A nabob is a conspicuously wealthy man deriving his fortune in the Orient in India during the 18th century with the held East India Company. Nabob is an Anglo-Indian term that came to English from Urdu from Hindustani nawāb/navāb, borrowed into English during British colonial rule in India, it is possible this was via the intermediate Portuguese nababo, the Portuguese having preceded the British in India. The word entered colloquial usage in England from 1612. Native Europeans used nabob to refer to those who returned from India after having made a fortune there; the term was used by William Safire in a speech written for United States Vice Pres. Spiro Agnew in 1970, which received heavy media coverage. Agnew identified with his attacks on critics of the Nixon administration, described these opponents as "nattering nabobs of negativism". In late 19th century San Francisco, rapid urbanization led to an exclusive enclave of the rich and famous on the west coast who built large mansions in the Nob Hill neighborhood.
This included prominent tycoons such as Leland Stanford, founder of Stanford University and other members of The Big Four who were known as nabobs, shortened to nob, giving the area its eventual name. The English use of nabob was for a person who became wealthy in a foreign country India, returned home with considerable power and influence. In England, the name was applied to men who made fortunes working for the East India Company and, on their return home, used the wealth to purchase seats in Parliament. A common fear was that these individuals – the nabobs, their agents, those who took their bribes – would use their wealth and influence to corrupt Parliament; the collapse of the Company's finances in 1772 due to bad administration, both in India and Britain, aroused public indignation towards the Company's activities and the behaviour of the Company's employees. Samuel Foote gave a satirical look at those men who had enriched themselves through the East India Company in his 1772 play, The Nabob.
This perception of the pernicious influence wielded by nabobs in both social and political life led to increased scrutiny of the East India Company. A number of prominent Company men underwent inquiries and impeachments on charges of corruption and misrule in India. Warren Hastings, first Governor-General of India, was impeached in 1788 and acquitted in 1795 after a seven-year-long trial. Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, MP for Shrewsbury, was forced to defend himself against charges brought against him in the House of Commons. Pitt's India Act of 1784 gave the British government effective control of the private company for the first time; the new policies were designed for an elite civil service career that minimized temptations for corruption. Nobby India and the British – The East India Company – Nabobs The First Asians in Britain
Mark Hopkins Jr.
Mark Hopkins was one of four principal investors who had agreed to fund Theodore D. Judah's idea of building a railway over the Sierra Nevada from Sacramento, CA to Promontory, Utah, they formed the Central Pacific Railroad along with Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker, Collis Huntington in 1861. Hopkins was born in Henderson, Jefferson County, New York to Mark Hopkins and Anastasia Lukens Kellogg, who were first cousins; because his father died when he was a boy, he was never known as "Junior". The family moved to St. Clair, Michigan in 1824, his father, Mark Hopkins, served as Postmaster, first in Henderson, NY in St. Clair, MI, where he was Judge of Probate; the elder Hopkins died in 1828, his son left school to work as a clerk. In 1837, he moved on through several business ventures, he was a partner in a firm called "Hopkins and Hughes" a bookkeeper and manager for "James Rowland and Company". When the California Gold Rush began, Hopkins created the "New England Mining and Trading Company", a group of 26 men each of whom invested $500 to purchase goods and ship them to California for sale.
On January 22, 1849 Hopkins left New York City on the ship Pacific. After rounding Cape Horn, the ship arrived in San Francisco on August 5, 1849. Hopkins opened a store in Placerville, but it did not succeed and he relocated to Sacramento where he opened a wholesale grocery in 1850 with his friend Edward H. Miller. Miller would be secretary of the Central Pacific Railroad. On September 22, 1854 in New York City, Hopkins married Mary Frances Sherwood. Though his background was Congregationalist, the wedding was at a Presbyterian Church. In 1855, Hopkins and Collis P. Huntington formed "Huntington Hopkins and Company" to operate a hardware and iron business in Sacramento. In 1861, as part of The Big Four, he founded the Central Pacific Railroad. Sometimes called "Uncle Mark", he was the eldest of the four partners and was well known for his thriftiness (it was said that he knew how to "squeeze 106 cents out of every dollar", a reputation that gained him the post of company treasurer. Noted American historian Hubert Howe Bancroft quotes Collis Huntington as saying, "I never thought anything finished until Hopkins looked at it".
