The sugar industry subsumes the production and marketing of sugars. Globally, most sugar is extracted from sugar beet. Sugar is used for soft drinks, sweetened beverages, convenience foods, fast food, confectionery, baked products, other sweetened foods. Sugar subsidies have driven market costs for sugar well below the cost of production; as of 2018, 3/4 of world sugar production was not traded on the open market. The global market for sugar and sweeteners was some $77.5 billion in 2012, with sugar comprising an 85% share, growing at a compound annual growth rate of 4.6%. Globally in 2018, around 185 million tons of sugar was produced, led by India with 35.9 million tons, followed by Brazil and Thailand. There are more than 123 sugar-producing countries, but only 30% of the produce is traded on the international market. Sugar subsidies have driven market costs for sugar well below the cost of production; as of 2018, 3/4 of world sugar production is never traded on the open market. Brazil controls half the global market.
The US sugar system is complex, using price supports, domestic marketing allotments, tariff-rate quotas. It directly supports sugar processors rather than farmers growing sugar crops; the US government uses tariffs to keep the US domestic price of sugar 64 to 92% higher than the world market price, costing American consumers $3.7 billion per year. A 2018 policy proposal to eliminate sugar tariffs, called "Zero-for-Zero", is before the US Congress. Previous reform attempts have failed; the European Union is a leading sugar exporter. The Common Agricultural Policy of the EU used to set maximum quotas for production and exports, a subsidized sugar sales with an EU-guaranteed minimum price. Large import tariffs were used to protect the market. In 2004, the EU was spending €3.30 in subsidies to export €1 worth of sugar, some sugar processors, like British Sugar, had a 25% profit margin. A 2004 Oxfam report said they harm the world's poor. A WTO ruling against the EU quota and subsidy system in 2005-2006 forced the EU to cut its minimum price and quotas, stop doing intervention buying.
The EU abolished some quotas in 2015. Tariffs persist for most countries. In 2009, the EU granted Least Developed Countries zero-tariff access to the EU market as part of the Everything but Arms initiative; as of 2018, India and Mexico subsidize sugar. Glucose syrups produced from wheat and corn compete with the traditional dry sugar market; the top 10 sugar-producing companies based on production in 2010: The global sugar industry has a low market share concentration. The top four sugar producers account for less than 20.0% of the market. Raw sugar liquid sugar refined sugar molasses sugar alcohol brown sugar Powdered sugar Meringue Cupcake Marshmallow Cake Honey The sugar industry engages in sugar marketing and lobbying, minimizing the health effects of sugar and influencing medical research and public health recommendations. International Sugar Organization Sugar Association European Association of Sugar Manufacturers Sugar Nutrition UK Criticisms of the sugar industry Food industry All pages with titles containing sugar production Sugar industry of the Philippines Category:Sugar industry Matthew Parker.
The sugar barons. Windmill Books. ISBN 978-0099558453. Mosen Asadi. Beet-Sugar Handbook. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0471763475. Michael Moss. Salt, Fat: How the Food Giants Hooked Us. WH Allen. ISBN 978-0753541470
Theophilus Harris Davies
Theophilus Harris Davies was an English businessman. He was the founder of Theo H. Co. one of Hawaii's "Big Five" sugar firms. Davies was born in Stourbridge, England, the son of a Welsh minister and his English wife, he was recruited in England to join the firm of Janion, Green & Co. in Hawaii, a successor to Starkey, Janion & Co. formed in 1845. Partners were William Lowthian Green. Davies arrived in 1857 but returned to England in 1862, where he stayed until 1867, he returned to Honolulu, to bail out Janion. By January 1868, Davies controlled the business and it was being operated as Theo. H. Davies and Company, his son Arthur Whitcliffe Davies, who became the Dean of Worcester, was born that year in Honolulu. Under the laws of the Provisional Government, it became Theo H. Co.. Limited, in January 1894, it grew to become one of Hawaii's "Big Five" sugar firms. He acted as a guardian of Princess Kaʻiulani while she travelled to the United States. Davies died on 25 May 1898. In the 2009 film Princess Kaiulani, he was portrayed by Julian Glover.
