Oceanography known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean. It is an important Earth science, which covers a wide range including ecosystem dynamics; these diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within: astronomy, chemistry, geography, hydrology and physics. Paleoceanography studies the history of the oceans in the geologic past. Humans first acquired knowledge of the waves and currents of the seas and oceans in pre-historic times. Observations on tides were recorded by Strabo. Early exploration of the oceans was for cartography and limited to its surfaces and of the animals that fishermen brought up in nets, though depth soundings by lead line were taken. Although Juan Ponce de León in 1513 first identified the Gulf Stream, the current was well known to mariners, Benjamin Franklin made the first scientific study of it and gave it its name. Franklin measured water temperatures during several Atlantic crossings and explained the Gulf Stream's cause.
Franklin and Timothy Folger printed the first map of the Gulf Stream in 1769–1770. Information on the currents of the Pacific Ocean was gathered by explorers of the late 18th century, including James Cook and Louis Antoine de Bougainville. James Rennell wrote the first scientific textbooks on oceanography, detailing the current flows of the Atlantic and Indian oceans. During a voyage around the Cape of Good Hope in 1777, he mapped "the banks and currents at the Lagullas", he was the first to understand the nature of the intermittent current near the Isles of Scilly. Sir James Clark Ross took the first modern sounding in deep sea in 1840, Charles Darwin published a paper on reefs and the formation of atolls as a result of the second voyage of HMS Beagle in 1831–1836. Robert FitzRoy published a four-volume report of Beagle's three voyages. In 1841 -- 1842 Edward Forbes undertook dredging in the Aegean Sea; the first superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory, Matthew Fontaine Maury devoted his time to the study of marine meteorology and charting prevailing winds and currents.
His 1855 textbook Physical Geography of the Sea was one of the first comprehensive oceanography studies. Many nations sent oceanographic observations to Maury at the Naval Observatory, where he and his colleagues evaluated the information and distributed the results worldwide. Despite all this, human knowledge of the oceans remained confined to the topmost few fathoms of the water and a small amount of the bottom in shallow areas. Nothing was known of the ocean depths; the British Royal Navy's efforts to chart all of the world's coastlines in the mid-19th century reinforced the vague idea that most of the ocean was deep, although little more was known. As exploration ignited both popular and scientific interest in the polar regions and Africa, so too did the mysteries of the unexplored oceans; the seminal event in the founding of the modern science of oceanography was the 1872–1876 Challenger expedition. As the first true oceanographic cruise, this expedition laid the groundwork for an entire academic and research discipline.
In response to a recommendation from the Royal Society, the British Government announced in 1871 an expedition to explore world's oceans and conduct appropriate scientific investigation. Charles Wyville Thompson and Sir John Murray launched the Challenger expedition. Challenger, leased from the Royal Navy, was modified for scientific work and equipped with separate laboratories for natural history and chemistry. Under the scientific supervision of Thomson, Challenger travelled nearly 70,000 nautical miles surveying and exploring. On her journey circumnavigating the globe, 492 deep sea soundings, 133 bottom dredges, 151 open water trawls and 263 serial water temperature observations were taken. Around 4,700 new species of marine life were discovered; the result was the Report Of The Scientific Results of the Exploring Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873–76. Murray, who supervised the publication, described the report as "the greatest advance in the knowledge of our planet since the celebrated discoveries of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries".
He went on to found the academic discipline of oceanography at the University of Edinburgh, which remained the centre for oceanographic research well into the 20th century. Murray was the first to study marine trenches and in particular the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, map the sedimentary deposits in the oceans, he tried to map out the world's ocean currents based on salinity and temperature observations, was the first to understand the nature of coral reef development. In the late 19th century, other Western nations sent out scientific expeditions; the first purpose built oceanographic ship, was built in 1882. In 1893, Fridtjof Nansen allowed Fram, to be frozen in the Arctic ice; this enabled him to obtain oceanographic and astronomical data at a stationary spot over an extended period. In 1881 the geographer John Francon Williams published Geography of the Oceans. Between 1907 and 1911 Otto Krümmel published the Handbuch der Ozeanographie, which became influential in awakening public interest in oceanography.
