Montana is a landlocked state in the Northwestern United States. Montana has several nicknames, although none are official, including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more "The Last Best Place". Montana is the 4th largest in area, the 8th least populous, the 3rd least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In all, 77 named; the eastern half of Montana is characterized by badlands. Montana is bordered by Idaho to the west, Wyoming to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the north; the economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic resources include oil, coal, hard rock mining, lumber; the health care and government sectors are significant to the state's economy. The state's fastest-growing sector is tourism.
Nearly 13 million tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, the Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, other attractions. The name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña, which in turn comes from the Latin word Montanea, meaning "mountain", or more broadly, "mountainous country". Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the entire mountainous region of the west; the name Montana was added to a bill by the United States House Committee on Territories, chaired at the time by Rep. James Ashley of Ohio, for the territory that would become Idaho Territory; the name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, who complained Montana had "no meaning"; when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox of Ohio, objected to the name. Cox complained the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one.
Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, so the original name of Montana was adopted. Montana is one of the nine Mountain States, located in the north of the region known as the Western United States, it borders North South Dakota to the east. Wyoming is to the south, Idaho is to the west and southwest, three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, are to the north. With an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is larger than Japan, it is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska and California. S. state. The state's topography is defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montana's 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the state's western half, most of, geologically and geographically part of the Northern Rocky Mountains; the Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the state's south-central part are technically part of the Central Rocky Mountains.
The Rocky Mountain Front is a significant feature in the state's north-central portion, isolated island ranges that interrupt the prairie landscape common in the central and eastern parts of the state. About 60 percent of the state is part of the northern Great Plains; the Bitterroot Mountains—one of the longest continuous ranges in the Rocky Mountain chain from Alaska to Mexico—along with smaller ranges, including the Coeur d'Alene Mountains and the Cabinet Mountains, divide the state from Idaho. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide. Other major mountain ranges west of the Divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, Sapphire Mountains, Flint Creek Range; the Divide's northern section, where the mountains give way to prairie, is part of the Rocky Mountain Front. The front is most pronounced in the Lewis Range, located in Glacier National Park. Due to the configuration of mountain ranges in Glacier National Park, the Northern Divide crosses this region and turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak.
It causes the Waterton River and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta, Canada. There they join the Saskatchewan River, which empties into Hudson Bay. East of the divide, several parallel ranges cover the state's southern part, including the Gravelly Range, the Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains and the Beartooth Mountains; the Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over 10,000 feet high in the continental United States. It contains Granite Peak, 12,799 feet high. North of these ranges are the Big Belt Mountains, Bridger Mountains, Tobacco Roots, several island ranges, including the Crazy Mountains and Little Belt Mountains. Between many mountain ranges are rich river valleys; the Big Hole Valley, Bitterroot Valley, Gallatin Valley, Flathead Valley, Paradise Valley have extensive agricultural resources and multiple opportunities for tourism and recreation. East and north of this transition zone are the expansive and sparsely populated Northern Plains, with tableland prairies, smaller island mountain ranges, badlands.
The isolated island ranges east of the Divide include the Bear Paw Mountains, Bull Mountains, Castle Mountains, Crazy Mountains, Highwood Mountains, Judi
A barrel is one of several units of volume applied in various contexts. For historical reasons the volumes of some barrel units are double the volumes of others. In many connections the term "drum" is used interchangeably with "barrel". Since medieval times the term barrel as a unit of measure has had various meanings throughout Europe, ranging from about 100 litres to 1000 litres; the name was derived in medieval times from the French baril, of unknown origin, but still in use, both in French and as derivations in many other languages such as Italian and Spanish. In most countries such usage is obsolescent superseded by SI units; as a result, the meaning of corresponding words and related concepts in other languages refers to a physical container rather than a known measure. In the international oil market context, prices in United States dollars per barrel are used, the term is variously translated to derivations of the Latin/Teutonic root fat. In other commercial connections, barrel sizes such as beer keg volumes are standardised in many countries.
US dry barrel: 7,056 cubic inches Defined as length of stave 28 1⁄2 in, diameter of head 17 1⁄8 in, distance between heads 26 in, circumference of bulge 64 in outside measurement. Any barrel, 7,056 cubic inches is recognized as equivalent; this is equal to 26.25 US dry gallons. US barrel for cranberries 5,826 cubic inches Defined as length of stave 28 1⁄2 in, diameter of head 16 1⁄4 in, distance between heads 25 1⁄4 in, circumference of bulge 58 1⁄2 in outside measurement. No equivalent in cubic inches is given in the statute, but regulations specify it as 5,826 cubic inches; some products have a standard weight or volume that constitutes a barrel: Cornmeal, 200 pounds Cement, 4 cubic feet or 376 pounds Sugar, 5 cubic feet Wheat or rye flour, three bushels or 196 pounds Lime, 280 pounds large barrel, or 180 pounds small barrel Butter and cheese in UK, 224 pounds Salt, 280 pounds Fluid barrels vary depending on what is being measured and where. In the UK a beer barrel is 36 imperial gallons. In the US most fluid barrels are 31.5 US gallons.
