The Bridger Range known as the Bridger Mountains, is a subrange of the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Montana in the United States. The range runs in a north–south direction between Bozeman and Maudlow, it is separated from the Gallatin Range to the south by Bozeman Pass. The highest point in the Bridger Range is Sacagawea Peak, visible to the northeast from Bozeman. Although the range is in Gallatin County, a small portion extends into Park County. Bozeman Pass, at an elevation of 5,712 feet, is a narrow pass that lies between Bozeman and Livingston; the entire range is within Gallatin National Forest. The range is named after Jim Bridger, a mountain man of the 19th century who pioneered the Bridger Trail through mountains in southern Wyoming into the Bighorn Basin in 1864. On January 10, 1938, Northwest Airlines Flight 2 crashed in the Bridger Mountains, killing all 10 aboard; this was the first fatal crash of a Northwest Airlines aircraft. The most prominent peaks in the Bridgers include: Sacagawea Peak, 45°53′44″N 110°58′08″W, 9,596 feet Hardscrabble Peak, 45°54′52″N 110°58′57″W, 9,527 feet Naya Nuki Peak, 45°53′30″N 110°57′43″W, 9,449 feet Saddle Peak, 45°47′37″N 110°56′12″W, 9,134 feet Ross Peak, 45°51′31″N 110°57′22″W, 9,012 feet Mount Baldy, 45°44′00″N 110°57′33″W, 7,106 feet Bridger Peak, 45°46′46″N 110°56′20″W, 8,583 feet The Bridger Range is home to the ski area Bridger Bowl.
With the first rope tow installed in 1951, Bridger Bowl became a popular mountain with the locals. The area has a base elevation of 6100 feet. On average the ski area receives 350 inches of snow every year. Backcountry skiing is very popular in the Bridgers, with snow being available on peaks such as Sacagawea from early November until late May/early June. Beginning in the 2008–2009 ski season, Bridger Bowl started to allow backcountry travel from the ski area via access gates on the northern and southern boundaries. Though many hiking trails exist, Sacagawea Peak is a favorite hiking area in the Bridgers; the hike is a short but strenuous 2.2-mile one-way trek through pine forest, alpine tundra and scree fields to the top of Sacagawea Peak. The Bridger Ridge Run is a 20-mile race; the race follows the ridgeline from Fairy Lake to the southern end of the range. Images of the Bridger Range List of mountain ranges in Montana Bridger Bowl Ski Area Bridger Ridge Run Information about geological history Bridger Community
Helena is the state capital of the U. S. state of Montana and the county seat of Lewis and Clark County. Helena was founded as a gold camp during the Montana gold rush, was established in 1864. Over $3.6 billion of gold was extracted in the city limits over a duration of two decades, making it one of the wealthiest cities in the United States by the late nineteenth century. The concentration of wealth contributed to elaborate Victorian architecture. At the 2010 census Helena's population was 28,190, making it the fifth least populous state capital in the United States and the sixth most populous city in Montana, it is the principal city of the Helena Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Lewis and Clark and Jefferson counties. The local daily newspaper is the Independent Record. Semi-professional sports teams include the Helena Bighorns Tier III Junior A hockey team; the city is served by Helena Regional Airport. The Helena area was long used by various indigenous peoples. Evidence from the McHaffie and Indian Creek sites on opposite sides of the Elkhorn Mountains southeast of the Helena Valley show that people of the Folsom culture lived in the area more than 10,000 years ago.
Before the introduction of the horse some 300 years ago, since, other native peoples, including the Salish and the Blackfeet, utilized the area seasonally on their nomadic rounds. By the early 1800s people of European descent from the United States and British Canada began arriving to work the streams of the Missouri River watershed looking for fur-bearing animals like the beaver, undoubtedly bringing them through the area now known as the Helena Valley, yet like the native peoples none of them stayed for long. Gold strikes in Idaho Territory in the early 1860s attracted many migrants who initiated major gold rushes at Grasshopper Creek and Alder Gulch in 1862 and 1863 respectively. So many people came that the federal government created a new territory called Montana in May 1864; these miners prospected wide for new placer gold discoveries. On July 14, 1864, the discovery of gold by a prospecting party referred to as the "Four Georgians", in a gulch off the Prickly Pear Creek led to the founding of a mining camp along a small creek in the area they called Last Chance Gulch.