His son Theophilus Clive Davies was played by Shaun Evans, daughter Alice by Tamzin Merchant. Edwin Palmer Hoyt. Davies: the inside story of a British-American family in the Pacific and its business enterprises. Topgallant Publishing Company. ISBN 0-914916-58-0
Matson, Inc. is a public shipping company, founded in 1882. The company provides shipping services Pacific-wide to and from the Hawaiian islands. Matson is credited with introducing mass tourism to Hawaii with the opening of the historic Moana Hotel and the Royal Hawaiian Hotel in Waikiki on the island of Oahu. William Matson was the founder of the Matson Navigation Company, he was born in Lysekil in Västra Götaland County and orphaned during childhood. He arrived in San Francisco after a trip around Cape Horn in 1867. Working aboard the Spreckels family yacht, he struck up a friendship with tycoon Claus Spreckels, who financed many of Matson's new ships. In 1882 the three-masted schooner Emma Claudina ran to the Hawaiian Islands; the enterprise began in the carrying of merchandise of plantation stores, to the islands and returning with cargoes of sugar. This led to expanding interests at both ends of the line. Increased commerce brought a corresponding interest in Hawaii as a tourist attraction, which soon prompted the construction of the Moana Hotel in 1901.
More steamships continued to join the fleet. When Captain Matson died in 1917, the Matson fleet comprised 14 of the largest and most modern ships in the Pacific passenger-freight service; the decade from the mid-1920s to the mid-1930s marked a significant period of Matson expansion. In 1925, the company established Matson Terminals, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary, to perform stevedoring and terminal services for its fleet. With increasing passenger traffic to Hawaiʻi, Matson built a world-class luxury liner, the Malolo, in 1927. At the time, Malolo was the fastest ship in the Pacific, cruising at 22 knots, its success led to the building of the luxury liners Mariposa and Lurline between 1930 and 1932. Matson's famed. In addition, the Royal Hawaiian Hotel and Moana Hotel on Waikiki, which Matson purchased out of bankruptcy in 1932, provided tourists with luxury accommodations both ashore and afloat. To generate excitement and allure for Hawaii as a world-class tourist destination, Matson developed an ambitious and enduring advertising campaign that involved the creative efforts of famous photographers such as Edward Steichen and Anton Bruehl.
In addition, Matson commissioned artists to design memorable keepsake menus for the voyages, as well as during their stay at the Royal Hawaiian. During this period, Matson built a luxurious headquarters at 215 Market Street in San Francisco; the company sold the building to Pacific Gas and Electric Company, whose General Office was next door at 245 Market. PG&E has incorporated the former Matson building into its General Office complex, keeping Matson-specific details such as elevator doors with detailed maps of Hawaii on them. For a brief period after World War II, Matson operated a luxurious airline using Douglas DC-4 aircraft between the Pacific Coast and Hawaii; the airline ceased operations because of political pressure from Pan American World Airways, which resulted in inability to obtain federal government scheduled operating authority. In September 1967, Matson's ship Pacific Trader inaugurated container service between Far East and US West Coast. Today, Matson continues to ship cargo across the Pacific and plays a key role in the economy of Hawaii, the West Coast and the trading of goods from east to west.
On December 1, 2011, Matson's then-parent company Alexander & Baldwin announced that its board of directors approved a plan to split A&B and Matson into two separate companies. As part of the plan, Matson would leave California to become a Honolulu-based company; the two companies are now traded separately. In 2015 Matson, Inc. acquired Horizon Lines its main competitor in the United States domestic market, for $469 million. In 2013, Matson ordered two new freighters of the Aloha class, followed in 2016 by an order for two Kanaloa class vessels. A conveyor of cargo, Matson introduced into service a number of passenger liners to capitalize on the burgeoning tourist trade. In 1926 Matson took over the Oceanic Steamship Company, operating three trans-Pacific liners, including Sonoma. From the early 20th century through the 1970s, Matson liners sailed from the west coast ports of San Francisco and Los Angeles to Honolulu and points beyond, including a handful of South Pacific ports of call as well as Sydney and Auckland, New Zealand.
