KOST is a radio station in Los Angeles, California. Owned by iHeartMedia, it broadcasts an adult contemporary format, it is co-located with its sister stations on West Olive Avenue in Burbank. The transmitter is atop Mount Wilson alongside most L. A. based television and FM radio stations. Those FM stations, along with KOST, are considered "superpower" grandfathered Class B FM radio stations, since their effective radiated power exceeds the level the U. S. Federal Communications Commission sets for Class B FM stations at the height on Mount Wilson. KOST broadcasts in the HD format. On October 9, 1956, the station first signed on as KGLA. Noted radio programmer Gordon McLendon bought KGLA in the 1960s, changing the call letters in November 1966 to KADS. McLendon, with permission from the Federal Communications Commission, experimented with an all-advertisement format, hence the call sign choice. One of its features was that listeners could purchase their own commercials on KADS, not unlike classified advertising in a newspaper.
FM radios were still not owned in the 1960s and the experimental format was not successful. In March 1968, the station adopted the KOST-FM call sign, along with a all-music format, unusual if not unique given then-prevailing license obligations to broadcast at least some news; the station aired a mostly-instrumental beautiful music sound. In 1973, Cox Communications purchased KOST to pair with its newly-bought KFI. KOST, with its call sign pronounced "coast" in a stage whisper, continued its easy listening sound through the 1970s; this popular format was heard on rivals KJOI and KBIG. In the early 1980s, KOST added more vocals, on November 15, 1982, the station switched to a soft adult contemporary format. Former Sacramento radio personality Bryan Simmons was KOST's first host when the station signed on with its new format. On February 3, 1986, Mark Wallengren and Kim Amidon made their debut as KOST's new morning hosts; the Mark & Kim Morning Show was one of the longest running shows on Los Angeles radio, airing for more than 20 years until ending in 2007.
In September 1999, Cox Communications swapped KOST and sister station KFI with AMFM, Inc. for 14 stations in several East Coast markets. AMFM was purchased by Clear Channel Communications in 2000. Over the years, the station has garnered solid ratings. Christmas music is aired from early November through Christmas Day since 2001. KOST experienced little turnover among the air staff until the 2000s. On November 29, 2007, morning show co-host Kim Amidon departed the station; this was followed by KOST's original midday host Mike Sakellarides and longtime traffic reporter Mike Nolan. In October 2008, former KYXY San Diego radio personality Kristin Cruz joined Mark Wallengren as co-host of KOST's morning show. Cruz left the station in May 2014. In 2009, the midday shift was voice-tracked by former WLTW New York City personality Karen Carson. In February 2011, Carson resigned to join CBS Radio-owned WWFS in New York. Both Christine Martindale and Ted Ziegenbusch filled in on the midday show until August 2011, when former KBIG midday host Kari Steele took over.
Steele now hosts KOST's public affairs program The Sunday Journal broadcasting every Sunday following Animal Radio, providing interviews with community organizations. In August, longtime KOST afternoon personality Bryan Simmons left KOST. Simmons had been on the station since 1982, except between 2002 and 2004 when he hosted the Boogie Nights show at KBIG. In December 2012, Christine Martindale was among the radio personalities laid off from Clear Channel stations. On January 17, 2013, it was announced that Martindale would join KKGO. Ellen K, a former co-host on the KIIS-FM morning show and On Air with Ryan Seacrest, took over the KOST morning show on October 19, 2015. Mark Wallengren, part of the KOST morning show since 1986, switched to afternoons, replacing Bruce Scott who joined the station since 2012; the following is a list of known airstaff with current airstaff positions with parentheses KOST broadcasts three digital subchannels: KOST-HD1 is a digital version of KOST's analog signal.
KOST-HD2 is an HD simulcast of the talk radio format heard on co-owned KFI. KOST-HD3 is soft adult contemporary "103.5 The Breeze."From November 2013 until February 2015, KOST's HD3 signal relayed the syndicated Christian contemporary hit radio station Air1. In early February, the station's HD3 signal went dark and the Air1 feed moved to a subchannel on co-owned KHHT; the HD3 signal returned in November 2018. KOST is rebroadcast on the following translator and repeater stations: In 2007, the station was nominated for an "Adult Contemporary Station of The Year" award for the top 25 radio markets by Radio & Records magazine. Official website Query the FCC's FM station database for KOST Radio-Locator information on KOST Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KOST List of "superpower" grandfathered FM stations
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Sinbad the Sailor
Sinbad the Sailor is a fictional mariner and the hero of a story-cycle of Middle Eastern origin. He is described as hailing from Baghdad during the early Abbasid Caliphate. In the course of seven voyages throughout the seas east of Africa and south of Asia, he has fantastic adventures in magical realms, encountering monsters and witnessing supernatural phenomena; the tales of Sinbad are a late addition to the One Thousand and One Nights – they do not feature in the earliest 14th-century manuscript, they appear as an independent cycle in 17th and 18th century collections. The first known point at which they are associated with the Nights is a Turkish collection dated 1637. Traceable influences include the Homeric epics, Pseudo-Callisthenes's "Life of Alexander" from the late 3rd/early 4th century CE via the 9th century "Book of Animals" of al-Jahiz, earlier, in the ancient Egyptian "Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor". Sources include Abbasid works such the "Wonders of the Created World", reflecting the experiences of 13th century Arab mariners who braved the Indian Ocean.