The original camp was named "Last Chance" by the Four Georgians. By fall, the population had grown to over 200, some thought the name "Last Chance" was too crass. On October 30, 1864, a group of at least seven self-appointed men met to name the town, authorize the layout of the streets, elect commissioners; the first suggestion was "Tomah," a word the committee thought had connections to the local Indian people. Other nominations included Squashtown. Other suggestions were to name the community after various Minnesota towns, such as Winona and Rochester, as a number of settlers had come from Minnesota. A Scotsman named John Summerville proposed Helena, which he pronounced hə-LEE-nə in honor of Helena Township, Scott County, Minnesota; this caused an uproar from the former Confederates in the room, who insisted upon the pronunciation HEL-i-nə, after Helena, Arkansas, a town on the Mississippi River. While the name "Helena" won, the pronunciation varied until 1882 when the HEL-i-nə pronunciation became dominant and has remained so to the present.
Tales of the naming of Helena claimed the name came variously from the island of St. Helena, where Napoleon had been exiled, or was that of a miner's sweetheart; the townsite was first surveyed in 1865 by Captain John Wood. However, many of the original streets followed the chaotic paths of the miners, going around claims and following the winding gulch; as a result, few city blocks are consistent in size. In 1870, Henry D. Washburn, having been appointed Surveyor General of Montana in 1869, organized the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition in Helena to explore the regions that would become Yellowstone National Park. Mount Washburn, located within the park, is named for him. Members of the expedition included Helena residents: Truman C. Everts - former U. S. Assessor for the Montana Territory, Judge Cornelius Hedges - U. S. Attorney, Montana Territory, Samuel T. Hauser - President of the First National Bank, Montana. Gillette - Helena merchant, Benjamin C. Stickney Jr. - Helena merchant, Walter Trumbull - son of U.
S. Senator Lyman Trumbull and Nathaniel P. Langford former U. S. Collector of Internal Revenue for Montana Territory. Langford helped Washburn organize the expedition and helped publicize the remarkable Yellowstone region. In May 1872 after the park was established, Langford was appointed by the Department of Interior as its first superintendent. By 1888, about 50 millionaires lived in Helena, more per capita than in any city in the world, they had made their fortunes from gold. About $3.6 billion of gold was taken from Last Chance Gulch over a 20-year period. The Last Chance Placer is one of the most famous placer deposits in the western United States. Most of the production occurred before 1868. Much of the placer is now under the streets and buildings of Helena.. This large concentration of wealth was the basis of developing fine residences and ambitious architecture in the city; the numerous miners attracted the development of a thriving red light district. Among the well-known local
United States congressional delegations from Montana
Since Montana became a U. S. state in 1889, it has sent congressional delegations to the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. Each state elects two senators to serve for six years. Before the Seventeenth Amendment took effect in 1913, senators were elected by the Montana State Legislature. Members of the House of Representatives are elected to two-year terms, one from Montana's at-large congressional district. Before becoming a state, the Territory of Montana elected a non-voting delegate at-large to Congress from 1864 to 1889. A total of 54 people have served either the Territory or State of Montana: 17 in the Senate, 32 in the House, five in both houses; the longest-serving senator is Max Baucus, in office from 1978 to 2014. The longest-serving representative is Pat Williams, in office for 18 years from 1979 to 1997. One woman has been a member of Montana's congressional delegation, Jeannette Rankin, as a representative, she was the first woman in the United States Congress.
