Big Brother is a fictional character and symbol in George Orwell's dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, published in 1949. He is ostensibly the leader of Oceania, a totalitarian state wherein the ruling party Ingsoc wields total power "for its own sake" over the inhabitants. In the society that Orwell describes, every citizen is under constant surveillance by the authorities by telescreens; the people are reminded of this by the slogan "Big Brother is watching you": a maxim, ubiquitously on display. In modern culture, the term "Big Brother" has entered the lexicon as a synonym for abuse of government power in respect to civil liberties specifically related to mass surveillance. In the essay section of his novel 1985, Anthony Burgess states that Orwell got the idea for the name of Big Brother from advertising billboards for educational correspondence courses from a company called Bennett's during World War II; the original posters showed J. M. Bennett himself, a kindly-looking old man offering guidance and support to would-be students with the phrase "Let me be your father."
According to Burgess, after Bennett's death, his son took over the company and the posters were replaced with pictures of the son with the text "Let me be your big brother". Additional speculation from Douglas Kellner of the University of California, Los Angeles argued that Big Brother represents Joseph Stalin. Another theory is that the inspiration for Big Brother was Brendan Bracken, the Minister of Information until 1945. Orwell worked under Bracken on the BBC's Indian Service. Bracken was customarily referred to by his employees by his initials, B. B. the same initials as the character Big Brother. Orwell resented the wartime censorship and need to manipulate information which he felt came from the highest levels of the Minister of Information and from Bracken's office in particular. In the novel, it is never made clear whether Big Brother is or had been a real person, or is a fictional personification of the Party, similar to Britannia and Uncle Sam. Big Brother is described as appearing on telescreens as a man in his mid-40s.
In Party propaganda, Big Brother is presented as one of the founders of the Party. At one point, Winston Smith, the protagonist of Orwell's novel, tries "to remember in what year he had first heard mention of Big Brother, he thought it must have been at some time in the sixties. In the Party histories, Big Brother figured as the leader and guardian of the Revolution since its earliest days, his exploits had been pushed backwards in time until they extended into the fabulous world of the forties and the thirties, when the capitalists in their strange cylindrical hats still rode through the streets of London". In the book The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism, read by Winston Smith and purportedly written by Goldstein, Big Brother is referred to as infallible and all-powerful. No one has seen him and there is a reasonable certainty that he will never die, he is "the guise in which the Party chooses to exhibit itself to the world" since the emotions of love and reverence are more focused on an individual than an organisation.
When Winston Smith is arrested, O'Brien repeats that Big Brother will never die. When Smith asks if Big Brother exists, O'Brien describes him as "the embodiment of the Party" and says that he will exist as long as the Party exists; when Winston asks "Does Big Brother exist the same way I do?", O'Brien replies "You do not exist". Big Brother is the subject of a cult of personality. A spontaneous ritual of devotion to "BB" is illustrated at the end of the Two Minutes Hate ritual: At this moment the entire group of people broke into a deep, rhythmic chant of'B-B!... B-B!... B-B!'—over and over again slowly, with a long pause between the first'B' and the second—a heavy murmurous sound, somehow curiously savage, in the background of which one seemed to hear the stamps of naked feet and the throbbing of tom-toms. For as much as thirty seconds they kept it up, it was a refrain, heard in moments of overwhelming emotion. It was a sort of hymn to the wisdom and majesty of Big Brother, but still more it was an act of self-hypnosis, a deliberate drowning of consciousness by means of rhythmic noise.