Two of their earlier cargo liners and Wilhelmina, were the first passenger ships to place their engines aft. Among the "white ships of Matson" were Malolo, Lurline and Monterey. With the advent and expansion of routine air travel between the mainland and the islands, Matson's passenger service was diminished and the liners were retired from trans-Pacific service and gone by the end of the 1970s. Young Brothers Hawaii Pasha Hawaii Cushing, John E. Captain William Matson: From Handy Boy to Shipowner. New York: Newcomen Society in North America. OCLC 654333478. O'Brien, Duncan; the White Ships: Matson Line to Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia Via Samoa, Fiji, 1927–1978. Pier 19 Media. ISBN 978-0-968-67341-6. Official website The last ocean liners of Matson lines The Ocean Linear Virtual Museum - Matson Lines
Taco Bell is an American chain of fast food restaurants based out of Irvine, California and a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, Inc; the restaurants serve a variety of Tex-Mex foods that include tacos, quesadillas, nachos and specialty items, a variety of "value menu" items. As of 2018, Taco Bell serves more than 2 billion customers each year at 7,072 restaurants, more than 93 percent of which are owned and operated by independent franchisees and licensees. Taco Bell was founded by Glen Bell, an entrepreneur who first opened a hot dog stand called Bell's Drive-In in San Bernardino, California in 1948. Bell watched long lines of customers at a Mexican restaurant called the Mitla Cafe, located across the street, which became famous among residents for its hard-shelled tacos. Bell attempted to reverse-engineer the recipe, the owners allowed him to see how the tacos were made, he took what he had learned and opened a new stand under the name of Taco-Tia in late 1951 or early 1952, which sold tacos. Over the years, Bell owned and operated a number of El Taco restaurants in southern California.
Bell would sell the El Tacos to his partner and built the first Taco Bell in Downey in 1962. The first Taco Bell franchise opened in Torrance in 1964, by 1967, the company expanded, opening its 100th restaurant in the same year. PepsiCo purchased Taco Bell in 1978, spun off its restaurants division as Tricon Global Restaurants, which changed its name to Yum! Brands. Taco Bell was founded by Glen Bell, who first opened a hot dog stand called Bell's Drive-In in San Bernardino, California in 1948 when he was 25 years old. In 1950, he opened Bell's Hamburgers and Hot Dogs in San Bernardino's West Side barrio. According to Gustavo Arellano, author of Taco USA: How Mexican Food Conquered America, Bell watched long lines of customers at a Mexican restaurant called the Mitla Cafe, located across the street, which attracted a dedicated customer base for its hard-shelled tacos. Bell began eating there attempting to reverse-engineer the recipe, won the confidence of the proprietors such that they allowed him to see how the tacos and other foods were prepared.
In late 1951 or early 1952, he took what he had learned and opened a new stand, this time selling tacos under the name of Taco-Tia. Over the next few years, Bell owned and operated a number of restaurants in southern California including four called El Taco. Bell sold the El Tacos to his partner and built the first Taco Bell in Downey in 1962. Kermit Becky, a former Los Angeles police officer, bought the first Taco Bell franchise from Glen Bell in 1964, located it in Torrance; the company grew and by 1967, the 100th restaurant opened at 400 South Brookhurst in Anaheim. Original Taco Bell's featured walk-up windows only, with drive-thru service. In 1968, its first franchise location east of the Mississippi River opened in Ohio. In 1970, Taco Bell went public with 325 restaurants. In 1978, PepsiCo purchased Taco Bell from Glen Bell. On the night of November 19, 2015, the original Taco Bell building in Downey was moved to the Taco Bell Corporate Headquarters in Irvine, California. Several locations in the Midwestern United States were converted from Zantigo, a Minneapolis, Minnesota-based Mexican chain which PepsiCo acquired in 1986.