The size of beer kegs in the US is based loosely on fractions of the US beer barrel. When referring to beer barrels or kegs in many countries, the term may be used for the commercial package units independent of actual volume, where common range for professional use is 20-60 L a DIN or Euro keg of 50 L. Richard III, King of England from 1483 until 1485, had defined the wine puncheon as a cask holding 84 gallons and a wine tierce as holding 42 gallons. By 1700 custom had made the 42-gallon watertight tierce a standard container for shipping eel, herring, wine, whale oil and many other commodities in the English colonies. After the American Revolution in 1776, American merchants continued to use the same size barrels. In the worldwide oil industry, an oil barrel is defined as 42 US gallons, about 159 litres or 35 imperial gallons. Oil companies that are listed on American stock exchanges report their production in terms of volume and use the units of bbl, Mbbl, or MMbbl and for widest comprehensive statistics the Gbbl denoting a billion.
There is a conflict concerning the units for oil barrels. For all other physical quantities, according to the International System of Units, the uppercase letter "M" means Mega, for example: Mm, MHz, MW, MeV, but due to tradition, the Mbbl acronym is used today meaning "one thousand bbl", as a heritage of the roman number "M" meaning "one thousand". On the other hand, there are efforts to avoid this ambiguity, most of the barrel dealers today prefer to use bbl, instead of Mbbl, mbbl, MMbbl or mmbbl. Outside the United States, volumes of oil are reported in cubic metres instead of oil barrels. Cubic metre is the basic volume unit in the International System. In Canada, oil companies measure oil in cubic metres but convert to barrels on export, since most of Canada's oil production is exported to the US; the nominal conversion factor is 1 cubic metre = 6.2898 oil barrels, but conversion is done by custody transfer meters on the border since the volumes are specified at different temperatures and the exact conversion factor depends on both density and temperature.
Canadian companies operate internally and report to Canadian governments in cubic metres, but convert to US barrels for the benefit of American investors and oil marketers. They will quote prices in Canadian dollars per cubic metre to other Canadian companies, but use US dollars per barrel in financial reports and press statements, making it appear to the outside world that they operate in barrels. Companies
Montana Snowbowl is an alpine ski area located 12 miles northwest of Missoula, Montana in the Lolo National Forest. It is known for long expert runs such as its throwback operations. Montana Snowbowl is known for its steep runs and a 2,600-foot vertical rise; the Grizzly Chair ascends 2,000 feet feet from the base area and the midmountain LaVelle Creek Chair tops out at 7,600 feet below Point Six summit. When the resort first opened in 1962, it was promoted as having the most vertical in the Pacific Northwest. Montana Snowbowl's base is centered on Butler Creek, a tributary of the Clark Fork River west of Missoula; the west side of the Butler Creek valley includes TV Mountain topping out at 6,817 feet. To the west of TV Mountain runs La Valle Creek, tributary to the Clark Fork River. Access to the Montana Snowbowl begins by exiting Interstate 90 on Grant Creek Road which parallels Grant Creek, one valley to the east from Butler Creek. Grant Creek's source is on the west flank of Murphy Peak. In the spring of 2011 the area and the Lolo National Forest released plans to expand the area by adding several chairlifts, more parking, a new mountain restaurant.
Part of the expansion would be on to slopes on TV Mountain which were home to the original Snow Park ski area but abandoned. The expansion should be operational for the ski season starting December 2020; the ski area will open with weekend skiing in early December with more regular lift operations in mid December and extending into the new year. From late June to early September the area operates one lift on the weekends for hikers and downhill mountain bikers. Official Website
Brown ale is a style of beer with a dark amber or brown colour. The term was first used by London brewers in the late 17th century to describe their products, such as mild ale, though the term has a rather different meaning today. 18th century brown ales were hopped and brewed from 100% brown malt. Today there are brown ales made in several regions, most notably England and America. Other than being top-fermented and having a darker color than pale beers, brown ales share little in common in terms of flavour profile. Beers termed brown ale include sweet, low alcohol beers such as Manns Original Brown Ale, medium strength amber beers of moderate bitterness such as Newcastle Brown Ale, malty but hoppy beers such as Sierra Nevada Brown Ale. In the 18th century, British brown ales were brewed to a variety of strengths, with original gravities ranging from around 1.060 to 1.090. Around 1800, brewers stopped producing these types of beers as they moved away from using brown malt as a base. Pale malt, being cheaper because of its higher yield, was used as a base for all beers, including Porter and Stout.
The term "brown ale" was revived at the end of the 19th century when London brewer Mann introduced a beer with that name. However, the style only became brewed in the 1920s; the brown ales of this period were stronger than most modern English versions. In 1926, Manns Brown Ale had an original gravity of 1.043 and an ABV of around 4%. Whitbread Double Brown was stronger, an OG of 1.054 and more than 5% ABV. The introduction of these beers coincided with a big increase in demand for bottled beer in the UK. In the 1930s some breweries, such as Whitbread, introduced a second weaker and cheaper brown ale, sometimes just a sweetened version of dark Mild; these beers had an original gravity of around 1.037. After World War II, most breweries stopped producing these stronger brown ales, with the exception of some breweries in the northeast of England; the majority had an OG in the range 1.030–1.035, or around 3% ABV, much like Manns Brown Ale today. North American brown ales trace their heritage to American home brewing adaptations of certain northern English beers, the English influence on American Colonial Ales.