Bancroft described Hopkins as the "balance-wheel of the Associates and one of the truest and best men that lived." A Whig and associated with the Free Soil Party, Hopkins was an abolitionist and an organizer of the Republican Party in California. Mary and Mark Hopkins had no children of their own. Mary adopted Timothy Nolan, the adult son of her housekeeper, who took the Hopkins name and was given an administrative position at the Union Pacific Railroad. Despite Hopkins' thriftiness, his wife managed to persuade him to build an ornate mansion at the top of Nob Hill in San Francisco, close to the mansions of other Central Pacific founders; the construction commenced in 1875. The architects were the prominent San Francisco firm of Wright and Sanders and the project manager was architectural engineer William Wallace Barbour Sheldon, who worked for Hopkins under the Southern Pacific Improvement Company. By Hopkins was having health problems and in 1878 died aboard a company train near Yuma, Arizona.
At the time of his death, the house was not complete and was finished and occupied by Mary. The structure burned to the ground in a fire caused by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. In 1926, the Mark Hopkins Hotel was built on the site. Hopkins is buried in Sacramento Historic City Cemetery in California. Hopkins died without leaving a will, though his fortune estimated at $20–$40 million was inherited by his wife. Faced with the task of completing their new estate alone, Mary retained Herter Brothers, a prominent furniture and interior decorating firm in New York to finish furnishing and decorating the estate. Edward Francis Searles was dispatched by Herter Brothers to manage the completion of Mary’s project. Despite being 22 years her junior they developed a close relationship; the unseemly courtship raised eyebrows and questions about the motives of the decorator in the wealthy social circles of San Francisco, but they married in 1887 to begin a six-month grand tour of Europe. Shortly after their return, Mary executed a new will that explicitly excluded her adopted son Timothy Nolan Hopkins, explaining.
Mr. and Mrs. Searles moved to Edward’s home town of Methuen, where Edward embarked on building a series of grand homes designed by English architect Henry Vaughan. Vaughan was best known for his Gothic Revival ecclesiastical architecture including. C. three chapels at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York, Christ Church in New Haven, Connecticut. Mary died in 1891, less than four years after her marriage and the estate went into probate to reconcile a series of legal challenges by Timothy Hopkins that lasted for several years, to reclaim his lost inheritance; the controversy made good fodder for the press, California papers published stories suggesting that Edward had exploited Mary’s interest in spiritualism and falsified records to wrest the estate from her adopted son and defraud business partners. Under oath, Edward testified that he had married Mary "…partly out of affection and for her money." Timothy lost his appeals.
San Marino, California
San Marino is a residential city in Los Angeles County, United States. It was incorporated on April 25, 1913. With a median home price of $2,431,900, San Marino is one of the most expensive and exclusive communities in the United States; the city takes its name from the ancient Republic of San Marino, founded by Saint Marinus who fled his home in Dalmatia at the time of the Diocletianic Persecution of Christians. Marinus took refuge at Monte Titano on the Italian peninsula, where he built a chapel and founded a monastic community in 301 A. D; the state which grew from the monastery is the world's oldest surviving republic. The seal of the City of San Marino, California is modeled on that of the republic, depicting the Three Towers of San Marino each capped with a bronze plume, surrounded by a heart-shaped scroll with two roundels and a lozenge at the top; the crown representing the monarchy on the original was replaced with five stars representing the five members of the City's governing body.
