Carl W. Stalling
Carl W. Stalling was an American composer and arranger for music in animated films, he is most associated with the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts produced by Warner Bros. where he averaged one complete score each week, for 22 years. Stalling was born to Ernest and Sophia C. Stalling, his parents were from Germany. The family settled in Missouri where his father was a carpenter, he started playing piano at six. By the age of 12, he was the principal piano accompanist in his hometown's silent movie house. For a short period, he was the theatre organist at the St. Louis Theatre, which became Powell Symphony Hall. By his early 20s, he was conducting his own orchestra and improvising on the organ at the Isis Movie Theatre in Kansas City, his actual job at the time was to play "organ accompaniment" for silent films. During that time, he met and befriended a young Walt Disney, producing animated comedy shorts in Kansas City. According to music critic Neil Strauss, the chance meeting between Stalling and Disney in the early 1920s was of great importance to the development of music for animation.
Stalling was at his job at the Isis Movie Theatre, demonstrating his ability to combine well-known music by other creators with his own, improvised compositions. Disney stepped into the movie theater and was impressed with his style, he approached Stalling to introduce himself, their acquaintance was mutually beneficial. Stalling was able to arrange the screening of a few Disney animated shorts at the Isis, Disney ensured that Stalling would play the accompaniment for his films. Disney left Kansas City and moved to California in order to open a new studio. Stalling and Disney kept in touch through correspondence, considered each other friends. In 1928, Disney was on a journey from California to New York City in order to record the sound and make the preview of Steamboat Willie, Disney's first released sound short. During the journey he stopped at Kansas City to hire Stalling to compose film scores for two other animated shorts. Stalling composed several early cartoon scores for Walt Disney, including Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho in 1928.
Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were silent films and were the first two Mickey Mouse animated short films in production. When finishing composing the film scores, Stalling went to New York City to record them for Disney. Walt was pleased with the results, offered to hire Stalling as his studio's first music director. In order to get the job, Stalling had to move to California. According to Martha Sigall, Stalling accepted, he realized that his career as an organist for a silent movie theatre was coming to an end, because the silent film era was at its end. Sound films were the new trend. Stalling soon followed Disney in moving to Hollywood. Animation historian Allan Neuwirth credits Stalling for inventing the process of creating a film score for cartoons. According to Neil Strauss, the "wildly talented" Stalling was suitable as a film score composer for animated films. Stalling voiced Mickey Mouse in Wild Waves in 1929. Stalling encouraged Disney to create a new series of animated short films, in which the animation and its action would be created to match the music.
This was still unusual at the time, since film music was played or composed to match the action of a film. Stalling's discussions with Disney on whether the animation or the musical score should come first led to Disney creating the Silly Symphonies series of animated short films. Stalling is credited with both the composition and the musical arrangement of The Skeleton Dance, the first of the Silly Symphonies; these cartoons allowed Stalling to create a score. While there, Stalling pioneered the use of "bar sheets", which allowed musical rhythms to be sketched out with storyboards for the animation; the Silly Symphonies was an innovative animated film series, in which pre-recorded film scores were making use of well-known classical works and the animation sequences were choreographed to match the music. Stalling helped Disney streamline and update the sound process used in creating early animated sound films, following the long and laborious synchronization process used in Steamboat Willie.
The close synchronization of music and on-screen movement pioneered by the Disney short films became known as Mickey Mousing. While working at the Disney studio, Stalling invented a tick system which helped synchronize music to visuals; this system was a forerunner to the click track, a method which would become a standard process used in both live-action and animated films. An early example of a click track was used in the production of The Skeleton Dance; the method used in this film involved a reel of unexposed film with holes punched out to make clicks and pops when run on the sound head. According to Neil Strauss, this version of the click track is credited to sound effects artist Jimmy MacDonald. Stalling left Disney at the same time as animator Ub Iwerks, he had completed the scoring of about 20 animated films for Disney. Finding few outlets in New York, Stalling rejoined Iwerks at his studio in California, while freelancing for Disney and others. Stalling served as the music director of Iwerks' studio until the studio shut down in 1936.