Though Oceania's Ministry of Truth, Ministry of Plenty and Ministry of Peace each have names with meanings deliberately opposite to their real purpose, the Ministry of Love is the most straightforward as "rehabilitated thought criminals" leave the Ministry as loyal subjects who have been brainwashed into adoring Big Brother, hence its name. The term "ministry" implies. If so, these ministers seem to be shadowy figures, whose names and acts are not publicized - public attention being focused on Big Brother; the character, as represented by a single still photograph, was played in the 1954 BBC adaptation by production designer Roy Oxley. In the film starring John Hurt released in 1984, the Big Brother photograph was of actor Bob Flag. In the 1955 film adaptation, Big Brother was represented by an illustration of a stern looking disembodied head. Both Oxley and Flag sported small moustaches. Since the publication of Nineteen Eighty-Four, the phrase "Big Brother" has come into common use to describe any prying or overly-controlling authority figure and attempts by government to increase surve
Louis Hock is an American artist and independent filmmaker who works in film, video and interventions in public space. His work has been exhibited both internationally and nationally including most notably at the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, the San Francisco Museum of Art, the Getty Museum in Los Angeles as part of Pacific Standard Time: Art in L. A. 1945-1980. Several of his films are in the collection of Video Data Bank. Louis Hock holds the title of Professor Emeritus at University of California - San Diego, he has additionally collaborated on several public art projects with Elizabeth Sisco and David Avalos. His most notable grants and awards include an American Film Institute Independent Film Maker Grant, a National Endowment for the Arts Grant, a Rockefeller Foundation Grant, a California Arts Council Grant. Born in 1948 in Los Angeles, Louis Hock has spent most of his life within a fifty-mile radius of the border between the United States and Mexico.
The first graduate student in film to graduate from School of the Art Institute of Chicago, Hock cites two early influences in Stan Brakhage and Nam June Paik. In 1977, Louis Hock joined the visual arts department faculty at University of California - San Diego, where he is Professor Emeritus; the Academy Film Archive has preserved several of Louis Hock's films, including "Still Lives," "Studies in Chronovision," and "Light Traps." Started in 1978,THE MEXICAN TAPES: A Chronicle of Life Outside the Law is a four-hour-long video in four parts documenting the lives and experiences of his undocumented working class Mexican immigrant neighbors in the Los Analos community in San Diego, California. Upon completion in 1986, the eight year film project has since been broadcast internationally on television stations including PBS, the BBC and Televisa. In an interview about the work with KCET Television, Hock describes the process of starting the work: "I moved in, at a certain point they were going to tear it down, they said in the paper, that in 6 months they were going to turn it into a Best Western motel.
And I was a filmmaker...so I started filming, they didn't tear it down, I kept filming, I kept filming, it was unlike the work I was producing at the time. So it started off as a small modest project, it started off as an experiment; the sequel film to THE MEXICAN TAPES: A Chronicle of Life Outside the Law, THE AMERICAN TAPES: Tales of Immigration revisits the families Louis Hock interviewed and documented in THE MEXICAN TAPES thirty years later. In this sequel, Hock claims that the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act transformed the families he documented; the film premiered on the west coast at the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego on May 11, 2013. In 1979, this three screen cinemural was finished as a 70-minute film, "a single thread of 16mm film runs through three side-by-side projectors." As an extension of Hock's decade of experimental film practice, the work centers Southern California as an imaginary landscape: a confection of public relations and glossy photographs. Made for exhibition in public spaces, rather than theaters, the work premiered on Los Angeles streets using a semi tractor trailer and large mobile home as screen surfaces.
Subsequent public exhibitions were sponsored by museums in various U. S. cities including San Diego, New York and Denver. In 2004 the film was digitized and screened for the first time in 20 years on the walls of the Getty Center in Los Angeles; as part of the “Pacific Standard Time” event in 2011, a trailer of the cinemural was fabricated for screening inside the Getty Center galleries traveled to the Martin-Gropius Bau in Berlin. The first collaborative project between Elizabeth Sisco, Louis Hock and David Avalos was Welcome to America's Finest Tourist Plantation; the project included a bus poster "depicting a pair of hands Washing dirty dishes, a pair of hands being hand-cuffed, a pair of hands delivering clean towels to a hotel room. "One hundred public buses in San Diego displayed these images on their back panels." The bus poster directed attention to the hypocritical treatment of Mexican and Central American immigrants in a community whose tourist industry depends on the labor of undocumented workers and whose Super Bowl depended on the tourist industry.