Beneath the city's seal are crossed palm fronds and orange branches. The city celebrated its centennial in 2013, including publication by the San Marino Historical Society of a 268-page book, San Marino, A Centennial History, by Elizabeth Pomeroy. In September 2014, this book and author Elizabeth Pomeroy received a prestigious Award of Merit for Leadership in History from the American Association for State and Local History; the site of San Marino was occupied by a village of Tongva Indians located where the Huntington School is today. The area was part of the lands of the San Gabriel Mission. Principal portions of San Marino were included in an 1838 Mexican land grant of 128 acres to Victoria Bartolmea Reid, a Gabrieleña Indian.. She called the property Rancho Huerta de Cuati. After Hugo Reid's death in 1852, Señora Reid sold her rancho in 1854 to Don Benito Wilson, the first Anglo owner of Rancho San Pascual. In 1873, Don Benito conveyed to his son-in-law, James DeBarth Shorb, 500 acres, including Rancho Huerta de Cuati, which Shorb named "San Marino" after his grandfather's plantation in Maryland, which, in turn, was named after the Republic of San Marino located on the Italian Peninsula in Europe.
In 1903, the Shorb rancho was purchased by Henry E. Huntington, who built a large mansion on the property; the site of the Shorb/Huntington rancho is occupied today by the Huntington Library, which houses a world-renowned art collection and rare-book library, botanical gardens. In 1913 the three primary ranchos of Wilson and Huntington, together with the subdivided areas from those and smaller ranchos, such as the Stoneman and Rose ranchos, were incorporated as the city of San Marino; the first mayor of the city of San Marino was George Smith Patton. The son of a slain Confederate States of America colonel in the U. S. Civil War, Patton graduated from the Virginia Military Institute in 1877, just before moving west, he married the daughter of Don Benito Wilson. Their son was George S. Patton, Junior. To a prior generation of Southern Californians, San Marino was known for its old-money wealth and as a bastion of the region's WASP gentry. By mid-century, other European ethnic groups had become the majority.
The city is located in the San Rafael Hills, is divided into seven zones, based on minimum lot size. The smallest lot size is about 4,500 square feet, with many averaging over 30,000 square feet; because of this and other factors, most of the homes in San Marino, built between 1920 and 1950, do not resemble the houses in surrounding Southern California neighborhoods. San Marino has fostered a sense of historic preservation among its homeowners. With minor exceptions, the city's strict design review and zoning laws have thus far prevented the development of large homes found elsewhere in Los Angeles. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.8 square miles all land. San Marino is restrictive of commercial operations in the city, it is one of the few cities that requires commercial vehicles to have permits to work within the city. The rationale is that commercial vehicle operators and service providers, such as gardeners, pool service providers and maintenance workers, are more to cause social disruption within the city, so must be preauthorized for crime control and prosecutorial purposes.
This regulation and others, including the bans on apartment buildings and overnight parking, are some of the more obvious examples. The 2010 United States Census reported that San Marino had a population of 13,147; the population density was 3,483.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Marino was 5,434 White, 55 African American, 5 Native American, 7,039 Asian, 2 Pacific Islander, 198 from other races, 414 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 855 persons; the census reported that 13,066 people lived in households, 81 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 4,330 households, out
Central Pacific Railroad
The Central Pacific Railroad was a rail route between California and Utah built eastwards from the West Coast in the 1860s, to complete the western part of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" in North America. It became part of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Many 19th century national proposals to build a transcontinental railroad failed because of the energy consumed by political disputes over slavery. With the secession of the South, the modernizers in the Republican Party controlled the US Congress, they passed legislation authorizing the railroad, with financing in the form of government railroad bonds. These were all repaid with interest; the government and the railroads both shared in the increased value of the land grants, which the railroads developed. The construction of the railroad secured for the government the economical "safe and speedy transportation of the mails, munitions of war, public stores." Planned by Theodore Judah, the Central Pacific Railroad was authorized by Congress in 1862.
It was financed and built through "The Big Four": Sacramento, California businessmen Leland Stanford, Collis Huntington, Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins. Crocker was in charge of construction. Construction crews comprised 12,000 Chinese emigrant workers by 1868, when they constituted eighty percent of the entire work force, they laid the first rails in 1863. The "Golden spike", connecting the western railroad to the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory, was hammered on May 10, 1869. Coast-to-coast train travel in eight days became possible, replacing months-long sea voyages and lengthy, hazardous travel by wagon trains. In 1885 the Central Pacific Railroad was leased by the Southern Pacific Company. Technically the CPRR remained a corporate entity until 1959, when it was formally merged into Southern Pacific; the original right-of-way is now controlled by the Union Pacific, which bought Southern Pacific in 1996. The Union Pacific-Central Pacific mainline followed the historic Overland Route from Omaha, Nebraska to San Francisco Bay.