In 1936, when Leon Schlesinger—under contract to produce animated shorts for Warner Bros.—hired Iwerks, Stalling went with him to become a full-time cartoon music composer. Ac
Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating to 1916, followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the second major color process, after Britain's Kinemacolor, the most used color process in Hollywood from 1922 to 1952. Technicolor became known and celebrated for its saturated color, was most used for filming musicals such as The Wizard of Oz and Down Argentine Way, costume pictures such as The Adventures of Robin Hood and Gone with the Wind, animated films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Gulliver's Travels, Fantasia; as the technology matured it was used for less spectacular dramas and comedies. A film noir—such as Leave Her to Heaven or Niagara —was filmed in Technicolor. "Technicolor" is the trademark for a series of color motion picture processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, now a division of the French company Technicolor SA. The Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation was founded in Boston in 1914 by Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Frost Comstock, W. Burton Wescott.
The "Tech" in the company's name was inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where both Kalmus and Comstock received their undergraduate degrees and were instructors. Technicolor, Inc. was chartered in Delaware in 1921. Most of Technicolor's early patents were taken out by Comstock and Wescott, while Kalmus served as the company's president and chief executive officer; the term "Technicolor" has been used to describe at least five concepts: Technicolor: an umbrella company encompassing all of the below as well as other ancillary services. Technicolor labs: a collection of film laboratories across the world owned and run by Technicolor for post-production services including developing and transferring films in all major color film processes, as well as Technicolor's proprietary ones. Technicolor process or format: several custom image origination systems used in film production, culminating in the "three-strip" process in 1932. Technicolor IB printing: a process for making color motion picture prints that allows the use of dyes which are more stable and permanent than those formed in ordinary chromogenic color printing.
Used for printing from color separation negatives photographed on black-and-white film in a special Technicolor camera. Prints or Color by Technicolor: used from 1954 on, when Eastmancolor supplanted the three-film-strip camera negative method, while the Technicolor IB printing process continued to be used as one method of making the prints; this meaning of the name applies to nearly all Wikipedia articles about films made from 1954 onward in which Technicolor is named in the credits. Technicolor existed in a two-color system. In Process 1, a prism beam-splitter behind the camera lens exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white negative film one behind a red filter, the other behind a green filter; because two frames were being exposed at the same time, the film had to be photographed and projected at twice the normal speed. Exhibition required a special projector with two apertures, two lenses, an adjustable prism that aligned the two images on the screen; the results were first demonstrated to members of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in New York on February 21, 1917.
Technicolor itself produced the only movie made in Process 1, The Gulf Between, which had a limited tour of Eastern cities, beginning with Boston and New York on September 13, 1917 to interest motion picture producers and exhibitors in color. The near-constant need for a technician to adjust the projection alignment doomed this additive color process. Only a few frames of The Gulf Between, showing star Grace Darmond, are known to exist today. Convinced that there was no future in additive color processes, Comstock and Kalmus focused their attention on subtractive color processes; this culminated in what would be known as Process 2. As before, the special Technicolor camera used a beam-splitter that exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white film, one behind a green filter and one behind a red filter; the difference was that the two-component negative was now used to produce a subtractive color print. Because the colors were physically present in the print, no special projection equipment was required and the correct registration of the two images did not depend on the skill of the projectionist.
The frames exposed behind the green filter were printed on one strip of black-and-white film, the frames exposed behind the red filter were printed on another strip. After development, each print was toned to a color nearly complementary to that of the filter: orange-red for the green-filtered images, cyan-green for the red-filtered ones. Unlike tinting, which adds a uniform veil of color to the entire image, toning chemically replaces the black-and-white silver image with transparent coloring matter, so that the highlights remain clear, dark areas are colored, intermediate tones are colored proportionally; the two prints, made on film stock half the thickness of regular film, we
Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America; the company's name originated from the four founding Warner brothers: Harry, Albert and Jack Warner. Harry and Sam emigrated as young children with their parents to Canada from Krasnosielc, Poland. Jack, the youngest brother, was born in Ontario; the three elder brothers began in the movie theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the beginning and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery, they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, arranged to save it.
The owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, to distribute films. In 1912, Harry Warner hired. By the time of World War I they had begun producing films. In 1918 they opened the first Warner Brothers Studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, based on a popular book by former ambassador James W. Gerard, was released. On April 4, 1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Bros. Pictures, Incorporated; the first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwood's 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, from theatrical impresario David Belasco.
However, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature; the movie was so successful. Rin Tin Tin became the studio's top star. Jack nicknamed him "The Mortgage Lifter" and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanuck's career. Zanuck became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jack's right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came. Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle was the studio's most successful film of 1924, was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warner's remained a lesser studio. Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel; the film was so successful. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywood's most successful independent studio, where it competed with "The Big Three" Studios. As a result, Harry Warner—while speaking at a convention of 1,500 independent exhibitors in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was able to convince the filmmakers to spend $500,000 in newspaper advertising, Harry saw this as an opportunity to establish theaters in cities such as New York and Los Angeles.
As the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan. With this new money, the Warners bought the pioneer Vitagraph Company which had a nationwide distribution system. In 1925, Warners' experimented in radio, establishing a successful radio station, KFWB, in Los Angeles. Warner Bros. was a pioneer of films with synchronized sound. In 1925, at Sam's urging, Warner's agreed to add this feature to their productions. By February 1926, the studio reported a net loss of $333,413. After a long period denying Sam's request for sound, Harry agreed to change, as long as the studio's use of synchronized sound was for background music purposes only; the Warners signed a contract with the sound engineer company Western Electric and established Vitaphone. In 1926, Vitaphone began making films with music and effects tracks, most notably, in the feature Don Juan starring John Barrymore; the film was silent. To hype Don Juan's release, Harry acquired the large Piccadilly Theater in Manhattan, New York City, renamed it Warners' Theatre.
Don Juan premiered at the Warners' Theatre in New York on August 6, 1926. Throughout the early history of film distribution, theater owners hired orchestras to attend film showings, where they provided soundtracks. Through Vitaphone, Warner Bros. produced eight shorts in 1926. Many film production companies questioned the necessity. Don Juan did not recoup its production cost and Lubitsch left for MGM. By April 1927, the Big Five studios had ruined Warner's, Western Electric renewed Warner's Vit
View-Master is the trademark name of a line of special-format stereoscopes and corresponding View-Master "reels", which are thin cardboard disks containing seven stereoscopic 3-D pairs of small transparent color photographs on film. It was sold by Sawyer's; the View-Master system was introduced in 1939, four years after the advent of Kodachrome color film made the use of small high-quality photographic color images practical. Tourist attraction and travel views predominated in View-Master's early lists of available reels, most of which were meant to be interesting to users of all ages. Most current View-Master reels are intended for children. Edwin Eugene Mayer worked as a pharmacist at Owl Drug store in downtown Portland, after serving in the U. S. Army in World War I, he built up a photo-finishing business there, bought into Sawyer's Photo Finishing Service in 1919 with the help of his father August Mayer, his fiancée Eva McAnulty, her sister Vi McAnulty. Edwin described how he started the business in a letter dated April 1, 1954: "Suffice to say that in 1919, what little it was, was purchased with borrowed money from Dad, aided by about $1,600 in insurance money Eva got when her father died and, left in permanently, $1,600 borrowed from Vi and repaid, along with Dad's notes, within a few years."As the business grew, Ed Mayer incorporated in about 1926, taking on partners Harold and Beulth F. Graves and Pauline Meyer, Augusta and Raymond F. Kelly, renaming the business Sawyer Service, Inc.