English brown ales range from beers such as Manns Original Brown Ale, quite sweet and low in alcohol, to northeastern brown ale such as Newcastle Brown Ale, Double Maxim and Samuel Smith's Nut Brown Ale. North American examples include Brooklyn Brown Ale, they range from deep amber to brown in colour. Caramel and chocolate flavours are evident. Brown ales from northeastern England tend to be strong and malty nutty, while those from southern England are darker and lower in alcohol. North American brown ales are drier than their English counterparts, with a slight citrus accent and an aroma and medium body due to American hop varieties. Fruitiness from esters are subdued; when chilled to cold temperatures, some haziness may be noticed. Mild ale Porter Stout Root beer
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A bar is a retail business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, such as beer, liquor and other beverages such as mineral water and soft drinks and sell snack foods such as potato chips or peanuts, for consumption on premises. Some types of bars, such as pubs, may serve food from a restaurant menu; the term "bar" refers to the countertop and area where drinks are served. The term "bar" is derived from the metal or wooden bar, located at feet along the length of the "bar". Bars provide chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons. Bars that offer entertainment or live music are referred to as music bars, live venues, or nightclubs. Types of bars range from inexpensive dive bars to elegant places of entertainment accompanying restaurants for dining. Many bars have a discount period, designated a "happy hour" or discount of the day to encourage off-peak-time patronage. Bars that fill to capacity sometimes implement a cover charge or a minimum drink purchase requirement during their peak hours.
Bars may have bouncers to ensure patrons are of legal age, to eject drunk or belligerent patrons, to collect cover charges. Such bars feature entertainment, which may be a live band, comedian, or disc jockey playing recorded music. Patrons may be served by the bartender. Depending on the size of a bar and its approach, alcohol may be served at the bar by bartenders, at tables by servers, or by a combination of the two; the "back bar" is a set of shelves of bottles behind that counter. In some establishments, the back bar is elaborately decorated with woodwork, etched glass and lights. There have been many different names for public drinking spaces throughout history. In the colonial era of the United States, taverns were an important meeting place, as most other institutions were weak. During the 19th century saloons were important to the leisure time of the working class. Today when an establishment uses a different name, such as "tavern" or "saloon" or, in the United Kingdom, a "pub", the area of the establishment where the bartender pours or mixes beverages is called "the bar".
The sale and/or consumption of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the first half of the 20th century in several countries, including Finland, Iceland and the United States. In the United States, illegal bars during Prohibition were called "speakeasies", "blind pigs", "blind tigers". Laws in many jurisdictions prohibit minors from entering a bar. If those under legal drinking age are allowed to enter, as is the case with pubs that serve food, they are not allowed to drink. In some jurisdictions, bars cannot serve a patron, intoxicated. Cities and towns have legal restrictions on where bars may be located and on the types of alcohol they may serve to their customers; some bars may have a license to serve wine, but not hard liquor. In some jurisdictions, patrons buying alcohol must order food. In some jurisdictions, bar owners have a legal liability for the conduct of patrons. Many Islamic countries prohibit bars as well as the possession or sale of alcohol for religious reasons, while others, including Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, allow bars in some specific areas, but only permit non-Muslims to drink in them.
A bar's owners and managers choose the bar's name, décor, drink menu and other elements which they think will attract a certain kind of patron. However, they have only limited influence over. Thus, a bar intended for one demographic profile can become popular with another. For example, a gay or lesbian bar with a dance or disco floor might, over time, attract an heterosexual clientele. Or a blues bar may become a biker bar. A cocktail lounge is an upscale bar, located within a hotel, restaurant, or airport. A full bar serves liquor, cocktails and beer. A wine bar is a bar that focuses on wine rather than on liquor. Patrons of these bars may taste wines before deciding to buy them; some wine bars serve small plates of food or other snacks. A beer bar focuses on beer craft beer, rather than on wine or liquor. A brew pub serves craft beers. "Fern bar" is an American slang term for an preppy bar. A music bar is a bar. A dive bar referred to as a "dive", is a informal bar which may be considered by some to be disreputable.
A non-alcoholic bar is a bar. A Strip club is a bar with nude entertainers. A bar and grill is a restaurant; some persons may designate either an area of a room as a home bar. Furniture and arrangements vary from efficient to full bars. Bars categorized by the kind of entertainment they offer: Blues bars, specializing in the live blues style of music Comedy bars, specializing in stand-up comedy entertainment Dance bars, which have a dance floor where patrons dance to recorded music. If a venue has a large dance floor, focuses on dancing rather than seated drinking, hires professional DJs, it is considered to be a nightclub or discothèque rather than a bar. Karaoke bars, with nightly karaoke as entertainment Music bars. Piano bars are one example. Drag b