Chinese labor was the most vital source for constructing the railroad. Fifty Chinese laborers were hired by the Central Pacific Railroad in February 1865, soon more and more Chinese men were hired. Working conditions were harsh, Chinese men were compensated less than their white counterparts. Chinese men were paid thirty-one dollars each month, while white workers were paid the same, they were given room and board. Construction of the road was financed by 30-year, 6% U. S. government bonds authorized by Sec. 5 of the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. They were issued at the rate of $16,000 per mile of tracked grade completed west of the designated base of the Sierra Nevada range near Roseville, CA where California state geologist Josiah Whitney had determined were the geologic start of the Sierras' foothills. Sec. 11 of the Act provided that the issuance of bonds "shall be treble the number per mile" for tracked grade completed over and within the two mountain ranges, "doubled" per mile of completed grade laid between the two mountain ranges.
The U. S. Government Bonds, which constituted a lien upon the railroads and all their fixtures, were repaid in full by the company as and when they became due. Sec. 10 of the 1864 amending Pacific Railroad Act additionally authorized the company to issue its own "First Mortgage Bonds" in total amounts up to that of the bonds issued by the United States. Such company-issued securities had priority over the original Government Bonds. Sec. 3 of the 1862 Act granted the railroads 10 square miles of public land for every mile laid, except where railroads ran through cities and crossed rivers. This grant was apportioned in 5 sections on alternating sides of the railroad, with each section measuring 0.2 miles by 10 miles. These grants were doubled to 20 square miles per mile of grade by the 1864 Act. Although the Pacific Railroad benefited the Bay Area, the City and County of San Francisco obstructed financing it during the early years of 1863-1865; when Stanford was Governor of California, the Legislature passed on April 22, 1863, "An Act to Authorize the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco to take and subscribe One Million Dollars to the Capital Stock of the Western Pacific Rail Road Company and the Central Pacific Rail Road Company of California and to provide for the payment of the same and other matters relating thereto".
On May 19, 1863, the electors of the City and County of San Francisco passed this bond by a vote of 6,329 to 3,116, in a controversial Special Election. The City and County's financing of the investment through the issuance and delivery of Bonds was delayed for two years, when Mayor Henry P. Coon, the County Clerk, Wilhelm Loewy, each refused to countersign the Bonds, it took legal actions to force them to do so: in 1864 the Supreme Court of the State of California ordered them under Writs of Mandamus and in 1865, a legal judgment against Loewy (The People ex rel The Centr
Huntington, West Virginia
Huntington is a city in Cabell and Wayne Counties in the U. S. state of West Virginia. It is the county seat of Cabell County, largest city in the Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, sometimes referred to as the Tri-State Area. A historic and bustling city of commerce and heavy industry, Huntington has long-flourished due to its ideal location on the Ohio River at the mouth of the Guyandotte River, it is home to the Port of Huntington Tri-State, the second-busiest inland port in the United States. Surrounded by extensive natural resources, the industrial sector is based in coal, oil and steel, all of which support Huntington's diversified economy; the city is a vital rail-to-river transfer point for the marine transportation industry. It is considered a scenic locale in the western foothills of the Appalachian Mountains; this location was selected by Collis Potter Huntington as ideal for the western terminus of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway, the predecessor of what would become CSX Transportation which still operates CSX Transportation-Huntington Division in the city to date.