The company relocated to a large two-story building at 181 Ella St. near Morrison Street in Portland, Oregon. The company was producing photographic postcards and album sets as souvenirs by 1926, when Harold Graves joined Sawyer's. Graves handled marketing for the products. Photographic greeting cards were added to the Sawyer's product line, marketed to major department stores. Sawyer's was the nation's largest producer of scenic postcards in the 1920s and the future View-Master viewer became an extension of the two-dimensional cards; the company took the first steps towards developing the View-Master after Edwin Mayer and Graves met with William Gruber, an organ maker of German origin trained by Welte & Sons and an avid photographer living in Portland. Mayer and Gruber had both developed devices for viewing stereo images, but Gruber had made up a stereo imaging rig out of two Kodak Bantam Specials mounted together on a tripod, he designed a machine that mounted the tiny pieces of Kodachrome color transparency film into reels made from heavy paper stock.
A special viewer was designed and produced. He had the idea of updating the old-fashioned stereoscope by using the new Kodachrome 16-mm color film, which had become available. A View-Master reel holds 14 film transparencies in seven pairs, making up the seven stereoscopic images; the components of each pair are viewed one by each eye, thus simulating binocular depth perception. According to a 1960 court document, the Gruber-Sawyer partner venture began from that first meeting in 1938. Thereafter, Ed Mayer negotiated with Gruber while production methods and some marketing were developed. After three years, a formal agreement was entered into on February 24, 1942, between Gruber and Sawyer partners, doing business as Sawyer's. Ed Mayer and people within the Sawyer’s organization were uncertain what to call their new product, but they came up with the name "View-Master." The View-Master brand name came to be recognized by 65 percent of the world’s population, but William Gruber disliked the name which Mayer gave it, thinking that it sounded too much like Toast-Master, Mix-Master, or some other kitchen appliance.
The View-Master was introduced at the 1939 New York World's Fair, marked "Patent Applied For". It was intended as an alternative to the scenic postcard, was sold at photography shops, stationery stores, scenic-attraction gift shops; the main subjects of View-Master reels were the Grand Canyon. The View-Master was marketed through Ed Mayer's photo-finishing and greeting card company Sawyer's Service, Inc. known as Sawyer's, Inc. The partnership led to the retail sales of View-Master reels; the patent on the viewing device was issued on what came to be called the Model A viewer. Within a short time, the View-Master took over the postcard business at Sawyer's. Ed Mayer gave details of the company's expansion in a letter dated April 1, 1954: In 1939, 20 years after starting the business, we had, by dint of hard work and long hours and frugal living, accumulated a business worth about $58,000.00 and Western Photo Supply Co. owning the buildings, worth about $30,000.00. The above figures were for the total business and buildings owned by the Kellys, Graves and Meyers.
In 1946, we had grown a lot from 1939, Sawyer's made a lease with Western Photo Supply Co. they to build and lease two new buildings to Sawyer's, in addition to the two we had. At this point, Sawyer's decided to change its structure from a partnership to a corporation, for various good reasons, one of, to permit our children to participate in the stock ownership. In the 1940s, the United States military recognized the potential for using View-Master products for personnel training, purchasing 100,000 viewers and nearly six million reels from 1942 to the end of World War II in 1945. After the development of the View-Master, Sawyer's, Inc. moved into a new building at 735 S. W. 20th Place in downtown Portland. The company occupied a building next door at 740 S. W. 21st Avenue. Years Edwin Mayer and his Sawyer's partners purchased land in Washington County near Progress, Oregon
Bugs Bunny is an animated cartoon character, created in the late 1930s by Leon Schlesinger Productions and voiced by Mel Blanc. Bugs is best known for his starring roles in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated short films, produced by Warner Bros. Though a similar character debuted in the WB cartoon Porky's Hare Hunt and appeared in a few subsequent shorts, the definitive character of Bugs is credited to have made his debut in director Tex Avery's Oscar-nominated film A Wild Hare. Bugs is an anthropomorphic gray and white rabbit, famous for his flippant, insouciant personality, he is characterized by a Brooklyn accent, his portrayal as a trickster, his catch phrase "Eh... What's up, doc?" Due to Bugs' popularity during the golden age of American animation, he became an American cultural icon and the official mascot of Warner Bros. Entertainment, he can thus be seen in the older Warner Bros. company logos. Since his debut, Bugs has appeared in various short films, feature films, compilations, TV series, music records, video games, award shows, amusement park rides, commercials.