In 1990, the Hot'n Now chain was acquired. Taco Bell sold Hot'n Now to a Connecticut company in 1997. In 1991, Taco Bell opened the first Taco Bell Express in San Francisco; this concept is a reduced-size restaurant with a limited menu, meant to emphasize volume. Taco Bell Express locations operate inside convenience stores, truck stops, shopping malls, airports. Taco Bell began co-branding with KFC in 1995 when the first such co-brand opened in Clayton, North Carolina; the chain has since co-branded with Pizza Hut and Long John Silver's as well. In 1997, PepsiCo experimented with a new "fresh grill" concept, opening at least one Border Bell restaurant in Mountain View, California on El Camino Real. In addition to a subset of the regular Taco Bell menu, Border Bell offered Mexican-inspired items like those available from Chevys Fresh Mex restaurants, such as Chevys signature sweet corn tamalito pudding and a fresh salsa bar. Close to the time that PepsiCo spun off its restaurant business in 1997, the Border Bell in Mountain View was closed and converted to a Taco Bell restaurant, still open in 2018.
In September 2000, up to $50 million worth of Taco Bell-branded shells were recalled from supermarkets. The shells contained a variety of genetically modified corn called StarLink, not approved for human consumption. StarLink was approved only for use in animal feed because of questions about whether it can cause allergic reactions in people, it was the first-ever recall of genetically modified food. Corn was not segregated at grain elevators and the miller in Texas did not order that type. In 2001, Tricon Global announced a $60 million settlement with the suppliers, they stated that it would go to Taco Bell franchisees and TGR would not take any of it. PepsiCo spun out Taco Bell and its other restaurant chains in late 1997 in Tricon Global Restaurants. With the purchased of two other chains, Tricon changed its name to Yum! Brands on May 16, 2002. Taco Bell began experimenting with fast-casual and urban concepts when it created U. S. Taco Co. and Urban Taproom in 2014. The menu consists of tacos with American fillings, did not sell food sold in Taco Bell restaurants such as burritos.
It was launched in Huntington Beach, California in August 2014. U. S. Taco Co. closed on September 15, 2015 so the company could focus on its new similar Taco Bell Cantina concept, which featured special menu items a
Sugar plantations in Hawaii
Sugarcane was introduced to Hawaii by its first inhabitants and was observed by Captain Hegwood upon arrival in the islands in 1841 Sugar turned into a big business and generated rapid population growth in the islands with 337,000 people immigrating over the span of a century. The sugar grown and processed in Hawaii was shipped to the United States and, in smaller quantities, globally. Sugar Cane and Pineapple plantations were the largest employers in Hawaii. Today both are gone. Industrial sugar production started in Hawaii; the first sugar mill was created on the island of Lanaʻi in 1802 by an unidentified Chinese man who returned to China in 1803. The Old Sugar Mill, established in 1835 by Ladd & Co. is the site of the first sugar plantation. In 1836 the first 8,000 pounds of sugar and molasses was shipped to the United States; the plantation town of Koloa, was established adjacent to the mill. By the 1840s, sugarcane plantations gained a foothold in Hawaiian agriculture. Steamships provided rapid and reliable transportation to the islands, demand increased during the California Gold Rush.
The land division law of 1848 displaced Hawaiian people from their land, forming the basis for the sugarcane plantation economy. In 1850, the law was amended to allow foreign residents to lease land. In 1850, when California attained statehood, profits declined and the number of plantations decreased to five due to the import tariff, instituted. Market demand increased further during the onset of the American Civil War which prevented Southern sugar from being shipped northward; the price of sugar rose 525% from 4 cents per pound in 1861 to 25 cents in 1864. The Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 allowed Hawaii to sell sugar to the United States without paying duties or taxes increasing plantation profits; this treaty guaranteed that all of the resources including land, human labor power and technology would be thrown behind sugarcane cultivation. The 1890 McKinley Tariff Act, an effort by the United States government to decrease the competitive pricing of Hawaiian sugar, paid 2 cents per pound to mainland producers.
After significant lobbying efforts, this act was repealed in 1894. By 1890, 75% of all held land was owned by foreign businessmen; the plantation owners wanted the United States to annex Hawaii so that Hawaiian sugar would never again be subject to tariffs. They wanted the United States to annex Hawaii so there could be a US military base on the island; the industry was controlled by descendants of missionary families and other Caucasian businessmen, concentrated in corporations known in Hawaii as "The Big Five". These included Castle & Cooke, Alexander & Baldwin, C. Brewer & Co. H. Hackfeld & Co. (later named American Factors and Theo H. Davies & Co. which together gained control over other aspects of the Hawaiian economy including banking, warehousing and importing. This control of commodity distribution kept Hawaiians burdened under high prices and toiling under a diminished quality of life; these businessmen had perfected the double-edged sword of a wage-earning labor force dependent upon plantation goods and services.
Close ties as missionaries to the Hawaiian monarchy along with capital investments, cheap land, cheap labor, increased global trade, allowed them to prosper. Alexander & Baldwin acquired additional sugar lands and operated a sailing fleet between Hawai`i and the mainland; that shipping concern became American-Hawaiian Line, Matson. The sons and grandsons of the early missionaries played central roles in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893, creating a short-lived republic. In 1898, the Republic of Hawaii was annexed by the United States and became the Territory of Hawaii, aided by the lobbying of the sugar interests; when Hawaiian plantations began to produce on a large scale, it became obvious that a labor force needed to be imported. The Hawaiian population was 1/6 its pre-1778 size due to ravaging disease brought by foreigners. Additionally, Hawaiian people saw little use for working on the plantations when they could subsist by farming and fishing. Plantation owners began importing workers which changed Hawaii’s demographics and is an extreme example of globalization.
In 1850, the first imported worker arrived from China. Between 1852–1887 50,000 Chinese arrived to work in Hawaii, while 38% of them returned to China. Although help was needed to work the fields, new problems, like feeding and caring for new employees, were created for many of the planters since the Chinese immigrants did not live off the land like Native Hawaiians, who required little support. To maintain a workforce unable to organize against them, plantation managers diversified the ethnicities of their workforce, in 1878 the first Japanese arrived to work on the plantations. Between 1885–1924, 200,000 Japanese people arrived with 55% returning to Japan. Between 1903 -- 1910, 7,300 Koreans only 16 % returned to Korea. In 1906 Filipino people first arrived. Between 1909 and 1930, 112,800 Filipinos came to Hawaii with 36% returning to the Philippines. Plantation owners worked hard to maintain a hierarchical caste system that prevented worker organization, divided the camps based on ethnic identity.
An interesting outcome of this multi-cultural workforce and globalization of plantation workers was the emergence of a common language. Known as Hawaiian Pidgin, this hybrid of Hawaiian, Japanese and Portuguese allowed plantation workers to communicate with one another and promoted a transfer of kn
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
Alexander & Baldwin
Alexander & Baldwin, Inc. is an American company, once part of the Big Five companies in territorial Hawaii. The company operates businesses in real estate and diversified agriculture, it was the last "Big Five" company to cultivate sugarcane. It remains one of the State of Hawaii's largest private landowners, owning over 87,000 acres throughout the state. In addition, the company owns 47 income properties in the continental United States. Alexander & Baldwin has its headquarters in downtown Honolulu at the Alexander & Baldwin Building, built in 1929; the Alexander & Baldwin Sugar Museum exhibits some of sugarcane company's history. In 1831, Dwight Baldwin and Charlotte Fowler Baldwin were sent by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions as medical missionaries to the Sandwich Islands, as the Hawaiian Islands were called at the time. Reverend William Alexander and Mary McKinney Alexander arrived the following year in 1832. Alexander & Baldwin was founded by their sons Samuel Thomas Alexander and Henry Perrine Baldwin as Samuel T Alexander & Co. in 1870.
The two purchased 561 acres of land on the island of Maui between Pāʻia and Makawao, on which they began to cultivate sugarcane. The land the partners cultivated was semi-arid former dry forest, not ideal for growing sugarcane, a crop that required much water. Samuel Alexander realized that rain was plentiful miles away in the rainforests on the windward slopes of Haleakalā mountain. Thus, he designed a 17-mile long irrigation aqueduct that diverted water from that part of Haleakalā to their plantation. Work started on the aqueduct in 1876 and was completed two years in 1878. After completion of the aqueduct, the company grew and was renamed Alexander & Baldwin Plantation. Between 1872 and 1900, the company took over more land and sugar mill operations. In 1898, Alexander and Baldwin purchased a controlling interest in one of its rival companies, Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company from Claus Spreckles. By 1899, the company had bought out Maui's two main railroad lines. In 1900, the company was renamed Alexander & Baldwin, Ltd..
Following incorporation, the company continued to prosper. It came to be one of Hawaii's Big Five companies which held a virtual oligarchy over Hawaii's economy during the region's territorial years. In this period, the company entered many new businesses and controlled more than 100,000 acres of land in the Territory. In 1905, Alexander & Baldwin and other Big Five companies took control of the California and Hawaiian Sugar Company, giving Alexander & Baldwin a factory where they could refine its sugar. Over the following decades, the company opened or bought out sugar operations at Puʻunene and Kauaʻi island as well as pineapple operations on Maui and Kauaʻi. In 1908, the company bought a portion of the Matson Navigation Company, a major shipping line operating in the territory; the company sold its sugar interests on Kauaʻi and consolidated all of its Maui operations into an enlarged Hawaii Commercial & Sugar Company in the 1930s while continuing its pineapple operations as well as its sugarcane plantation in Kahuku until the 1960s.
Following World War II, the company entered a new business: real estate. The company formed a new subsidiary, the Kahului Development Co. to develop housing in the Kahului area. In the following years, the company became more involved in the development of its land and the Kahului Development Co. became A&B Properties, Inc. In 1962, the company purchased all outstanding interests in the Hawaii Commercial & Sugar Company and the sugar operation became wholly owned by Alexander & Baldwin. In 1964, the company bought out the interests in Matson Navigation Company held by three of its fellow "Big Five" competitors: American Factors, C. Brewer & Co. and Castle & Cooke. In 1969, the company purchased all remaining, outstanding shares in Matson and the shipping company became a wholly owned subsidiary of Alexander & Baldwin. In recent decades, the company's development and real estate division has grown as A&B Properties developed new residential and commercial projects on other land the company owned.
In addition, Alexander & Baldwin entered diversified agriculture, beginning to cultivate coffee and macadamia nuts in the 1980s. On January 6, 2016 Alexander & Baldwin announced plans to transition out of sugar farming on Maui by the end of the year, discontinuing the Maui Sugar brand and ceasing production of sugar at the last remaining plantation on the Hawaiian islands. In 2012 the Matson Navigation Company, in which the Alexander & Baldwin had held an investment for 140 years and had gained full ownership of in 1969, was spun off as the independent Matson, Inc. company with its headquarters moving from Oakland, California to Honolulu. Alexander & Baldwin has drawn repeated criticism from Maui residents over the use of pre-harvest field burning by its subsidiary Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company. HC&S cultivates 35,000 acres of sugarcane on Maui, with 400 acres per week being burned from March to November each year to remove dried leaves from the cane before it is harvested and processed.
A spokesman for HC&S claimed that "burning, in the field, is the only economical means HC&S has found to-date of removing the dried leafy material from its crop." Maui environmentalists and physicians have countered by asserting that the burning process has caused increased rates of asthma and respiratory disease among children, released carcinogens from burning PVC pipes used in the irrigation system, resulted in highway closures and car crashes. Community organize