Curtis Fisher, better known by his stage name Grandmaster Caz, is an American rapper, songwriter and DJ. He works as a celebrity tour guide for Hush Hip Hop Tours, a hip-hop cultural sightseeing tour company in New York City, is a Board member of The Universal Federation for the Preservation of Hip Hop Culture. Caz first encountered rap in 1974 at a Kool Herc block party. Shortly after, he teamed with DJ Disco Wiz under the name Casanova Fly to form one of the first DJ crews, Mighty Force. Caz was the first rapper to perform both DJ and MC duties. In the late 1970s, he joined The Cold Crush Brothers. Caz admits that he himself stole new equipment during the New York City blackout of 1977, he hosts Hush Hip Hop Tours, the official sightseeing tour of Harlem and The Bronx. Caz was interviewed for the documentary Just to Get a Rep released in 2004. In 2008, he was one of the participants at the Cornell University Library conference on Hip Hop. Artists who cite Grandmaster Caz as an influence include Will Smith, Big Daddy Kane, Jay-Z and Cory Gunz.
In 2015, Caz featured on a single by Macklemore and Ryan Lewis named "Downtown". A 2009 book claims that the lyrics for The Sugar Hill Gang's seminal Rapper's Delight were plagiarized from the then-unpublished Caz's lyrics. In 2000, he set his account of the controversy in the song "MC Delight", he claims in the song that he wrote the lyrics of Big Bank Hank, the manager of his band, but never received any royalties or thanks for it. Jackson himself substantiated these claims as he neglected to change his verse on "Rapper's Delight" to reflect his own stage name, instead of beginning his verse with the now famous, "Check it out, I'm the C-A-S-A, the N-O-V-A, And the rest is F-L-Y." Casanova Fly is Grandmaster Caz's alternate moniker. This controversy is referenced in episode 3 of part 2 of The Get Down. Whilst listening to Rapper's Delight on the radio, The Get Down Brothers' member, tells his date that Grandmaster Caz is rapping the line and says that Caz is the "nicest MC around". In 1998, Caz was listed #11 out of Blaze Magazine's Top 50 MCs of all Time.
He was inducted into the Technics DJ Hall of Fame in 1999. In June 2008, Grandmaster Caz was inducted into the Bronx Walk of Fame. A street plaque bearing his name is now on permanent display on the Grand Concourse, the most famous thoroughfare in the Bronx. Grandmaster Caz was portrayed by Jaleel White in the Drunk History episode "American Music"; the Grandest Of Them All Tuff City 1992 You Need Stitches: The Tuff City Sessions 1982-1988 Ol' Skool Flava 2004 Rare & Unreleased Old School Hip Hop'86-'87 Ol' Skool Flava 2006 Mid Life Crisis Jazz Child Records 2008 Grandmaster Caz & Chris Stein - Wild Style Theme Rap 1 Chrysalis p1983 Grand Master Caz* & Chris Stein - Wild Style Theme Rap No.1 Toshiba EMI Ltd 1983 Yvette / Mister Bill Tuff City 1985 Count Basey Tuff City 1986 Get Down Grandmaster / I'm Caz Tuff City 1987 You Need Stitches Tuff City 1989 Star Search Tuff City 1992 Grandmaster Caz with Whipper Whip* - To All The Party People Tuff City 1994 45 King Old School Remixes Vol. 4 Ol' Skool Flava 1996 Grandmaster Caz & Chris Stein - Wild Style Theme Rap 1 / Wild Style Subway Rap Beyongolia 1998 DJ Parker Lee Presents: Grandmaster Caz Jazz Child Records 1999 MC Delight Jazz Child Records 2000 Grandmaster Caz & DJ Signify - Untitled Grandgood Records 2003 Grandmaster Caz & DJ Haitian Star - Move The Crowd / Scene Of The Rhyme 360° Records 2005 Capitol 1212 and Grandmaster Caz - Encore, Sure you Want More 12" Kool Kat records 2008 Wild Style Soundtrack 1982 Crotona Park Jams 2008 RareHipHop.com & Grandmaster Caz - Underground Heat Vol 1 Discography at Discogs Grandmaster Caz on IMDb DJ Grandmaster Caz Interview - NAMM Oral History Library
Master Gee (musician)
Guy O'Brien is an American rapper known by the stage name Master Gee. He is founder of the hip hop group The Sugarhill Gang, an inaugural class inductee into the Hip Hop Museum Hall of Fame. On the band's signature song, "Rapper's Delight", he raps, "I said M-A-S, T-E-R, a G with a double E, I said I go by the unforgettable name of the man they call the Master Gee". O'Brien grew up in Teaneck, New Jersey where at an early age he was exposed to a steady stream of doo wop and rhythm and blues, established himself as an energetic emcee in the pioneering Phase 2 hip hop crew. During the early infancy of the commercial hip hop movement in 1979, Master Gee, Big Bank Hank and Wonder Mike were discovered by producer Sylvia Robinson and brought together to form The Sugarhill Gang. O'Brien stepped away from Sugar Hill Records in 1984, established himself as a successful entrepreneur in the magazine industry. During the group's departure from the label, Joey Robinson Jr. son of Sugar Hill producer Sylvia Robinson, used the stage name Master Gee.
O'Brien and Wonder Mike went to court over the use of the group's name and stage names as documented in the film, I Want My Name Back. In 2014, name usage was amicably resolved, Master Gee has since re-emerged as a mainstay in the hip hop community and music industry, he lives in the Washington, DC area, performs worldwide with The Sugarhill Gang and as a solo DJ. He is a sought after public speaker and storyteller who launched a weekly radio show "Look, Learn" on WLVS Radio on February 21, 2019
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Pizza is a savory dish of Italian origin, consisting of a round, flattened base of leavened wheat-based dough topped with tomatoes and various other ingredients baked at a high temperature, traditionally in a wood-fired oven. In formal settings, like a restaurant, pizza is eaten with knife and fork, but in casual settings it is cut into wedges to be eaten while held in the hand. Small pizzas are sometimes called pizzettas; the term pizza was first recorded in the 10th century in a Latin manuscript from the Southern Italian town of Gaeta in Lazio, on the border with Campania. Modern pizza was invented in Naples, the dish and its variants have since become popular in many countries, it has become one of the most popular foods in the world and a common fast food item in Europe and North America, available at pizzerias, restaurants offering Mediterranean cuisine, via pizza delivery. Many companies sell ready-baked frozen pizzas to be reheated in an ordinary home oven; the Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana is a non-profit organization founded in 1984 with headquarters in Naples that aims to promote traditional Neapolitan pizza.
In 2009, upon Italy's request, Neapolitan pizza was registered with the European Union as a Traditional Speciality Guaranteed dish, in 2017 the art of its making was included on UNESCO's list of intangible cultural heritage. The word "pizza" first appeared in a Latin text from the central Italian town of Gaeta still part of the Byzantine Empire, in 997 AD. Suggested etymologies include: Byzantine Greek and Late Latin pitta > pizza, cf. Modern Greek pitta bread and the Apulia and Calabrian pitta, a round flat bread baked in the oven at high temperature sometimes with toppings; the word pitta can in turn be traced to either Ancient Greek πικτή, "fermented pastry", which in Latin became "picta", or Ancient Greek πίσσα, "pitch", or pḗtea, "bran". The Etymological Dictionary of the Italian Language explains it as coming from dialectal pinza "clamp", as in modern Italian pinze "pliers, tongs, forceps", their origin is from Latin pinsere "to pound, stamp". The Lombardic word bizzo or pizzo meaning "mouthful", brought to Italy in the middle of the 6th century AD by the invading Lombards.
Foods similar to pizza have been made since the Neolithic Age. Records of people adding other ingredients to bread to make it more flavorful can be found throughout ancient history. In the 6th century BC, the Persian soldiers of Achaemenid Empire during the rule King Darius I baked flatbreads with cheese and dates on top of their battle shields and the ancient Greeks supplemented their bread with oils and cheese. An early reference to a pizza-like food occurs in the Aeneid, when Celaeno, queen of the Harpies, foretells that the Trojans would not find peace until they are forced by hunger to eat their tables. In Book VII, Aeneas and his men are served a meal that includes round cakes topped with cooked vegetables; when they eat the bread, they realize. Modern pizza evolved from similar flatbread dishes in Naples, Italy, in the 18th or early 19th century. Prior to that time, flatbread was topped with ingredients such as garlic, lard and basil, it is uncertain when tomatoes were first added and there are many conflicting claims.
Until about 1830, pizza was sold from open-air stands and out of pizza bakeries, antecedents to modern pizzerias. A popular contemporary legend holds that the archetypal pizza, pizza Margherita, was invented in 1889, when the Royal Palace of Capodimonte commissioned the Neapolitan pizzaiolo Raffaele Esposito to create a pizza in honor of the visiting Queen Margherita. Of the three different pizzas he created, the Queen preferred a pizza swathed in the colors of the Italian flag — red and white; this kind of pizza was named after the Queen, although research cast doubt on this legend. An official letter of recognition from the Queen's "head of service" remains on display in Esposito's shop, now called the Pizzeria Brandi. Pizza was brought to the United States with Italian immigrants in the late nineteenth century and first appeared in areas where Italian immigrants concentrated; the country's first pizzeria, Lombardi's, opened in 1905. Following World War II, veterans returning from the Italian Campaign, who were introduced to Italy's native cuisine proved a ready market for pizza in particular.
