four other peaks over 3,000 feet in elevation, making it the highest state park in Georgia; the park is closed seasonally from December 18 to March 15. Most of the rock outcrops found throughout the park are made of biotite gneiss, a metamorphic rock that underlies a large portion of the Georgia Blue Ridge. Black Rock Mountain State Park was established in 1952 and consisted of 1,000 acres. Before the park was established, Rabun County native John V. Arrendale began assembling the area that would become the park, making his first 70-acre purchase in 1938.
Numerous purchases have added to the park's area, including 301 acres added in 1995 with funding received from then-Governor Zell Miller's Preservation 2000 land acquisition program. Several smaller acquisitions have added acreage to the park's southwest corner. There are five hiking trails through forests, alongside mountain streams and around 17-acre Black Rock Lake; the 2.2-mile Tennessee Rock Trail crosses Black Rock Mountain's north slope before climbing across the mountain's summit and following the Eastern Continental Divide. From the trail's namesake feature, Tennessee Rock, vistas can be seen that extend northward into the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, including Clingman's Dome, the highest point in Tennessee; the 7.2-mile James E. Edmonds Trail is named for "Mr. Eddie" Edmonds, one of the park's earliest and longest-serving rangers; this rugged trail features four secluded campsites that allow backpackers with reservations to escape into the park's quiet backcountry. The campsites offer no facilities.
In places the Edmonds Trail weaves in and out of laurel-filled coves and follows mountain streams with small waterfalls. At the trail's northern end, there are 3,162-foot Lookoff Mountain and views of Wolffork Valley, the source of the Little Tennessee River; the Ada-Hi Falls Trail is named for the Cherokee word for "forest". The quarter-mile trail begins near the entrance of the park's RV camping area and leads into a moist north-facing cove filled with rosebay rhododendron; the lower portion of the trail becomes steep and utilizes a series of wooden steps before ending on the observation platform for Ada-hi Falls, a small cascade typical of falls found in the upper reaches of mountain coves. The trail strenuous due to the 220-foot elevation change; the 85-mile Black Rock Lake Trail was completed in August, 2007. This rolling path encircles Black Rock Lake and features several wooden bridges that span streams, as well as trailside benches that afford scenic views of the lake; the park's newest trail, the Norma Campbell Cove Trail, is only 200 yards.
It begins on the southern edge of the Eastern Continental Divide near the Marie Mellinger Center and descends into the upper reaches of a south-facing cove filled with ferns and trillium. It passes huge boulders and large rock outcrops, as well as small springs that flow into Stekoa Creek, one of the principal tributaries of the federally designated "wild and scenic" Chattooga River; the cove and trail are named for the late Norma Campbell, a popular park naturalist, who led the decade-long effort to acquire funding for the construction of the Marie Mellinger Center, the park's primary programming and special event facility. The park offers a variety of camping experiences, it has a 44-site campground featuring water and cable TV hookups for recreational vehicles. There are 12 isolated walk-in tent sites in Hickory Cove on the mountain's southeastern slope. On the park's westernmost ridge are ten rental cottages and Camp Tsatu-gi, a primitive pioneer campsite designed for use by organized groups.
The park's newest facility, the Marie Mellinger Center, was completed in July 2010. Named for one of the region's most-noted botanists, the 1,484-square-foot facility is designed to accommodate a variety of uses including special events. A 1,150-square-foot deck overlooks densely forested Norma Campbell Cove. A separate construction project to add restroom facilities to the Mellinger Center was completed in March 2011; the facility was formally dedicated during a public ceremony on October 8, 2011. In September, 2010, Black Rock Lake was opened for boating for the first time since its construction in 1974. Canoes and other small boats are authorized. No boat ramps exist; the Turtle Rock Fishing Pier, near Taylors Chapel Road, is barrier-fee and offers easy lake access for fishermen with mobility challenges. During the spring and early summer, Black Rock Lake is stocked with rainbow trout. In addition, anglers fish for catfish, yellow perch, large-mouth bass. 38 Tent/RV/Trailer sites 4 Backcountry Campsites 11 Walk-In Campsites 10 Cottages 2 Picnic Shelters 1 Pioneer Campground 11-mile hiking trail system Multiple picnic areas Camp Tsatu-gi Pioneer Camping Area Summit Visitor Center 17-acre Black Rock Lake Turtle Rock Fishing Pier Marie Mellinger Center Children's playground Junior Fishing Rodeo Happy Birthday, America!