Each state elects two senators by statewide popular vote every six years. The terms of the two senators are staggered so. Montana's senators are elected in the years from classes I and II. Senators were chosen by the Montana House of Representatives until the Seventeenth Amendment came into force in 1913. There have been twenty-two senators elected from Montana, of whom fourteen have been Democrats and eight have been Republicans. Montana's current senators are Democratic Jon Tester, in office since 2007, Steve Daines, in office since 2015. Tester was re-elected in 2012 with 48.58% of the vote, Daines was elected in 2014 with 57.9% of the vote. The Territory of Montana was an organized incorporated territory of the United States formed on May 26, 1864; the territory consisted of present-day Montana. The boundaries of the territory did not change during its existence; the territorial delegates were elected to two-year terms. Delegates were allowed to serve on committees and submit legislation, but were not permitted to vote on bills.
Delegates only served in the House of Representatives as there was no representation in the Senate until Montana became a state. Members of the House of Representatives are elected every two years by popular vote within a congressional district. Montana has an at-large congressional district that represent the entire state; every ten years, the number of congressional districts is reapportioned based on the state's population as determined by the United States Census. There have been 34 people, including just one woman, who have served as representatives from Montana: 15 Democrats, 18 Republicans and 1 Populist. Greg Gianforte is the current officeholder; as of April 2018, there are seven former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from the U. S. State of Montana who are living at this time; as of April 2018, there are two former U. S. Senators from the U. S. State of Montana who are living at this time, both from Class 2
Smith River (Montana)
Smith River is a tributary of the Missouri River, in central Montana, in the United States. It rises in southern Meagher County in the Castle Mountains and flows northwest in the valley between the Big Belt and Little Belt mountains, past White Sulphur Springs and past Smith River State Park, it turns north-northwest, is joined by Hound Creek in Cascade County, joins the Missouri 9 miles southwest of Great Falls. The Smith is a Class I river from the Camp Baker Fishing Access site near Ft. Logan to its confluence with the Missouri River for public access for recreational purposes. Noted for its spectacular scenery and blue-ribbon trout fishery, the Smith River is unique in that it has only one public put-in and one public take-out for the entire 59-mile segment of river. Boat camps located along the remote river canyon help preserve the unique quality of this area; the Smith River between Camp Baker and Eden Bridge is the only river corridor managed by Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks as a permitted river.
Permits for private floats on the Smith River are allocated to the public via a lottery system prior to the spring season. Permit applications are available the first week of January each year, with an application deadline of mid-February. Areas near the Smith River are under review as nearby Meagher County and state agencies investigate construction of the Black Butte Copper Project. List of rivers of Montana Montana Stream Access Law Media related to Smith River at Wikimedia Commons
Seal of Montana
The Great Seal of the State of Montana was adopted in 1865, when Montana was a United States Territory. When it became a state in 1889, it was decided to use the same seal. In 1891, proposals were made to adopt a brand new seal. None of these proposals passed legislation; the outer ring of the seal contains the text "The Great Seal of the State of Montana". The inner circle depicts a landscape of mountains and forests by the Great Falls on the Missouri River. A plow, a pick and a shovel are depicted on the front; the banner at the bottom of the seal reads the territorial motto of Oro y Plata, meaning "Gold and Silver" in Spanish. List of Montana state symbols Flag of Montana Symbols of Montana
Great Falls, Montana
Great Falls is a city in and the county seat of Cascade County, United States. The 2017 census estimate put the population at 58,638; the population was 58,505 at the 2010 census. It is the principal city of the Great Falls, Montana Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Cascade County and has a population of 82,278. Great Falls was the largest city in Montana from 1950 to 1970. Great Falls remained the second largest city in Montana until 2000. Since Great Falls has been the third largest city in the state. Great Falls takes its name from the series of five waterfalls in close proximity along the upper Missouri River basin that the Lewis and Clark Expedition had to portage around over a ten-mile stretch; each falls sports a hydroelectric dam today, hence Great Falls is nicknamed "the Electric City". There are two undeveloped parts of their portage route; the city is home to the C. M. Russell Museum Complex, the University of Providence, Great Falls College Montana State University, Giant Springs, the Roe River, the Montana School for the Deaf and the Blind, the Great Falls Voyagers minor league baseball team, is adjacent to Malmstrom Air Force Base.