He has appeared in more films than any other cartoon character, is the ninth most-portrayed film personality in the world, has his own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. According to Chase Craig, who wrote and drew the first Bugs Bunny comic Sunday pages and the first Bugs comic book, "Bugs was not the creation of any one man. In those days, the stories were the work of a group who suggested various gags, bounced them around and finalized them in a joint story conference." A rabbit with some of the personality of Bugs, though looking different, was featured in the film Porky's Hare Hunt, released on April 30, 1938. It was co-directed by an uncredited Cal Dalton; this cartoon has an identical plot to Avery's Porky's Duck Hunt, which had introduced Daffy Duck. Porky Pig is again cast as a hunter tracking a silly prey, more interested in driving his pursuer insane and less interested in escaping. Hare Hunt replaces the little black duck with a small white rabbit; the rabbit introduces himself with the odd expression "Jiggers, fellers," and Mel Blanc gave the character a voice and laugh much like those he would use for Woody Woodpecker.
The rabbit character was popular enough with audiences that the Termite Terrace staff decided to use it again. According to Friz Freleng and Dalton had decided to dress the duck in a rabbit suit; the white rabbit had a shapeless body. In characterization, he was "a rural buffoon", he was loud, zany with a guttural laugh. Blanc provided him with a hayseed voice; the rabbit comes back in Prest-O Change-O, directed by Chuck Jones, where he is the pet rabbit of unseen character Sham-Fu the Magician. Two dogs, fleeing the local dogcatcher, enter his absent master's house; the rabbit harasses them but is bested by the bigger of the two dogs. This version of the rabbit was cool and controlled, he was otherwise silent. The rabbit's third appearance comes in Hare-um Scare-um, directed again by Hardaway; this cartoon—the first in which he is depicted as a gray bunny instead of a white one—is notable as the rabbit's first singing role. Charlie Thorson, lead animator on the film, gave the character a name, he had written "Bugs' Bunny" on the model sheet.
In promotional material for the cartoon, including a surviving 1939 presskit, the name on the model sheet was altered to become the rabbit's own name: "Bugs" Bunny. In his autobiography, Blanc claimed that another proposed name for the character was "Happy Rabbit." In the actual cartoons and publicity, the name "Happy" only seems to have been used in reference to Bugs Hardaway. In Hare-um Scare-um, a newspaper headline reads, "Happy Hardaway." Animation historian David Gerstein disputes that "Happy Rabbit" was used as an official name, believing that the only usage of the term was from Mel Blanc himself in humorous and fanciful tales he told about the character's development in the 1970s and 1980s. Thorson had been approached by Tedd Pierce, head of the story department, asked to design a better rabbit; the decision was influenced by Thorson's experience in designing hares. He had designed Max Hare in Toby Tortoise Returns. For Hardaway, Thorson created the model sheet mentioned, with six different rabbit poses.
Thorson's model sheet is "a comic rendition of the stereotypical fuzzy bunny". He had a pear-shaped body with a protruding rear end, his face had large expressive eyes. He had an exaggerated long neck, gloved hands with three fingers, oversized feet, a "smart aleck" grin; the end result was influenced by Walt Disney Animation Studios' tendency to draw animals in the style of cute infants. He had an obvious Disney influence, but looked like an awkward merger of the lean and streamlined Max Hare from The Tortoise and the Hare, the round, soft bunnies from Little Hiawatha. In Jones' Elmer's Candid Camera, the rabbit first meets Elmer Fudd; this time the rabbit looks more like the present-day Bugs and with a similar face—but retaining the more primitive voice. Candid Camera's Elmer character design is different: taller and chubbier in the face than the modern model, though A