Pizza is prepared fresh, as portion-size slices or pieces. Methods have been developed to overcome challenges such as preventing the sauce from combining with the dough and producing a crust that can be frozen and reheated without becoming rigid. There are frozen pizzas with self-rising crusts. Another form of uncooked pizza is available from bake pizzerias; this pizza is assembled in the store sold to customers to bake in their own ovens. Some grocery stores sell fresh dough along with sauce and basic ingredients, to complete at home before baking in an oven. Pizza preparation In restaurants, pizza can be baked in an oven with stone bricks above the heat source, an electric deck oven, a conveyor belt oven or, in the case of more expensive restaurants, a wood or coal-fired brick oven. On deck ovens, pizza can be slid into the oven on a lo
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Hip hop or hip-hop, is a culture and art movement that began in the Bronx in New York City during the early 1970s. The origin of the word is disputed, it is argued as to whether hip hop started in the South or West Bronx. While the term hip hop is used to refer to hip hop music, hip hop is characterized by nine elements, of which only four elements are considered essential to understand hip hop musically; the main elements of hip hop consist of four main pillars. Afrika Bambaataa of the hip hop collective Zulu Nation outlined the pillars of hip hop culture, coining the terms: "rapping", a rhythmic vocal rhyming style. Other elements of hip hop subculture and arts movements beyond the main four are: hip hop culture and historical knowledge of the movement; the fifth element, although debated, is considered either street knowledge, hip hop fashion, or beatboxing. The Bronx hip hop scene emerged in the mid-1970s from neighborhood block parties thrown by the Black Spades, an African-American group, described as being a gang, a club, a music group.
Brother-sister duo Clive Campbell, aka DJ Cool Herc, Cindy Campbell additionally hosted DJ parties in the Bronx and are credited for the rise in the genre. Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world; these elements were adapted and developed particularly as the art forms spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s and subsequent decades. As the movement continues to expand globally and explore myriad styles and art forms, including hip hop theater and hip hop film, the four foundational elements provide coherence and a strong foundation for Hip Hop culture. Hip hop is a new and old phenomenon. Sampling older culture and reusing it in a new context or a new format is called "flipping" in hip hop culture. Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted musical genres such as blues, rag-time and disco to become one of the most practiced genres worldwide. In 1990, Ronald "Bee-Stinger" Savage, a former member of the Zulu Nation, is credited for coining the term "Six elements of the Hip Hop Movement" by being inspired by Public Enemy's recordings.
The "Six Elements Of The Hip Hop Movement" are: Consciousness Awareness, Civil Rights Awareness, Activism Awareness, Political Awareness, Community Awareness in music. Ronald Savage is known as the Son of The Hip Hop Movement. In the 2000s, with the rise of new media platforms and Web 2.0, fans discovered and downloaded or streamed hip hop music through social networking sites beginning with Myspace, as well as from websites like YouTube, SoundCloud, Spotify. Keith "Cowboy" Wiggins, a member of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, has been credited with coining the term in 1978 while teasing a friend who had just joined the US Army by scat singing the made-up words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers. Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into his stage performance; the group performed with disco artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them "hip hoppers." The name was meant as a sign of disrespect but soon came to identify this new music and culture.
The song "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins with the phrase "I said a hip, the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, you don't stop". Lovebug Starski — a Bronx DJ who put out a single called "The Positive Life" in 1981 — and DJ Hollywood began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. Bill Alder, an independent consultant, once said, "There was hardly a moment when rap music was underground, one of the first so-called rap records, was a monster hit. Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa credits Love-bug Starski as the first to use the term "hip hop" as it relates to the culture. Bambaataa, former leader of the Black Spades did much to further popularize the term; the words "hip hop" first appeared in print on September 21, 1982, in The Village Voice in a profile of Bambaataa written by Steven Hager, who published the first comprehensive history of the culture with St. Martins' Press. In the 1970s, an underground urban movement known as "hip hop" began to form in the Bronx, New York City.
It focused on emceeing over neighborhood block party events, held outdoors. Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities police and prisons. Hip hop arose out of the ruins of a post-industrial and ravaged South Bronx, as a form of expression of urban Black and Latino youth, whom the public and political discourse had written off as marginalized communities. Jamaican-born DJ Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell pioneered the use of DJing percussion "breaks" in hip hop music. Beginning at Herc's home in a high-rise apartment at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement spread across the entire borough. On August 11, 1973 DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at