The public artwork became a magnet for the national media when local officials let it be known that they were trying to have the posters removed." The collaborative public media art project, “Art Rebate" refunded 10 dollar bills to as many as 450 undocumented workers in the California and Mexico border near San Diego. The Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego and Centro Cultural de la Raza commissioned the project for the "La Frontera/The Border" art exhibition in 1993. In an essay by former Afterimage editor Grant Kester, the author states "In the "Arte Reembolso/Art Rebate" project they distributed signed 10 dollar bills to undocumented workers as a symbolic recognition of their contribution to the Southern California economy; the work was developed to directly challenge conservative arguments that migrant workers constitute a negative drain on the state's resources. As Avalos and Sisco discovered, undocumented workers make a substantial contribution to the economy, not through the profits they provide for their employers, but through the expenditures they make in the U.
S. and the taxes that are deducted from their pay." The project received a grant from the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego and a grant from National Endowment for the Ar
Lorelei Lee is an American pornographic actress and writer. Lorelei Lee debuted in the sex industry at the age of 19, deriving her stage name from Marilyn Monroe's character in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, she graduated from San Francisco State University in 2008, pursued a master's degree in creative writing at New York University. She has been awarded a National Foundation for Advancement in the Arts "youngARTS Scholarship", she is best known for her performances as a fetish and bondage model on the pornographic site Kink.com, where she has worked as a director. In 2006, she wrote the centerfold text for the Sara Thrustra's Ten Pictures and Two Pin-Ups calendar. Along with fellow Kink model and director Princess Donna, Lee was the subject of Brian Lilla's 2007 independent film A Tale of Two Bondage Models, which appeared at the 2008 Tribeca Film Festival. In 2008, she appeared in the documentary 9to5 – Days in Porn and toured nationally as part of the "Sex Workers' Art Show" with other prominent members of the kink and sex-positivity community.
In 2009, Lee appeared in Graphic Sexual Horror, a documentary about Insex, a now-defunct bondage website. That year, she was the subject and lead actress of the short movie Lorelei Lee, directed by Simon Grudzen and Jesse Kerman and shown at the Big Sky Documentary Film Festival. In 2010, Lee published an essay, "I'm Leaving You" in Off the Set: Porn Stars and Their Partners, a book of documentary photography by Paul Sarkis that explores the off-screen romantic relationships of ten couples who perform in porn, which features photos of Lorelei with her partner at the time. In May 2011, Variety announced the production of About Cherry, an independent movie written by Lee alongside Stephen Elliott, directed by the same Elliott and starring James Franco, Heather Graham and Lili Taylor; the film premiered at the 2012 Berlin International Film Festival. Hustler Magazine ranked Lee at eight on their 2011 list of the Top 10 Smartest Porn Stars. In 2012 Lee, along with adult performers Isis Love and Princess Donna, was the subject of a documentary film about the website Kink.com, Public Sex, Private Lives, which was, in part, funded by donations made to Kickstarter.
As of 2016, Lee teaches writing at New York University and at the San Francisco Center for Sex and Culture. Lee identifies as queer and has been married to a trans man since 2012. 1. Cash/Consent, The War on Sex Work", an extensive essay reflecting her personal experience in the pornography industry Lee starred in John Stagliano's enema-focused film Milk Nymphos, which in 2008 became the subject of a federal obscenity trial; the case reached federal court in Washington, D. C. and, on July 2010, Lee was expected to testify as a witness on behalf of the defense. Citing concerns of personal safety, Lee requested to testify under her stage name; the case was dismissed on July 16, 2010, before Lee was scheduled to testify. Lorelei Lee on Twitter Lorelei Lee on IMDb Lorelei Lee at the Internet Adult Film Database Lorelei Lee at the Adult Film Database
Malachi Flynn is an American college basketball player for the San Diego State Aztecs of the Mountain West Conference. Flynn is the youngest of seven children, he stood 5'2 in his freshman season in high school grew to 5'6 as a sophomore before a growth spurt made him his current height of 6'1. As a senior at Bellarmine Prep, Flynn averaged 29.7 points, 6.0 rebounds and 4.0 assists per game, while shooting 48 percent from the floor. He earned a host of accolades, including The News Tribune's All-Area player of the year, Associated Press Washington player of the year, the Class 4A player of the year by the Washington Interscholastic Basketball Coaches Association, the 4A Narrows League MVP as a senior, his 743 points as a senior set the single-season mark at Bellarmine Prep, he finished with 1,625 career points, second to Abdul Gaddy. Flynn committed to Pacific before reopening his recruitment late in the signing period, he signed with the Washington State Cougars on April 13, 2016. In November 2016, Flynn scored 27 points in an 83–76 victory over Utah Valley, sixth most for a Cougar freshman in history.
As a freshman at Washington State, he averaged 9.7 points per game and shot 38.7 percent from three-point range. Flynn averaged 15.8 points and 4.3 assists per game while shooting 41.3 percent from the field as a sophomore. He was the top player on a team that finished 12-19. Following the season, Flynn announced. After receiving interest from Gonzaga, Texas A&M, Baylor and Creighton, Flynn signed with San Diego State in May 2018. Coming into his redshirt junior season, Flynn was named the preseason Mountain West player of the year by Mountain West Wire. In a game in which he otherwise shot poorly, Flynn hit a last-second three-point shot on December 8 to defeat San Jose State 59-57, he was named to the midseason watchlist for the Wooden Award. On February 29, 2020, Flynn scored a career-high 36 points, the most by any Aztec since 2005, shooting 13-of-20 from the floor in a 83-76 comeback win over Nevada. San Diego State Aztecs bio
The Newport Casino is an athletic complex and recreation center located at 186–202 Bellevue Avenue, Rhode Island, United States. Built in 1880, it was designated a National Historic Landmark on February 27, 1987, in recognition for its architectural significance as one of the nation's finest Shingle style buildings, for its importance in the history of tennis in the United States; the complex now houses the International Tennis Hall of Fame, was the site of the earliest US Opens. It hosted the first Newport Jazz Festival in 1954; the complex was commissioned in 1880 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. Legend states that Bennett placed a bet with his guest British Cavalry Officer, Captain Henry Augustus "Sugar" Candy that Candy would not ride his horse up onto the front porch of Newport's most exclusive men's club – The Newport Reading Room. Candy won the bet. Bennett and his infamous short temper did not take this kindly, soon set about creating his own retreat, what would become The Newport Casino.
Soon after deciding to create his own social club, Bennett purchased the Sidney Brooks estate, "Stone Villa". Directly across the street was a vacant lot, suitable for construction of the Casino. Bennett hired Charles McKim to design the Casino. By January 1880, Nathan Barker of Newport was contracted to begin construction; the interior of the Casino, while outlined by McKim, was entrusted to Stanford White. Taking many elements and cues from the Japanese Pavilion at the 1876 Centennial International Exhibition in Philadelphia, White provided for a plan, both secluded and open; the Newport Casino opened to its first patrons in July 1880, the general public got their first view in August 1880. A theatre located at the rear of the property was completed in 1881, its 500 seats were removable for dancing and the building was the scene of many social occasions for fashionable Summer visitors in the Gilded Age. One such attendee and early performer who lectured at the theatre in 1882 was Oscar Wilde.
The United States Lawn Tennis Association held their first championships at the Casino in 1881, an event that would continue through 1914. By this time, tennis was entrenched as the key attraction at the Casino; the first half of the 20th century was unkind to the Newport Casino. The Gilded age drew to a close with the onset of the Depression, the Newport fell by the wayside as a summer resort for the wealthy and powerful; the Casino struggled financially as a social club right from the start, by the 1950s the Casino was in sad shape. Like many of the mansions, there was the real possibility that it would be demolished to make way for more modern retail space; the United States Lawn Tennis Association held their first championships at the Casino in 1881, an event that would continue through 1914. By this time, tennis was entrenched as the key attraction at the Casino. Candy and Jimmy Van Alen took over operating the club, by 1954 had established the International Tennis Hall of Fame in the Newport Casino.
The combination of prominent headliners at the tennis matches and the museum allowed the building to be saved. It stands today as one of the finest examples of Victorian Shingle Style architecture in the world; the buildings are well preserved, the Casino Theatre, in a state of disrepair was restored and is leased to Salve Regina University. The theater still shows films during the Newport International Film Festival or charity events; the complex of buildings has undergone tremendous restoration during the modern era. The Real Tennis building was restored in 1980 and the National Tennis Club was formed to use and preserve this game, from which the modern game of tennis evolved; the USTA Galleries have been restored in a series of renovations, first in the 1970s and again in the 2010s to make the second and third floors of the main building into a suitable repository for the exhibition and study of pieces in the Tennis Hall of Fame collection. The most recent renovation exposed many original McKim, Mead & White fireplaces that had long been hidden behind sheet-rock walls.
The Casino Theatre, which had long been used for storage, was restored in partnership with nearby Salve Regina University in 2010 to house their theater program during the school year and to be used for a variety of films and other programming during the summer months. One important change in the Theater renovation is that temporary seating at on level of the original design was replaced with graded permanent seating, but the old chairs were replicated right down to the top-hat storage underneath each chair. Several large construction projects have helped reshape the campus. In 2014, a steel indoor tennis building and gas station were demolished and a 19th-century cottage was relocated to create space for a large new structure designed in the Shingle Style by Robert A. M. Stern to house a gymnasium, an enlarged pro shop and Hall of Fame office. Three new outdoor courts are enclosed by an inflatable bubble roof to double the number of year-round courts available on the campus; the stadium court and stands underwent renovation on 2016 to replace old bleacher seating located on the South end of the courts with new individual seating modeled on the seating at Wimbledon.
This renovation modified the West Stands, built as part of the coaching and riding ring of the original complex, converted into the showcase Stadium Court in the 1970s. The complex includes: The Casino (shops, a restaurant and the International Tennis Ha
The Calculus ratiocinator is a theoretical universal logical calculation framework, a concept described in the writings of Gottfried Leibniz paired with his more mentioned characteristica universalis, a universal conceptual language. There are two contrasting points of view; the first is associated with computer software, the second is associated with computer hardware. The received point of view in analytic philosophy and formal logic, is that the calculus ratiocinator anticipates mathematical logic—an "algebra of logic"; the analytic point of view understands that the calculus ratiocinator is a formal inference engine or computer program, which can be designed so as to grant primacy to calculations. That logic began with Frege's 1879 Begriffsschrift and C. S. Peirce's writings on logic in the 1880s. Frege intended his "concept script" to be a calculus ratiocinator as well as a lingua characteristica; that part of formal logic relevant to the calculus comes under the heading of proof theory. From this perspective the calculus ratiocinator is only a part of the universal characteristic, a complete universal characteristic includes a "logical calculus".
A contrasting point of view stems from synthetic philosophy and fields such as cybernetics, electronic engineering and general systems theory. It is little appreciated in analytic philosophy; the synthetic view understands the calculus ratiocinator as referring to a "calculating machine". The cybernetician Norbert Wiener considered Leibniz's calculus ratiocinator a forerunner to the modern day digital computer:Leibniz constructed just such a machine for mathematical calculations, called a Stepped Reckoner; as a computing machine, the ideal calculus ratiocinator would perform Leibniz's integral and differential calculus. In this way the meaning of the word, "ratiocinator" is clarified and can be understood as a mechanical instrument that combines and compares ratios. Hartley Rogers saw a link between the two, defining the calculus ratiocinator as "an algorithm which, when applied to the symbols of any formula of the characteristica universalis, would determine whether or not that formula were true as a statement of science".
A classic discussion of the calculus ratiocinator is Couturat, who maintained that the characteristica universalis—and thus the calculus ratiocinator—were inseparable from Leibniz's encyclopedic project. Hence the characteristic, calculus ratiocinator, encyclopedia form three pillars of Leibniz's project. Algebraic logic § Calculus of relations Louis Couturat, 1901. La Logique de Leibniz. Paris: Felix Alcan. Donald Rutherford's English translation of some chapters. Hartley Rogers, Jr. 1963, An Example in Mathematical Logic, The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 70, No. 9. Pp. 929–945. Norbert Wiener, 1948, "Time and the nervous system," Teleological mechanisms. Annals of the N. Y. Acad. Sci. 50: pp. 197–219. -- 1965, Second Edition: or the Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, The MIT Press. Desmond Fearnley-Sander, 1982. Hermann Grassmann and the Prehistory of Universal Algebra, The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 161–166. Language as Calculus versus Language as Universal Medium