The local newspaper is the Great Falls Tribune. The first human beings to live in the Great Falls area were Paleo-Indians who migrated into the region between 9,500 BCE and 8,270 BCE; the earliest inhabitants of North America entered Montana east of the Continental Divide between the mountains and the Laurentide ice sheet. The area remained only sparsely inhabited, however. Salish Indians would hunt bison in the region on a seasonal basis, but no permanent settlements existed at or near Great Falls for much of prehistory. Around 1600, Piegan Blackfeet Indians, migrating west, entered the area, pushing the Salish back into the Rocky Mountains and claiming the site now known as Great Falls as their own; the Great Falls location remained the tribal territory of the Blackfeet until long after the United States claimed the region in 1803. Meriwether Lewis was the first white person to visit the area, which he did on June 13, 1805, as part of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. York, an African American slave owned by William Clark and who had participated in the Expedition, was the first black American to visit the site of the future city.
Following the return passage of Lewis and Clark in 1806, there is no record of any white person visiting the site of the city of Great Falls until explorer and trapper Jim Bridger reached the area in 1822. Bridger and Major Andrew Henry led a fur-trading expedition to the future city location in April 1823. British explorer Alexander Ross trapped around Great Falls in 1824. In 1838, a mapping expedition sent by the U. S. federal government and guided by Bridger spent four years in the area. Margaret Harkness Woodman became the first white woman to visit the Great Falls area in 1862; the Great Falls of the Missouri River marked the limit of the navigable section of the Missouri River for non-portagable watercraft, the non-navigability of the falls was noted by the U. S. Supreme Court in its 2012 ruling against the State of Montana on the question of streambed ownership beneath several dams situated at the site of the falls; the first steamboat arrived at future site of the city in 1859. Politically, the future site of Great Falls passed through numerous hands in the 19th century.
It was part of the unincorporated frontier until May 30, 1854, when Congress established the Nebraska Territory. Indian attacks on white explorers and settlers dropped after Isaac Stevens negotiated the Treaty of Hellgate in 1855, white settlement in the area began to occur. On March 2, 1861, the site became part of the Dakota Territory; the Great Falls area was incorporated into the Idaho Territory on March 4, 1863, into the Montana Territory on May 28, 1864. It became part of the state of Montana upon that territory's admission to statehood on November 8, 1889. Great Falls was founded in 1883. Businessman Paris Gibson visited the Great Falls of the Missouri River in 1880, was impressed by the possibilities for building a major industrial city near the falls with power provided by hydroelectricity, he returned in 1883 with friend Robert Vaughn and some surveyors and platted a permanent settlement the south side of the river. The city's first citizen, Silas Beachley, arrived that year. With investments from railroad owner James J. Hill and Helena businessman Charles Arthur Broadwater, houses, a store, a flour mill were established in 1884.
The Great Falls post office was established on July 10, 1884, Paris Gibson was named the first postmaster. A planing mill, lumber yard, bank and newspaper were established in 1885. By 1887 the town had 1,200 citizens, in October of that year the Great Northern Railway arrived in the city. Great Falls was incorporated on November 28, 1888. Great Falls became a thriving industrial and supply center. In 1894, naturalist Vernon Bailey passed through and described Great Falls as "a good town, appears prosperous and booming & I should judge contains 15000 inhabitants." By the early 1900s, Great Falls was en route to becoming one of Montana's largest cities. The rustic studio of famed Western artist Charles Marion Russell was a popular attraction, as were the famed "Great Falls of the Missouri", after which the city was named. James Jerome Hill, primary stockhold
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl