National Register of Historic Places listings in Mariposa County, California
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Mariposa County, California. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Mariposa County, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 44 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 4 National Historic Landmarks; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in California National Register of Historic Places listings in California California Historical Landmarks in Mariposa County, California
History of the Yosemite area
Human habitation in the Sierra Nevada region of California reaches back 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. Attested Native American populations, such as the Sierra Miwok and Paiute, belong to the Uto-Aztecan and Utian phyla. In the mid-19th century, a band of Native Americans called; the California Gold Rush increased the number of non-indigenous people in the region. Tensions between Native Americans and white settlers escalated into the Mariposa War; as part of this conflict, settler James Savage led the Mariposa Battalion into Yosemite Valley in 1851, in pursuit of Ahwaneechees led by Chief Tenaya. Accounts from the battalion from Dr. Lafayette Bunnell, popularized Yosemite Valley as a scenic wonder. In 1864, Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove of giant sequoia trees were transferred from federal to state ownership. Yosemite pioneer Galen Clark became the park's first guardian. Conditions in Yosemite Valley were made more hospitable to people and access to the park was improved in the late 19th century.
Naturalist John Muir and others became alarmed about the excessive exploitation of the area. Their efforts helped establish Yosemite National Park in 1890. Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove were added to the national park in 1906; the United States Army had jurisdiction over the national park from 1891 to 1914, followed by a brief period of civilian stewardship. The newly formed National Park Service took over the park's administration in 1916. Improvements to the park helped to increase visitation during this time. Preservationists led by Muir and the Sierra Club failed to save Hetch Hetchy Valley from becoming a reservoir in 1923. In 1964, 89 percent of the park was set aside in a protected wilderness area, other protected areas were added adjacent to the park; the once-famous Yosemite Firefall, created by pushing red hot embers off a cliff near Glacier Point at night, was discontinued in the mid-to-late 20th century along with other activities that were deemed to be inconsistent with protection of the national park.
Humans may have visited the Yosemite area as long as 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. Habitation of the Yosemite Valley proper can be traced to about 3,000 years ago, when vegetation and game in the region was similar to that present today. Native American groups traveled between these two regions to raid. Archaeologists divide the pre-European American contact period of the region into three cultural phases; the Crane Flat phase lasted from 1000 BCE to 500 CE and is marked by hunting with the atl atl and the use of grinding stones. The Tarmarack phase lasted from 500 until 1200, marked by a shift to using smaller rock points, indicating development and use of the bow and arrow; the Mariposa phase lasted from 1200 until contact with European Americans. Trade between tribes became more widespread during the Mariposa phase, the diet continued to improve. Paiutes and Monos visited the area to trade. Paiutes were the primary inhabitants of the Yosemite area and the foothills to the east during the Mariposa and historic phases.
The Central Sierra Miwoks lived along the drainage area of the Tuolumne and Stanislaus Rivers, while the Paiutes inhabited the upper drainage of the Merced and Chowchilla Rivers. The indigenous natives called themselves the Ah-wah-ne-chee, meaning "dwellers in Ahwahnee." The Ahwahneechees were decimated by a disease in about 1800, left the valley, although about 200 returned under the leadership of Tenaya, son of an Ahwahneechee chief. Displaced Native Americans from the Californian coast moved to the Sierra Nevada during the early-to-mid-19th century, bringing with them their knowledge of Spanish food and clothing. Joining forces with the other tribes in the area, they raided land grant ranchos on the coast and drove herds of horses to the Sierra, where horse meat became a major new food source. Although there were Spanish missions, pueblos and ranchos along the coast of California, no Spanish explorers visited the Sierra Nevada; the first European Americans to visit the mountains were amongst a group led by fur trapper Jedediah Smith, crossing north of the Yosemite area in May 1827, at Ebbetts Pass.
A group of trappers led by mountain man Joseph Reddeford Walker may have seen Yosemite Valley in the autumn of 1833. Walker approached a valley rim as he led his party across the Sierra Nevada, but he did not enter it. A member of the group, Zenas Leonard, wrote in his journal that streams from the valley rim dropped "from one lofty precipice to another, until they are exhausted in rain below; some of these precipices appeared to us to be more than a mile high." The Walker party visited either the Tuolumne or Merced Groves of giant sequoia, becoming the first non-indigenous people to see the giant trees, but journals relating to the Walker party were destroyed in 1839, in a print shop fire in Philadelphia. The part of the Sierra Nevada where the park is located was long considered to be a physical barrier to European American settlers, traders and travelers; that situation changed in 1848. Travel and trade activity increased in the area during the ensuing California Gold Rush. Resources depended upon by local Native Americans were depleted or destroyed, disease brought by the newcomers spread through indigenous populations.
Extermination of native culture became a policy of the United States Government. The first confirmed sighting of Yosemite Valley by a non-indig
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, its half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe. In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. There was a strong religious drive for higher moral standards led by the nonconformist churches, such as the Methodist, the Evangelical wing of the established Church of England. Britain's relations with the other Great Powers were driven by the colonial antagonism of the Great Game with Russia, climaxing during the Crimean War. Britain embarked on global imperial expansion in Asia and Africa, which made the British Empire the largest empire in history. National self-confidence peaked. Ideologically, the Victorian era witnessed resistance to the rationalism that defined the Georgian period and an increasing turn towards romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, arts.
Domestically, the political agenda was liberal, with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform, industrial reform, the widening of the franchise. There were unprecedented demographic changes: the population of England and Wales doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotland's population rose from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Ireland's population decreased from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901 due to emigration and the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrated from Great Britain to the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia; the two main political parties during the era remained the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, Lord Salisbury; the unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the Victorian era in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement in Ireland.
In the strictest sense, the Victorian era covers the duration of Victoria's reign as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, from her accession on 20 June 1837—after the death of her uncle, William IV—until her death on 22 January 1901, after which she was succeeded by her eldest son, Edward VII. Her reign lasted for seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors; the term'Victorian' was in contemporaneous usage to describe the era. The era has been understood in a more extensive sense as a period that possessed sensibilities and characteristics distinct from the periods adjacent to it, in which case it is sometimes dated to begin before Victoria's accession—typically from the passage of or agitation for the Reform Act 1832, which introduced a wide-ranging change to the electoral system of England and Wales. Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have been defences of it.
Michael Sadleir was insistent that "in truth the Victorian period is three periods, not one". He distinguished early Victorianism – the and politically unsettled period from 1837 to 1850 – and late Victorianism, with its new waves of aestheticism and imperialism, from the Victorian heyday: mid-Victorianism, 1851 to 1879, he saw the latter period as characterised by a distinctive mixture of prosperity, domestic prudery, complacency – what G. M. Trevelyan called the "mid-Victorian decades of quiet politics and roaring prosperity". In 1832, after much political agitation, the Reform Act was passed on the third attempt; the Act abolished many borough seats and created others in their place, as well as expanding the franchise in England and Wales. Minor reforms followed in 1835 and 1836. On 20 June 1837, Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle, William IV, her government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne, but within two years he had resigned, the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel attempted to form a new ministry.
In the same year, a seizure of British opium exports to China prompted the First Opium War against the Qing dynasty, British imperial India initiated the First Anglo-Afghan War—one of the first major conflicts of the Great Game between Britain and Russia. In 1840, Queen Victoria married her German cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield, it proved a happy marriage, whose children were much sought after by royal families across Europe. In 1840 the Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand; the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 ended the First Opium War and gave Britain control over Hong Kong Island. However, a disastrous retreat from Kabul in the same year led to the annihilation of a British army column in Afghanistan. In 1845, the Great Famine began to cause mass starvation and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration. Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell. In 1853, Britain fought alongside France in the Crimean War against Russia.
The goal was to ensure that Russia could not benefit from the declining status
LeConte Memorial Lodge
The LeConte Memorial Lodge, now known as the Yosemite Conservation Heritage Center, is a structure in Yosemite National Park in California, United States. LeConte is spelled variously as Leconte. Built in 1903 by the Sierra Club, it is nearly unique within the National Park Service system as a high-quality example of Tudor Revival architecture, is an important early expression of the Club's mission; the lodge was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1987. The LeConte Memorial Lodge was built by the Sierra Club in 1903 in memory of Joseph LeConte, one of the founding members of the Sierra Club, who died in 1901; the US$4,500 cost to build the Lodge was contributed by students and faculty from the University of California and Stanford University, San Francisco businesses, friends and relatives of LeConte. The Sierra Club levied a $1.00 assessment on each of its members to help raise the funds. The Lodge was constructed at the base of Glacier Point in Curry Village and was dedicated on July 3, 1904.
In 1919, the lodge was moved west in the Yosemite Valley to its current location across from Housekeeping Camp. For four years from 1920, Ansel Adams served as the lodge's summer custodian. In 2016 the lodge was renamed "Yosemite Conservation Heritage Center" at the request of the Sierra Club, after consideration of writings by Joseph LeConte about white superiority. Architect John White designed the Lodge; the design was influenced by Bernard Maybeck. White's design reflected the vertical nature and texture of Yosemite Valley by featuring a steep, pitched roof, rough-hewn granite stone walls and exposed beams; the lodge's initial construction predates the National Park Service's emphasis on rustic construction, marks a transition from formal European design prototypes to a design philosophy more aligned with locale and native building materials. The Lodge served as the first visitors center in Yosemite National Park, but has since been replaced by a larger National Park Service facility near Yosemite Village.
Today, the Lodge is owned by the National Park Service and is operated by the Sierra Club as a conservation and natural history library, a museum on the life of Joseph LeConte and the history of the Sierra Club, a lecture hall. The Tudor Revival lodge is built of rough-shaped granite in a rough-coursed ashlar pattern, unlike most stone park structures which were built using rubble coursing; the Y-shaped building, set at the base of a cliff, is entered by a small porch at the center of the Y. A steeply pitched gable roof is defined at the ends with parapets; the small wings have lower height. The roof is supported by exposed hammer; the interior is divided into three rooms, with a main meeting room in the base of the Y and two smaller rooms in the angled arms. The main meeting room has two levels, with an intimate lower section next to the fireplace opposite the entrance. Despite the "lodge" in its name, LeConte Memorial Lodge does not provide accommodations. Yosemite Valley's first visitor center, today it provides information and education about Joseph LeConte, after whom it is named, Yosemite Valley and the Sierra Club, which oversees and manages programs provided there.
LeConte Memorial Lodge. Sierra Club. Sierra Club - LeConte Memorial Lodge Sierra Club - Yosemite Conservation Heritage Center Architecture in the Parks: A National Historic Landmark Theme Study: LeConte Memorial Lodge, by Laura Soullière Harrison, 1986, at National Park Service
The Rangers' Club is a building in Yosemite Valley in Yosemite National Park, donated by the independently wealthy first director of the National Park Service, Stephen Tyng Mather. He intended it to be used by the newly hired park rangers who were taking over from the departing army troops, he intended it to blend into the natural environment. Its use of rustic stylings was part of a trend to the use of rustic design and natural materials in Park Service buildings until the 1940s; the Rangers' Club was designed by San Francisco architect Charles K. Sumner. Construction was completed in August 1924, at a cost to Mather of $39,380; the Rangers' Club was intended to foster a sense of esprit de corps among the newly-created ranger service. Mather hoped that the example at Yosemite would encourage Congress to appropriate money to build similar facilities at other national parks, a vain hope; the Rangers' Club was the first significant structure on the north side of the Yosemite Valley, part of a Mather strategy to relocate park services.
The Rangers' Club is a U-shaped wood frame structure, 2-1/2 stories high, centering on a massive stone chimney in the center of the U. The interior is clad with board-and-batten siding on the gable ends; the building rests on a granite rubblestone foundation. Peeled log pilasters emphasize the corners of the frame building extending through the roof; the gable ends feature balconies at the second floor, with jigsaw-pattern railings. The wood shingle roof is steeply pitched with shed roof dormers in the main section and steeply pitched gable dormers on the outer side of the flanking wings; the interior arrangement has not been altered. The first floor features a living room and dining room connected by a hallway, which itself features nooks furnished with bookshelf-partitions on its north and south sides, featuring decorative fir tree designs. Columns and beams are dressed and trimmed, with rough-hewn ceiling joists supporting diagonal ceiling sheathing. Downstairs interior spaces are finished in plaster with dark wood wainscoting.
The building's original furnishings remain in the dining rooms. Upstairs a central hall runs to the ends of the wings, flanked by dormitory rooms; the building's kitchen and bathrooms have been updated, the partial basement contains mechanical equipment. An adjoining L-shaped garage-woodshed and a transformer house are designed, complement the main building; the Rangers' Club was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1987. The building was altered in 2008 to install new earthquake-resistant foundations and other seismic strengthening measures. Architecture in the Parks: A National Historic Landmark Theme Study: Rangers' Club, by Laura Soullière Harrison, 1986, at National Park Service. Rangers' Club at Yosemite National Park Yosemite Nature Notes - Episode 13 - Rangers' Club
Thomas Hill (painter)
Thomas Hill was an American artist of the 19th century. He produced many fine paintings of the California landscape, in particular of the Yosemite Valley, as well as the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Thomas Hill was born in Birmingham, England on September 11, 1829, his younger brother, Edward Hill became a successful landscape painter. At the age of 15, he emigrated to the United States with his family. In 1851, he married Charlotte Elizabeth Hawkes. At the age of 24, Hill attended evening classes at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and studied under American painter Peter Frederick Rothermel. During his years as a student, Hill traveled to the White Mountains in New Hampshire as early as 1854 and sketched alongside members of the Hudson River School, such as Benjamin Champney. In 1856, Hill and his family moved to California. With painter Virgil Williams and photographer Carleton Watkins, Hill made his first trip to the Yosemite Valley in 1865; the next year, Hill traveled to Europe.
He established his family on the East Coast but continued to take sketching trips to the West Coast and to attend meetings of the San Francisco Art Association. He moved his family back to San Francisco in 1873. Hill made yearly sketching trips to Yosemite, Mount Shasta, back east, to the White Mountains. Hill ran an art art supply store, he acted as the interim director for the SFAA School of Design and went to Alaska on a commission for environmentalist John Muir. He lived on his stock market investments as well as his art proceeds, his marriage ended in the 1880s. Toward the end of his life, he maintained a studio at Yosemite’s Wawona Hotel. After suffering a stroke, Hill left Yosemite and traveled up and down the California coast, including stops in Coronado, San Diego and Santa Barbara, he died in Raymond, California, on June 30, 1908, is buried at Mountain View Cemetery in Oakland, California. Hill’s work was driven by a vision resulting from his experiences with nature. For Thomas Hill, Yosemite Valley and the White Mountains of New Hampshire were his sources of inspiration to begin painting and captured his direct response to nature.
Hill was loosely associated with the Hudson River School of painters. The Hudson River School celebrated nature with a sense of awe for its natural resources, which brought them a feeling of enthusiasm when thinking of the potential it held; the earlier members of the Hudson River School, around the 1850-60’s, displayed man as in unison with nature in their landscape paintings by painting men on a small scale compared to the vast landscape. Thomas Hill brought this technique into his own paintings in for example in his painting, Yosemite Valley 1889, he made early trips to the White Mountains with his friend Benjamin Champney and painted White Mountain subjects throughout his career. An example of his White Mountain subjects is Mount Lafayette in Winter. Hill acquired the technique of painting en plein air; these paintings in the field served as the basis for larger finished works. In plein air means to “paint outdoors and directly from the landscape”, which Hill incorporated into many of his paintings.
Hill’s landscape paintings demonstrate how he combined his powers of observation with powerful motifs in each painting. Hill’s move to California in 1861 brought him new material for his paintings, he chose monumental vistas, like Yosemite. During his lifetime, Hill’s paintings were popular in California, costing as much as $10,000. Hill's best works are considered to be these monumental subjects, including Great Canyon of the Sierra, Vernal Falls and Yosemite Valley, his 1865 View of the Yosemite Valley was chosen to be the backdrop of the head table at Barack Obama's inaugural luncheon, to commemorate Lincoln's 1864 signing of the Yosemite Grant. A painting has been chosen for every inaugural luncheon since 1985. Hill's most famous and enduring work is of the driving of the "Last Spike" at Promontory Summit, UT, on May 10, 1869, to join the rails of the CPRR and UPRR; the huge 8 x 12 foot painting, which features detailed portraits of 71 individuals associated with the First Transcontinental Railroad, hangs at the California State Railroad Museum in Sacramento, California.
Thomas Hill's works Early California Artists White Mountain art List of Hudson River School artists Thomas Hill 1829-1908 Thomas Hill 1829-1908 Biography