The Sinbad cycle is set in the reign of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid. The Sinbad tales are included in the first European translation of the Nights, Galland's Les Mille et une nuits, contes arabes traduits en français, an English edition of which appeared in 1711 as The new Arabian winter nights entertainments and went through numerous editions throughout the 18th century; the earliest separate publication of the Sinbad tales in English found in the British Library is an adaptation as The Adventures of Houran Banow, etc. around 1770. An early US edition, The seven voyages of Sinbad the sailor, and The story of Aladdin. Numerous popular editions followed in the early 19th century, including a chapbook edition by Thomas Tegg, its best known full translation was as tale 120 in Volume 6 of Sir Richard Burton's 1885 translation of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. Like the 1001 Nights the Sinbad story-cycle has a frame story which goes as follows: in the days of Harun al-Rashid, Caliph of Baghdad, a poor porter pauses to rest on a bench outside the gate of a rich merchant's house, where he complains to Allah about the injustice of a world which allows the rich to live in ease while he must toil and yet remain poor.
The owner of the house sends for the porter, finding that they are both named Sinbad. The rich Sinbad tells the poor Sinbad that he became wealthy "by Fortune and Fate" in the course of seven wondrous voyages, which he proceeds to relate. After dissipating the wealth left to him by his father, Sinbad goes to sea to repair his fortune, he sets ashore on what appears to be an island, but this island proves to be a gigantic sleeping whale on which trees have taken root since the whale was young. Awakened by a fire kindled by the sailors, the whale dives into the depths, the ship departs without Sinbad, Sinbad is saved by the chance of a passing wooden trough sent by the grace of Allah, he is washed ashore on a densely wooded island. While exploring the deserted island he comes across one of the king's grooms; when Sinbad helps save the King's mare from being drowned by a sea horse, the groom brings Sinbad to the king. The king befriends Sinbad and so he rises in the king's favour and becomes a trusted courtier.
One day, the ship on which Sinbad set sail docks at the island, he reclaims his goods. Sinbad gives the king his goods and in return the king gives him rich presents. Sinbad sells these presents for a great profit. Sinbad returns to Baghdad where he resumes a life of pleasure. With the ending of the tale, Sinbad the sailor makes Sinbad the porter a gift of a hundred gold pieces, bids him return the next day to hear more about his adventures. On the second day of Sinbad's tale-telling, Sinbad the sailor tells how he grew restless of his life of leisure, set to sea again, "possessed with the thought of traveling about the world of men and seeing their cities and islands." Accidentally abandoned by his shipmates again, he finds himself stranded in an island which contains roc eggs. He attaches himself to a roc and is transported to a valley of giant snakes which can swallow elephants; the floor of the valley is carpeted with diamonds, merchants harvest these by throwing huge chunks of meat into the valley: the birds carry the meat back to their nests, the men drive the birds away and collect the diamonds stuck to the meat.
The wily Sinbad straps one of the pieces of meat to his back and is carried back to the nest along with a large sack full of precious gems. Rescued from the nest by the merchants, he returns to Baghdad with a fortune in diamonds, seeing many marvels along the way. Restless for travel and adventure, Sinbad sets sail again from Basra, but by ill chance he and his companions are cast up on an island where they are captured by "a huge creature in the likeness of a man, black of colour...with eyes like coals of fire and large canine teeth like boar's tusks and a vast big gape like the mouth of a well. Moreover, he had long loose lips like camel's, hanging down upon his breast, ears like two Jarms falling
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Antwan André Patton, better known by his stage name Big Boi, is an American rapper, songwriter and record producer, best known for being a member of American hip hop duo Outkast alongside André 3000. His work in the duo has produced six studio albums. Big Boi's solo debut Sir Lucious Left Foot: The Son of Chico Dusty was released in July 2010 to respectable sales and critical acclaim, he released his second studio album, Vicious Lies and Dangerous Rumors in 2012. Boomiverse, his third studio album, was released in June 2017. Patton was born and spent the first half of his childhood in Savannah, attending Herschel V. Jenkins High School, before moving to Atlanta with his Aunt Renne, he decided to pursue his interest in music at Tri-Cities High School, a visual and performing arts magnet school. He had a strong interest in hip hop music, met André "3000" Benjamin while attending Tri Cities High School in the early-1990s; the two joined forces as Outkast and signed with LaFace Records. Patton has used his lyrics to criticize the problems that plague both the African American community and the world.
An example is a scathing attack on the Bush administration and the War on Terror. Another example is 2008's "Sumthin's Gotta Give" with Mary J. Blige talking about the state of America and Barack Obama. After four successful albums as a duo, the members of Outkast chose to make two solo albums, release them as a double album under the Outkast name. André 3000 released The Love Big Boi released Speakerboxxx; the two albums were packaged together as Speakerboxxx/The Love Below in 2003. Speakerboxxx featured a style similar to Outkast's previous efforts, while The Love Below explored a more offbeat territory, with André 3000 singing rather than his usual rapping. One song from each album was released in September 2003 as a single. Patton's choice was the single "The Way You Move", it was supported by urban radio, but crossed over to pop charts and became as big a pop hit as Benjamin's "Hey Ya!". "The Way You Move" supplanted "Hey Ya!" as the #1 song on the US pop charts. The second single from Big Boi's side of the album was "Ghetto Musick", which featured both members of Outkast and a sample from Patti LaBelle's "Love and Want You".
In 2005, Big Boi released a mixtape/compilation album, Got Purp? Vol 2, in conjunction with the Purple Ribbon All-Stars on November 22 through Purple Ribbon Records; the first single from the album was "Kryptonite", which reached 35 on the Billboard Hot 100. Patton was featured on the song "International Players Anthem", the first single from UGK's album Underground Kingz. In 2007, after the sixth album under the Outkast name, Big Boi announced plans to release a full-fledged solo album. While he had released a previous solo album in Speakerboxxx, it still was technically under the Outkast name; the album was to be titled Sir Lucious Left Foot: The Son of Chico Dusty. The album's first promotional single, "Royal Flush", was released in 2007, featured Raekwon and André 3000. Over the next few years the album saw many delays, but multiple promotional and video singles were released such as "Shine Blockas" featuring Gucci Mane, "For Yo Sorrows" featuring George Clinton and Too Short and "General Patton" featuring Big Rube.
The first official single was "Shutterbugg" featuring Cutty and the second "Follow Us" featuring Vonnegutt. The album was released internationally on July 5. Guest artists include alternative urban songstress Janelle Monáe. I. and B.o. B. Sir Lucious Left Foot: The Son of Chico Dusty received general acclaim from most music critics, earning praise for its inventive sound, varied musical style, Big Boi's lyricism. On February 27, 2011, it was announced that Big Boi was creating a joint album along with rappers Mike Bigga and Pill. On April 28, 2011, Big Boi announced that he would be working with Modest Mouse on their upcoming album Strangers to Ourselves; these collaborations have yet to surface. In a July 2010 interview for The Village Voice, Big Boi revealed that he is working on the follow-up album to Sir Lucious Left Foot, entitled Vicious Lies and Dangerous Rumors, stating that he is "maybe about six songs into it", it was released on November 13, 2012. The first single from the album was "Mama Told Me" featuring Kelly Rowland.
The album featured guest appearances from ASAP Rocky, Ludacris, T. I. Little Dragon, Kelly Rowland and B.o. B. In 2012, Big Boi revealed that he was ten songs deep into his third studio album, he reiterated his plans for a new studio album in January 2014. He was featured on the Catch The Throne mixtape with the song "Mother of Dragons", it was released for free download on SoundCloud by HBO on March 7, 2014 to promote the fourth season of Game of Thrones. On March 21, 2014, it was announced that Big Boi had signed a management deal with Jordan Feldstein's Career Artist Management. On May 10, 2014, it was revealed. On April 19, 2017, Big Boi revealed that his third studio album would be titled Boomiverse, that two singles, "Mic Jack" featuring Adam Levine and "Kill Jill" featuring Killer Mike and Jeezy, would be released the following day. In 2018, Big Boi signed to L. A. Reid and Charles Goldstuck's new label Hitco Music. In 2019, Big Boi performed at the Super Bowl LIII halftime show. Along with other performers, he was criticized for agreeing to participate despite the U.
S. national anthem protests by others. Big Boi appeared on Nick Cannon's Wild'n Out Season 3 & Season 5 as one o
Entourage (U.S. TV series)
Entourage is an American comedy-drama television series that premiered on HBO on July 18, 2004 and concluded on September 11, 2011, after eight seasons. The series was created and written by Doug Ellin and chronicles the acting career of Vincent Chase, a young A-list movie star, his childhood friends from Queens, New York City, as they attempt to further their nascent careers in Los Angeles. Mark Wahlberg and Stephen Levinson served as the show's executive producers, its premise is loosely based on Wahlberg's experiences as an up-and-coming film star; the series deals with real-life situations in modern-day Hollywood. The show is known for its array of famous guests, having featured several actors and other celebrities in guest star and cameo roles playing fictionalized versions of themselves. According to Mark Wahlberg, Entourage was conceived when his assistant asked if he could film Wahlberg and his friends, calling them "hilarious." Other reports credit Eric Weinstein, a long-time friend of Wahlberg, with the idea of filming the actor's group of friends.
However, according to Donnie Carroll, the inspiration for the Turtle character, the idea for a show involving an actor and his friends had come from him. It had originated as a book idea, centered on Carroll's own life and his experiences with Wahlberg, titled From the'Hood to Hollywood, A Soldier's Story. To be more satirical of the Hollywood lifestyle, a fictional approach was chosen rather than a straight documentary in order to keep the content light, avoid directly depicting Wahlberg's violent past. Vincent Chase was envisioned to be more similar to Wahlberg, but it was decided that some of his and his friends' activities would not work well on television. A lighter approach was subsequently decided upon. Entourage revolves around Vincent Chase, his best friend and manager is Eric Murphy. "E," as his friends call him, is based on Mark Wahlberg's friend and executive producer Eric Weinstein. He's been reported to be inspired by Stephen Levinson, Mark Wahlberg's manager. Vincent's older half-brother, Johnny "Drama" Chase, is Vince's personal chef and bodyguard.
Johnny is a C-list actor, in the fictional show Viking Quest during his younger days. His role in the new fictional hit show Five Towns had begun to resurrect his fame and career, although he still received less acknowledgment than he would have liked for it; as the show went on, Drama got offers for more roles. The show ended with Drama having his own animated TV show called "Johnny's Bananas" and him landing a new TV movie with the help of Vince. Drama's character is based on Johnny "Drama" Alves, whom Donnie Wahlberg had hired to keep his younger brother out of trouble. Rounding out the entourage of friends is Salvatore "Turtle" Assante, another of Vince's old friends from childhood. Turtle's official role is as Vince's driver and assistant, though his value as such is brought into question; this character is based on Wahlberg's former "gofer" Donnie Carroll aka "Donkey". Carroll auditioned for the role, but the Boston native was turned down when it was decided the actors would have to be New Yorkers.
Carroll died on December 2005, after an asthma attack. Ari Gold is Vince's lovable agent; the role has led to Emmy Awards for Piven. Ari is based on Wahlberg's real-life agent Ari Emanuel. Connolly, Dillon and Piven are credited in every episode in the opening credits of the entire series. Debi Mazar, who has a recurring guest star role as Shauna in season 1, is promoted to opening credits billing in season 2, her appearances in season 3 were limited due to her pregnancy and Mazar made her final regular appearance in episode 42. Mazar is credited as a special guest star. Melissa Gold and Lloyd have recurring roles in the first two seasons. Starting in season 3, Reeves and Lee are credited as "starring" in the end credits in the episodes they appear in. Reeves receives opening credits billing starting with season 4, Lee is added to the opening credits starting with season 5. In season 4, Rhys Coiro, who portrays recurring character Billy Walsh, is credited as "starring" in the end credits for the first six episodes of the season.
However, when his character returns in episode 52, he is again credited as a guest star. Emmanuelle Chriqui portrays E's on-and-off girlfriend Sloan McQuewick as a recurring guest star from season 2 to 5, beginning with season 6, she is credited as "starring" in the end credits. Gary Cole guest stars in three episodes of season 5 as agent Andrew Klein, beginning with season 6 he is credited as "starring" in the end credits and returns in season 7 as a special guest star. Scott Caan guest stars in two episodes of season 6 as Scott Lavin, in season 7 and 8, he is credited as "starring" in the end credits. Entourage features many recurring characters; some are fictional, such as Malcolm McDowell's "Terrance McQuewick" character, while other actors, such as Mark Wahlberg, Bob Saget, Pauly Shore, Jamie-Lynn Sigler, Mandy Moore, Sasha Grey, Seth Green appear as fictional versions of themselves. Entourage has at least one celebrity guest per episode, such as actors, film directors, film producers and professional athletes playing themselves.
Appearances include Peter Jackson, Christina Aguilera, Kanye West, Tom Brady, Jessica Alba, Gary Busey, Lar
National Association of Broadcasters
The National Association of Broadcasters is a trade association and lobby group representing the interests of commercial and non-commercial over-the-air radio and television broadcasters in the United States. The NAB represents more than 8,300 terrestrial radio and television stations as well as broadcast networks; as of 2015, the president and CEO of the NAB is Gordon Smith, a former United States Senator from Oregon. The NAB was founded as the National Association of Radio Broadcasters in April 1923 at the Drake Hotel in Chicago; the association's founder and first president was Eugene F. McDonald Jr. who launched the Zenith corporation. In 1951 it changed its name to the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters to include the television industry. In 1958 it adopted its current name, "National Association of Broadcasters"; the NAB worked to establish a commercial radio system in the United States. The system was set up in August 1928 with the establishment of General Order 40—a radio reallocation scheme by the Federal Radio Commission which awarded the choicest frequencies and broadcast times to the then-emerging commercial radio industry.
In the wake of General Order 40, a loose coalition of educators, nonprofit broadcasters, labor unions, religious groups coalesced to oppose the NAB and their allies through the 1920s and 1930s, to develop a public, license-funded radio system without commercials. The coalition claimed that the commercial industry would only promote profitable programming, thereby reducing the quality and future potential of radio broadcasting. Not having the political connections, resources, or publicity of the NAB and the commercial radio industry, the non-profit coalition lost the fight with the passage of the Communications Act of 1934; the National Independent Broadcasters were formed in 1939 as part of the NAB, to represent stations that were not associated with any network, but the group split off in 1941. Many satellite radio enthusiasts have criticized the NAB for lobbying against legislation approvals for those services; the NAB protested the FCC's approval of both satellite radio services in the United States—XM and Sirius—and furthermore criticized the 2008 merger of the two companies, calling the merged company a "potential monopoly".
In 2005, the NAB, together with the Association for Maximum Service Television Stations, Inc. commenced development of a prototype high quality, low cost digital-to-analog converter box for terrestrial digital television reception. The result of this project was a specification for the converter box, adopted by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration as a technical requirement for eligible converter boxes for the Administration's Digital-To-Analog Converter Box Coupon Program; the NAB has lobbied against the use of white spaces, unused broadcast spectrum lying between broadcast channels, for wireless broadband internet and other digital use. The NAB has claimed that use of white space will interfere with existing broadcast spectrum though tests by the Federal Communications Commission at levels far stronger than that being advocated for in policy circles have not supported such claims. Indeed, the FCC has recommended the use of white spaces for other digital use. In 2011 the NAB funded an advertising campaign titled "The Future of TV", advocating for the private ownership of the spectrum, framed as a threat to free television.
In mid-2014, an NAB advertising campaign against a Congressional threat appeared, advocating viewers to defeat a cable-TV lobby. Organizations similar to the NAB exist in individual U. S. states, including Georgia Association of Broadcasters in Georgia, the Illinois Broadcasters Association, in Illinois. In Canada, the Canadian Association of Broadcasters has a similar role. NAB's annual spring convention is the NAB Show, it draws over 100,000 industry professionals. NAB manages the NAB Radio Show, held each autumn and draws over 3,000 radio professionals. At the 2010 and 2011 NAB shows, popular technology included stereoscopic video and editing software—a demand inspired by James Cameron's Avatar. Other strides in nonlinear editing technology included archival film restoration, digital audio mixing improvements, motion stabilization of hand-held footage and rotoscoping with one click; the NAB presents several annual awards: NAB Marconi Radio Awards, to the country's top radio stations and personalities NAB National Radio Award, to an outstanding individual leader in the radio industry NAB Crystal Radio Awards, to radio stations achieving excellence in community service NAB Engineering Achievement Awards, to an individual for their outstanding accomplishments in the broadcast industry Bruce A. Linton.
Self-Regulation in Broadcasting. Washington, D. C.: National Association of Broadcasters, 1967. Broadcast Self-regulation, 2nd edn. Washington, D. C.: NAB Code Authority, 1977. The Television Code, 22nd edn. Washington, D. C.: NAB Code Authority, 1981. Jean Benz, Jane E. Mago, & Jerianne Timmerman, eds. Legal Guide to Broadcast Law and Regulation, 6th edn. Washington, D. C.: National Association of Broadcasters, 2015. Code of Practices for Television Broadcasters—includes the NAB's Television Code and Seal of Good Practice and enforced from 1952 to 1983. NAB official website NAB Show NAB Radio Show