The railroad founded Huntington as one of the nation's first planned communities to facilitate the railroad and other transportation-related industries at the railway's western terminus. Developing fast after the railroad's completion in 1871, the site was a collection of agricultural homesteads, is eponymously named for the railroad company's founder Collis Potter Huntington; the first identifiable permanent settlement, Holderby's Landing, was founded in 1775 in the Colony of Virginia. With the exception of the neighborhoods of Westmoreland and Spring Valley, most of the city is in Cabell County; as of the 2010 census, the metropolitan area is the largest in West Virginia. It spans seven counties across three states, with a population of 365,419. Huntington is the second-largest city in West Virginia, with a population of 49,138 at the 2010 census; the city is the home of Marshall University as well as the Huntington Museum of Art. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the largest employers are Marshall University, Cabell Huntington Hospital, St. Mary's Medical Center, CSX Transportation, the U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers, DirecTV, the City of Huntington. Huntington is in the southwestern corner of West Virginia, on the border with Ohio, on the southern bank of the Ohio River, at the confluence with the Guyandotte River; the city lies within the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau. Most of the city is in Cabell County. A portion of the city the neighborhood of Westmoreland, is in Wayne County. Huntington is divided into four main sections; the north/south divider is the CSX railroad tracks. Residents of Huntington are called "Huntingtonians." According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.46 square miles, of which 16.22 square miles is land and 2.24 square miles is water. The Guyandotte River joins the Ohio River about 5 miles east of downtown. Huntington fills the three-mile wide flood plain of the south bank of the Ohio River for eighty square blocks and portions of the hills to the immediate south and southeast. Huntington was founded on populated lands near Guyandotte as a C&O Railroad hub, on the southern bank of the Ohio River, at the confluence with the Guyandotte River.
The site is at the southwestern corner of West Virginia on the border with the state of Ohio and near the border of both states with Kentucky. Discounting the period of French ownership, the land, part of Guyandotte and Huntington was part of the 28,628-acre French and Indian War veteran's Savage Grant; the area of greater Huntington, although situated in a Southern state, was long considered a western city in what was the Colony of Virginia since the first permanent settlements were founded in 1775 in defiance of British injunctions against settlements west of the Alleghenies in the vicinity of Holderby's Landing. The old Federal Era town of Guyandotte was first built upon in 1799 by French settlers of the Ohio Valley, has homes dating back to 1820 and a graveyard containing 18th-century French and colonial-era settlers, including surnames such as LeTulle and Buffington. A farmer James Holderby purchased the lands in 1821 upon which much of Huntington now stands, why the area was known as Holderby's Landing prior to 1870-71 when it was incorporated and renamed.
The C&O purchased the area in 1870, by 1873 when the railroad connected Richmond to the Ohio, it had undergone a transition from a sleepy agricultural region with the nearby subscription Academy into a growing rail center poised to act as a spring board for a railroad to penetrate and connect the midwest with the eastern seaboard. The town of Guyandotte was absorbed in 1891. Modern day Huntington is divided into four main sections; the north/south divider is the CSX railroad tracks. A portion of the city the neighborhood of Westmoreland, is in Wayne County. Most of the city is in Cabell County. Huntington
The Pacific Monthly
The Pacific Monthly was a magazine of politics, culture and opinion, published in Portland, United States from 1898 to 1911, when it was purchased by Southern Pacific Railroad and merged with its magazine, Sunset. Sunset still carries the subtitle "The Pacific Monthly."The magazine earned praise from a number of contemporaneous publications, both locally and from as far as the east coast, for the quality of its literary content, as well as details like paper quality and illustrations. In a 1905 book, it was described as the "badly needed" "great Western magazine." During its years as an independent publication, The Pacific Monthly's most frequent contributor was Charles Erskine Scott Wood. From 1905 to 1911 Portland journalist Fred Lockley was frequent writer. Other contributors included Leo Tolstoy, George Sterling, Joaquin Miller, Sinclair Lewis, Jack London, whose novel Martin Eden first appeared in serialized form in the magazine. Works by or about The Pacific Monthly at Internet Archive The Pacific Monthly, Volume I, issue 1 The Pacific Monthly archives at HathiTrust
First Transcontinental Railroad
The First Transcontinental Railroad was a 1,912-mile continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U. S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay. The rail line was built by three private companies over public lands provided by extensive US land grants. Construction was financed by both state and US government subsidy bonds as well as by company issued mortgage bonds; the Western Pacific Railroad Company built 132 mi of track from Oakland/Alameda to Sacramento, California. The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California constructed 690 mi eastward from Sacramento to Promontory Summit, Utah Territory; the Union Pacific built 1,085 mi from the road's eastern terminus at Council Bluffs near Omaha, Nebraska westward to Promontory Summit. The railroad opened for through traffic on May 10, 1869 when CPRR President Leland Stanford ceremonially drove the gold "Last Spike" with a silver hammer at Promontory Summit.
The coast-to-coast railroad connection revolutionized the settlement and economy of the American West. It brought the western states and territories into alignment with the northern Union states and made transporting passengers and goods coast-to-coast quicker and less expensive. Paddle steamers linked Sacramento to the cities and their harbor facilities in the San Francisco Bay until 1869, when the CPRR completed and opened the Western Pacific grade to Alameda and Oakland; the first transcontinental rail passengers arrived at the Pacific Railroad's original western terminus at the Alameda Mole on September 6, 1869 where they transferred to the steamer Alameda for transport across the Bay to San Francisco. The road's rail terminus was moved two months to the Oakland Long Wharf about a mile to the north. Service between San Francisco and Oakland Pier continued to be provided by ferry; the CPRR purchased 53 miles of UPRR-built grade from Promontory Summit to Ogden, Utah Territory, which became the interchange point between trains of the two roads.
The transcontinental line was popularly known as the Overland Route after the principal passenger rail service that operated over the length of the line until 1962. Building a railroad line that connected the United States coast-to-coast was advocated in 1832 when Dr. Hartwell Carver published an article in the New York Courier & Enquirer advocating building a transcontinental railroad from Lake Michigan to Oregon. In 1847 he submitted to the U. S. Congress a "Proposal for a Charter to Build a Railroad from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean", seeking a congressional charter to support his idea. Congress agreed to support the idea. Under the direction of the Department of War, the Pacific Railroad Surveys were conducted from 1853 through 1855; these included an extensive series of expeditions of the American West seeking possible routes. A report on the explorations described alternative routes and included an immense amount of information about the American West, covering at least 400,000 sq mi.
It included the region's natural history and illustrations of reptiles, amphibians and mammals. The report failed however to include detailed topographic maps of potential routes needed to estimate the feasibility and select the best route; the survey was detailed enough to determine that the best southern route lay south of the Gila River boundary with Mexico in vacant desert, through the future territories of Arizona and New Mexico. This in part motivated the United States to complete the Gadsden Purchase. In 1856 the Select Committee on the Pacific Railroad and Telegraph of the US House of Representatives published a report recommending support for a proposed Pacific railroad bill: The necessity that now exists for constructing lines of railroad and telegraphic communication between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of this continent is no longer a question for argument. In order to maintain our present position on the Pacific, we must have some more speedy and direct means of intercourse than is at present afforded by the route through the possessions of a foreign power.
The U. S. Congress was divided on where the eastern terminus of the railroad should be—in a southern or northern city. Three routes were considered: A northern route along the Missouri River through present-day northern Montana to Oregon Territory; this was considered impractical due to extensive winter snows. A central route following the Platte River in Nebraska through to the South Pass in Wyoming, following most of the Oregon Trail. Snow on this route remained a concern. A southern route across Texas, New Mexico Territory, the Sonora desert, connecting to Los Angeles, California. Surveyors found during an 1848 survey that the best route lay south of the border between the United States and Mexico; this was resolved by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. Once the central route was chosen, it was obvious that the western terminus should be Sacramento, but there was considerable difference of opinion about the eastern terminus. Three locations along 250 miles of Missouri River were considered: St. Joseph, accessed via the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad.
Kansas City, Kansas / Leavenworth, Kansas accessed via the Leavenworth and Western Railroad, controlled by Thomas Ewing Jr. and by John C. Fremont. Council Bluffs, Iowa / Omaha, accessed via an extension of Union Pacific financier Thomas C. Durant's proposed Mississippi and