On April 27, 2011, th
Black Mountain (Georgia)
For other mountains with the same name, see Black Mountain. Should not be confused with Black Mountain, Union County, Georgia. Black Mountain is located in Georgia USA on the boundary between Gilmer counties; the summit is the highest point in Dawson County. It is part of the Blue Ridge Wildlife Management Area. Black Mountain is located on the border of Gilmer counties, its elevation is about 3,600 feet. The mountain is located about 4 miles north of Amicalola Falls State Park, 14 miles northwest of Dahlonega and 17 miles southwest of Ellijay. Springer Mountain, the southern terminus of the Appalachian Trail, is located about 1 mile northeast of Black Mountain. Other nearby geographical features include Frosty Mountain and Tickanetley Creek. Black Mountain can be reached via the Appalachian Approach Trail, it is a 5.5-mile hike north from Amicalola Falls State Park, a 0.6-mile hike north from Nimblewill Gap, a 2.3-mile hike south from Springer Mountain on the trail. List of mountains in Georgia "Georgia's Named Peaks - Dawson County".
Archived from the original on 2007-09-27
A secondary forest is a forest or woodland area which has re-grown after a timber harvest, until a long enough period has passed so that the effects of the disturbance are no longer evident. It is distinguished from an old-growth forest, which has not undergone such disruption, complex early seral forest, as well as third-growth forests that result from harvest in second growth forests. Secondary forest regrowing after timber harvest differs from forest regrowing after natural disturbances such as fire, insect infestation, or windthrow because the dead trees remain to provide nutrients and water retention after natural disturbances; however after natural disturbance the timber is harvested and removed from the system, in which case the system more resembles secondary forest rather than complex early seral forest. Depending on the forest, the development of primary characteristics may take anywhere from a century to several millennia. Hardwood forests of the eastern United States, for example, can develop primary characteristics in one or two generations of trees, or 150–500 years.
The disruption is the result of human activity, such as logging, but natural phenomena that produce the same effect are included in the definition. Secondary forests tend to have trees closer spaced than primary forests and contain less undergrowth than primary forests. Secondary forests were thought to lack biodiversity compared to primary forests, however this has been challenged in recent years. Secondary forests have only one canopy layer, whereas primary forests have several. Secondary forestation is common in areas where forests have been lost by the slash-and-burn method, a component of some shifting cultivation systems of agriculture. Secondary forests may arise from forest, harvested or over a long period of time, forest, regenerating from fire and from abandoned pastures or areas of agriculture, it takes a secondary forest forty to 100 years to begin to resemble the original old-growth forest. Secondary forests re-establish by the process of succession. Openings created in the forest canopy allow sunlight to reach the forest floor.
An area, cleared will first be colonized by pioneer species. Though some species loss may occur with primary forest removal, a secondary forest can protect the watershed from further erosion and provides habitat. Secondary forests may buffer edge effects around mature forest fragments and increase connectivity between them, they may be a source of wood and other forest products. Today most of the forest of the United States, the eastern part of North America and Europe consist of secondary forest. In the case of tropical rainforests, where soil nutrient levels are characteristically low, the soil quality may be diminished following the removal of primary forest. In Panama, growth of new forests from abandoned farmland exceeded loss of primary rainforest in 1990. However, due to the diminished quality of soil, among other factors, the presence of a significant majority of primary forest species fail to recover in these second-growth forests. Land use, land-use change and forestry Land use CIFOR Secondary Forest FAO Forestry World Resource Institute M. van Breugel, 2007, Dynamics of secondary forests.
PhD Thesis Wageningen University. ISBN 978-90-8504-693-6 Uzay. U Sezen, 2007, Parentage analysis of a regenerating palm tree in a tropical second-growth forest. Ecological Society of America, Ecology 88: 3065-3075
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
Double Spring Knob
Double Spring Knob, with an elevation of 4,280 feet, is tied with Coosa Bald as the tenth-highest peak in Georgia, USA. It is located in two Georgia counties - Towns, it is located within the boundaries of the Chattahoochee National Forest. The Appalachian Trail passes below the knob to the east; this mountain is known as Kelly Knob. List of mountains in Georgia TopoQuest map of Double Spring Knob 100 highest peaks in Georgia Georgia peaks over 4,000 feet
Glade Mountain, elevation 3,672 feet, is the highest point in the Ellicott Rock Wilderness, which straddles Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina. It is in the Chattahoochee National Forest in Rabun County, Georgia. Georgia's Named Summits 100 highest peaks in Georgia Topographical map of Glade Mountain